Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology

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Supplementary Issue in Finance, Economics and Social Studies, Part III: Vol 7, Issues 1(S) - 2(S)


2014: Vol 7, Issue 2(S)


Analysis of gaps in customer knowledge management (CKM), in the Bank (Maskan Banks of Chahar mahal va bakhtiari province)

Abstract_ One of the most important indicators of the economy of each country, is the banking industry. Due to the nature of banking services, consumer and customer knowledge management, is an effective tool which can be useful in this regard. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to measure customer knowledge management in the banking industry. Indicators in this industry are derived using literature and expert opinion. The studies, knowledge management, customer is selected based on the knowledge obtained from the client, on the client, as well as for a customer. Indices obtained for each of the dimensions of knowledge management client (the client, the client, on the client), has been approved by experts. The research method used in this study is a case study approach, the Housing Bank Chahar mahal va bakhtiari Province. The results of the gap analysis showed that the level of knowledge management of customer expectations, the higher is the level of perception.


Reaching to criteria for intervention in urban public spaces to enhance social capital

(With the emphasize on pedestrian streets

Abstract-what leads to healthy citizenship and public life more than other factors today, is paying attention to social dimensions in planning. Environmental qualities in people perception of space and their pause and movement pave the way for being watched and watch in minimum level and social communications in maximum one. Hence, focus on environmental quality will follow efficiency and vitality in urban spaces, current public life and social capital encouragement. This survey focuses on social capital as an effective factor in social communications and a missing link in urban planning, based on wide studying upon social capital features and urban spaces qualities. Thus, show that increasing public space  quality leads to socialization and public communications. Survey using analytic-descriptive method, documentary and field study, indicates walking, sociability, safety and security as important factors in creating social capital. Additionally, make suggestions to realize above factors. Regarding to social capital definitions and importance of social relationships, reinforcing social capital is due to improving urban qualities that are designers` tools to enhance urban environment.


The impact of the management connection (CRM) on performance of general financial institutions Tehran province

Abstract— In competitive world today no institution can through excellence in their operations or innovation in Their products from other organizations to distinct, Except that needs and demands of customers deeply. Therefore passing through traditional economy and intensified the competition in new dimensions, The main pillar of the Jupiter and the axis of the All activities of this organization.  In this intellectuals and management, marketing A copy protect customers and methods of proper connection with them as relationship management with customers (CRM) prescribed. Customer relationship management with strategy comprehensive business and marketing that is technology, process and all activities and work around Jupiter integrated. This research with the purpose of studying the influence relationship management with customers (CRM) The general performance of financial institutions in Tehran has been done. statistical sample for measurement of the amount of the components of the whole society CRM almost statistical managers-financial institutions except very small institutions have been considered. For example making to assess performance of simple random method of marketing has been used. for evaluating financial performance from the statistics and figures valid has been used. In this study analysis Data and test hypothesis by using analysis techniques diagnosing software spss. research indicates that the general result is that relationship management with customers (CRM) The operation of the general performance of marketing two aspects (loyalty trust and satisfaction) And the performance of financial investment and output growth of Sales) and effects meaningful positive.


Relationship of audit committee and internal control to income smoothing on the Tehran stock exchange

Abstract - This study investigated the relationship of th audit committee, internal auditing and income smoothing in firms operating on the Tehran Stock Exchange. Income smoothing was measured as discretionary accruals based on the modified Jones model. The sample size was 70 companies operating on the exchange during 2013-2014. The results showed a significant positive association between the audit committee and internal audit unit and income smoothing . The results indicate that there is no significant association between income smoothing and the number of audit committee members.


Queuing Systems Models to Locate the Line Machines 

Abstract—This article has set to queuing systems and their application in sorting production lines; as the case study the Bahar-e- Natanz Textile Company has been studied. The purpose of this study is to find a model for the arrangement of devices in order to reduce costs, increasing production, decreasing down time of the operators and machines and also reducing inventories among the production process. To achieve these goals, we have made use of simulation. In line with this, first the layout of the factory has been identified and in the next phase, timing for the operators and machines has been made. Finally with the ED software has been focused on the simulation of the production line. Using the comparison test, validation of the model has been justified and the model was run and the simulation results have been recorded. Different models have been offered for this problem which after the simulation and extraction of information has been determined that the fourth model is the optimal one for the layout of the production line of factory under study.  


Solving Tourism Problems of Shiraz Using SWOT Strategic Model and FUZZY ANP Hierarchical Analysis Method

Abstract-Tourism industry today is one of the largest and highest-yielding activities in the economic, social, and cultural development of countries. That is why many nations in the world, especially the developing countries, recently consider it an industry of special importance. Urban tourism is one of the different types of tourism that attracts more attention. Our purpose in this article was to introduce a method for cities to identify their tourism problems, find strategies for solving them, and prioritize these strategies according to their importance and implement them. We studied tourism problems Shiraz, a city with great potential with respect to very noteworthy touristic attractions and historical and cultural monuments, faces in developing its tourism industry and its economic, social, and other sectors. We first used the strategic SWOT model and identified the strengths and weaknesses of tourism in Shiraz, and obtained strategies for developing its tourism. Following that, we employed the Fuzzy ANP hierarchical method of analysis and prioritized the factors and strategies.


The Impact of Earnings Transparency on Cost of Capital

Abstract— The existence of earnings transparency has significant financial consequences in recent years. Earnings transparency decrease information asymmetry which is positively associated with cost of capital. Therefore, this paper investigates whether the earnings transparency can decrease the cost of capital. We use adjusted R2s from annual panel regressions based on the explanatory power of stock return in relation with earnings and change in earnings as earning transparency measure. This study applies the ordinary least squares (OLS) method to estimate cost of capital model for 80 firms listed on Tehran stock exchange market from 2009 to 2013. The result shows the earnings transparency has significant impact on the cost of capital, even when the earning transparency measure is not considerable. Moreover, the earning transparency decrease the cost of capital, which there is significant negative relation between expected cost of capital and earning transparency measure. Hence, earnings transparency protects the interests of shareholders, which provide a lower cost of capital.  


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2014: Vol 7, Issue 1 (S)


The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Human Capital in Economic Growth

Abstract—Human capital and economic growth are among main factors of development of countries and are as important issues in economics, especially in developing countries. Determining effective factors on Human capital and economic growth can helps to choose relevant economic direction and accelerate developing process.

In this research we surveyed Fava analyzes in Iranian provinces using endogenous growth models in Panel data format at years of 2004-2011. According to obtained results, Information and Communication Technology effect on economic growth of Iranian provinces has been positive and significant and also Fava effect on human capital in Iranian provinces is negative. Thus, Fava development can be applied as effective policy in Iranian development and growth process.


The study of the role of Knowledge management on the creativity of secondary schools principals of Mazandaran

Abstract— This study is examined the role of knowledge management on the creativity of secondary school principals of Mazandaran. The method of this research is descriptive and the correlation type. The statistic study community are consisted of 617 individuals, all which are secondary schools principals of Mazandaran. The sample size determination was done by using a table of Kerjessi and accordingly, 238 individuals were selected by a stratified random sampling method. The data collection tools were included the questionnaire of the lavson management knowledge with 23 questions and the Rendsyp questionnaire containing 50 questions which were answered by principals. The currency and reliability of questionnaires contents were confirmed by experts and  the ending (reliability) coefficient by using the Cronbach Alfa coefficient for each of questions was counted 0.72 and 0.84 respectively. The data collected were tested by using the Pearson correlation coefficient, multivariables regression test and the Z Ficher test. The results of survey are showed that there are a positive and significant correlation between knowledge management and creativity of principals, and the gender don't have any influences on knowledge management  on principals' creativity.


The effect of exchange rate unification policy on drug prices in Iran during 2001-2003

Abstract — One of the main problems in drug sector is the mandatory dependence of this sector on the limited resources of foreign exchange. The change in economic structure of country gradually from the middle of the first development plan influenced Iran’s pharmaceutical system, so far as single exchange reported in 2001. Indeed, large efforts that were made to perform this policy led to gradual removal of subsidized exchange from domestic drugs till the end of the year 2003. Performing this policy has raised discussions among Supporters and opponents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exchange rate unification performance on drug price. This study is an analytic-descriptive study that has been carried out using the information on 2001-2003. To calculate the changes in drug prices affected by exchange rate unification performance on drug price, Fisher price index was used. The results of this study indicate that the extent of changes in total drug prices using Fisher price index in 2001-2003 is about 13.01 and 31.99, respectively. Total increase in drug price affected by exchange rate unification performance in 2001, 2002 and 2003 has been about 3221, 2890 and 3179 billion, respectively. With retrospect to exchange rate unification resulting in high inflation rate, the government must provide exchange rate for fundamental goods including drug in order that performing this policy does not lead to changing drug price; on the other hand, provisions must be provided in order that reimbursement of incremental costs is transmitted from patient to third-party payers and insurers. To share risk and cover higher risks, it is suggested to use Franchise afloat.


The law of extra use of wells in Iran

Abstract— Extra use of permitted wells with permission license or over use of water determined in well license is one of the examples of unpermitted use of water sources and its adverse environmental effects are also forbidden by the law maker.  The penal code of this crime in accordance to article 45 is water just distribution and it makes the offender for compensation and the legal law includes damage compensation to the underground aquifer based on the vote of general board of Supreme Court. Installing intelligent contour and reforming the installations based on wells yield are one of the control methods of extra use and the general or penal courts deal with this crime.


Studying mediator role of switching cost in relation between service quality and brand loyalty

A case study: Active Airlines in East Azerbaijan

Abstract— Recent studies show that the quality of the service offered in strategic business centers is the most important factor affecting the functioning of the centers. The quality of Services could also be a prominent factor in gaining the precious results like satisfactory and commitment to that brand which could provide great contribution of business market simultaneously.

The research is based on recognizing the effects of the moderate factor of the brands fluctuating costs on the brand loyalty and the quality of services among active airlines of Tabriz city.

The results of this research shows that although Servqual model’s five important and effectual parameters(Responsiveness, empathy, assurance, reliability, tangibles) are considered as an effective factor on the quality of brands,If we want to discuss about vitality, tangibles variables is known as the most important influencing factor on brand loyalty and Response variables, assurance, empathy and trust are in the next level of importance.According to the results, the costs of brand changing will not moderating the relationship between service quality and brand loyalty in the airline.


Study of the constructive variables of brand loyalty in the travel and tourism agencies of East Azerbaijan province

Abstract —The theoretical framework of this study is based on the studies, which have already been developed. This Theory consists of two levels.One includes the variables that directly influence brand loyalty. These variables are: brand commitment, attitude toward the brand and customer satisfaction.

 The second level includes the variable which influences variables in first level e.g. brand trust. Survey in September 2013 contains all customers who use the services of travel and tourism agencies. 

A questionnaire was used to collect field data. Results of structural equation tests show that the customer satisfaction has the greatest impact on brand loyalty; in addition, customer satisfaction has an impact on brand commitment and brand trust.After customer satisfaction, brand commitment has a great influence on brand loyalty. Finally, attitude toward brand also has an effect on brand loyalty.


Study on the Part of Niche Marketing on Resistive Economy Marketing of Iran

Abstract—In the today’s world, and in consideration of the embargos exercised for our dear homeland, Iran, acquiring more share from the consumption market of the country, is the main purpose of the marketers, and in such conditions, application of the scientific principles and techniques in marketing is becoming more important than the past. In consideration of the undesirable economic conditions of the customers, Resistive Economy Marketing pays more attention to creation of the products and rendering services in proportion to the demands and needs of the customers instead of search for finding customer for the products.Therefore, SALE is considered as one of the most important marketing duties, and if the marketer achieves advancement in recognition of the customer’s demands, production of the desirable goods, pricing, distribution and advertisement, then the goods will be easily sold. In this process, the environmental factors should be taken into consideration, such as the population factors, natural factors, technological factors, political factors and cultural factors. In accordance with the commands of the Supreme Leader of Islamic Revolution of Iran to the effect of creation of morale and Resistive Economy, the entrepreneurs have in their mind to establish new business, therefore, they should carefully select their target market. 

They should not try to overcome the entire market and produce and manufacture any product. But, they should first find a distinguishable section and render seemly services to that section. In consideration of creation of the substructures, Niche Marketing is a solution which may help the respectable entrepreneurs of our homeland in selection of the target market. In this method of marketing, generally, only one business may be present as the supplier of goods and services at that section, and such a matter not only may take away the business from the competitive threats, but also may make high level of profit for the business. 

Researchers of this paper have made field work study, library studies and interviews with the managers, entrepreneurs and active marketers of this field, and examined Niche Marketing methods, its definitions, nature, defects, opportunities, marketing mix in Niche Marketing in our dear homeland, and invite you to study the present research and get accustomed to the specifications, opportunities and challenges in the way of this special method of marketing, which may be considered as a key for the problems in the field of marketing of the new products and the small business in the existing conditions of our country and Resistive Economy of our dear homeland. 


The Determination of the Parameters and the Gap of Effective Factors in the Occupational Life Quality among the Staff Members from the Organization of Industry, Mining, and Trade in the Province of Yazd

Abstract— The aim of this study is to determine the parameters of occupational life quality in the organization of industry, mining, and trade from the province of Yazd. In this research, the identified parameters were ranked using the gap analysis and the TOPSIS Fuzzy method. First, the most important parameters of occupational life quality were clarified by the review of literature and the history of research in this area. According to this process, the questionnaire was designed and, after being validated for reliability and validity, the required data were obtained by distributing the questionnaire among 74 members of the staffs working in the Industry, Mining, and Trade organization in Yazd, and later, the completed questionnaires were collected. The results of the study demonstrated that there is a significant distance between the status quo and the favorable standard status. From the identified dimensions, the payment illustrates the widest gap between the status quo and the desire status. The following ranking through the TOPSIS Fuzzy method also illustrated the priority of the payment dimension compared with the other dimensions of organization, psychological security, the learning and growth environment, the growth and security environment, the creativity environment, job security, the physical and social context.


Determining the life-cycle through the cash flow patterns taken from the cash flow forms

Abstract— One of the methods for distinguishing the stages of the life cycle of the firms was presented by [1]. In this method, to differentiate the stages of the firm's life-cycle, the model created by the positive and negative signal of the layers of the cash flow forms concerning the operational levels (investment, operationalization, and financial supplies) is used. Attributing each of the cash flow patterns to the stages in the life cycle in firms has been done using the economic theories. The features related to the cash flows of the life cycle can be determined through the economic theory. Knowing the stages of the life cycle in firms can help the credit-givers, investors, and the most important user of the accountant information in predicting the future situation of the firms. In other words, the conditions in which the firm is seen help the users of accountant information to have a better evaluation of the financial information of the firm, the present and future needs (like the need for investment and financial supplies) and also the capacity and action of the management. In this study, the method for determining the patterns of cash flows, its superiority over other methods of determining the life cycle and theories about the patterns of cash flow will be explained in detail.


The Evaluation of the performance of the Health Faculty from the Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences Based on the Model of EFQM in the Year 2013

Abstract— The quality of universities and higher education centers has been one of the concerns of most of the countries in the world in the last two decades. A standard evaluative system can be effective in improving the quality of higher education and causing it to be responsive in the competitive world today. To assess the quality of education, different patterns and mechanisms are used including the EFQM Excellence Model. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance level of the Faculty of Health, at the Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, according to the EFQM Excellence model. The cross-sectional method was used in intervals. The population consisted of 30 managers, experts and members of the Faculty of Health at the Hormozgan University in 1392 which was based exactly on the statistical population. Using the type of questionnaire from the EFQM model of excellence, a 0.99 Cronbach alpha and a suitable validity were considered in collecting the data. The SPSS 19 software and the student t-test were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study demonstrated that the average score of the self-evaluation from the health faculty of the Hormozgan university of medical sciences in the area of empowerment has been 309 out of 500, and in the area of results 304 out of 500 which altogether makes a score of 613 out of 1000.



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2014: Vol 6, Issue 17


Assessment tourism abilities of protected region parvar in Semnan

Abstract—Profit by nature and touring init that now called ecotourism is important part of tourism activities. Various weather, existing nature gifts in Mahdishahr also historical greats heritage and cultural, art, cultural, architecture, hand craft precious works and also different and beautiful attraction such as parvar protected region with different worth, beautiful valley splendid slop and heights, vegetable and animal special led to this region have necessary abilities for any enjoying and programming particularly in different part of tourism and ecotourism. Parvar protected region and Mahdishahr city play a special role in dividend system field to extension country tourism using enjoying various abilities in different fields .About study results can considered as model pattern for applying environmental abilities and systematic outlook in developmental programming and recognition necessary capabilities for different part of tourism and ecotourism and led to compiling regulations and laws for kinds of permissible and conditional application in region.


Developing a Monitoring System for Non-point Pollutants in Groundwater Sources using BAISINS Software (Case Study of Sivand River before It Joins the Kor River in Fars Province)

Abstract—The Sivand River and the Kor River are located in the northwest of Fars Province. The Kor River originates from the southern heights of the Zagros Mountains, flows for about 310 kilometers, and pours into Bakhtegan Lake. Along its course, many floodways and rivers join it, the most important of which is the Sivand River. The Sivand River flows for 47 kilometers and joins the Kor River near Marvdasht at Pol Khan. These two rivers are almost the only main sources of water needed in agricultural activities in the northern and central plains of the Province. Previous research suggested parts of the Kor-Sivand Basin had water of desirable quality while other sections were heavily polluted with varying degrees of point and nonpoint pollutants. The software BASINs 4.0 and the HSPF model were used to study more carefully the issue of pollution sources. The use of this model made it possible to investigate nonpoint pollution sources (before the Sivand River joins the Kor River) and the N  and DO factors at 5-, 10- , and 15- year intervals.  


Check the role and effects of urban tourism in sustainable urban development

Abstract— Humans to meet their needs has always been associated with the natural environment surrounding it is used. Today, the tourism industry can be marked according to international communication and providing sustainable development has been considered one of the most profitable industries that are considered. According to the United Nations and numerous meetings around the world, sustainability is recognized as a world order based and sustainable development principles that scholars and pundits that are particular interest, Why maintain the standards of the future of humanity is of great importance and cannot be removed from the human environment. Current society, especially those interested in the nature of a particular approach to the natural environment and the culture it has. On the other hand, with the development of urbanization in recent decades experienced people in search of unspoiled natural locations that can provide opportunities for them through tourism. Sustainable tourism, which leads to management of all resources and present tourists and host community needs without compromising future generations to meet it. Urban areas have traditionally constituted the most attractive places because human settlements are the most civilized cities, and include the major centers of economic, scientific, recreational and tourism And the addition of natural and historical attractions are, why they are the most important centers of tourism. In this context, sustainable tourism as an alternative and viable model for the long-term perspective in urban planning towards sustainable development of the communities led And meet the economic, social, cultural, recreational and other non-renewable resources for generation to preserve water, soil and other divine blessings for future generations is very effective. On the basis of research and analysis offering role in the development of sustainable tourism development is discussed. Positive and negative results of recent research have found that the role of tourism in sustainable urban development in the field of efficient use of existing resources and points of attraction.


Natural-Historical Monuments of Miankaleh Peninsulafor Attraction of Tourists

Abstract-Monuments in fact evoke the internal feeling of people regarding natural and human-made phenomena or situations that attract humans towardthem and the best form of an internal feeling is developed in tourists. Miankaleh peninsula, with its wilderness and historical buildings,stands as a lasting monument for attraction of tourists. In fact, the main goal of the impact of natural-historical monuments of Miankaleh peninsula is attraction of tourists. The method of this study is descriptive and field studies, which is in the form of a questionnaire. The population includes all the tourists that entered Miankaleh peninsula. The sample size consists of 384 individuals that were selected in the simple random sampling method and were investigated. Based on the results of Multiple Regression Analysis according to the tourists, the index of natural monuments with the coefficient of 0/337 and the index of historical monuments with the coefficient of 0/091 have the most and the least impact on attraction of tourists respectively.


Wastewater Treatment in Northern Isfahan Plant Using REDO Method Compared with Pilot Scale

Abstract— So far, numerous studies were conducted in the field of wastewater treatment discharged from treatment plants using modern techniques in order to achieve output standards in terms of wastewater treatment plants including the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, this study was performed in order to determine the optimal dose, power and efficiency of REDO disinfection system to eliminate or reduce substantially total coliform level in a wastewater treatment plant in Northern Isfahan in 2011. This is an experimental-applied study. For the first time in the Middle East, the effect of four disinfectants such as chlorine (Cl2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) produced in the electro-lysis solution of water and salt using REDO device with 200 liters per hour capacity and 118 liters per minute input wastewater flow at pilot and Batch scales was examined in order to determine the optimal dose of disinfectant solution for the purpose of eliminating total coliform level and decreasing total trihalomethanes in wastewater output in treatment plant in Northern Isfahan. In addition, coliform level of wastewater samples was measured both before and after wastewater treatment. Laboratory results showed that 4-ppm injection of this solution decreased disinfection of total coliform from 7.9 x 106 in pilot scale to 69 mpn in 100 mL while the latter decreased to 31mpn in 100 mL in the closed scale. The results also indicated that this solution causes a slight reduction in COD and a slight increase in TDS in the output wastewater. Based on these results, the best injection dose is 4 ppm with 99.9% efficiency. This dose causes substantial reduction in total coliform in wastewater discharged from treatment plants to surface waters, adsorbent wells and agricultural and environmental uses.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 16 (Part IV)


Ultra-centrifuge structure and its application in food industry

Abstract— This article including of theoretical summary of ultracentrifuge structure and its application in food industry. Ultracentrifuges are equipped with one or two light detector systems for considering separation components. A few applications of ultracentrifuge include examination of sample purity, molecular weight, analysis of associating systems and so on. In this article, use of ultracentrifuge at food studies has been investigated that includes detection of microbial toxins, study of fat oxidation during storage, detection of virus and so on.


Genotypic Pattern Analysis of Forage Yield in Agropyron cristatum by using AMMI model

Abstract— In order to determine yield stability of Agropyron cristatum over six environments in Iran, 18 accessions were evaluated based on randomized complete block design with three replications at rainfed and irrigated conditions in Karaj, Mashhad and Boroojerd research stations, Iran. Total annual dry matter (DM) yield were collected and averaged over two years. Stability parameters were calculated as additive main effect and the multiplicative interaction analysis (AMMI). Based on AMMI analysis, the main effects of environment, accession and interaction effect of environment × accession were significant (p<0.01). In AMMI analysis, the first two principal component axes were significant (p<0.01) and justified 83.1% of total genetic by environment interaction variation. The AMMI biplot IPCA1 vs. IPCA2 scores for both genotype and environments showed G7 and G11 accessions were close to the center of the biplot and had the least interaction based on both two components and were considered as more stable accessions over all tested environments. Accessions G2, G16, G17 and G12 had the highest specific adaptation to rainfed condition. In contrast, G14 and G8 accessions had the highest specific adaptation to irrigated environment of Mashhad and similarly, G3, G7, G18, G15 and G6 accessions had higher specific adaptation to the irrigated environments in Boroojerd.


Design a public swimming pool based on ecological perspective

Abstract—In this paper, a public swimming pool is designed with an ecological perspective, due to the energy crisis in the country, air pollution caused by the use of conventional fossil fuels and also the need for civil society in Iran especially in arid tropical area. Shahrood city has an excellent situation for the use of solar energy and the construction of a public swimming pool because of the special geographical position, locating in the border areas of desert and a lot of sunny days throughout the year. It is used the structure of several pools based on solar energy in different continents for the design of this swimming pool with considering the climate and ecosystem of Shahrood city. Some features like the use of solar energy for heating pool water cycle, education to promote respect for the environment for energy conservation, and reduce pollution in the pool for a tourist attraction addition to attraction for sport and recreation, can be noted for this design. Finally, with considering to the lack of ecological pool with this approach in Shahrood city and different advantages of it, providing the funding and implementation of it could have a major impact on various aspects of Shahroodian people life.


The analysis of organizational education and training system from economic view and human capital and its role in sustainable development

Abstract-The social organizations are some of the foremost phenomena at present time. Many requirements are met by organizations in modern world. By the aid of their resources including technology, information, financial sources, and human capital the organizations meet the social requirements. The human capital of the organizations is deemed as the paramount and most effective organizational sources since other sources are perishable but the human capital can be developed. To realize this objective, the reviewing scientific method has been employed. The results of this investigation indicate that the growth and excellence of human capital in the organizations might be only possible through organizational education and training. This issue suggests that organizational investment in growth and development of human capital is more efficient than investment in physical and equipment- related dimensions and it contributes the organizations in realization of their goals and growth and development of organizations will help to national growth and sustainable development from various dimensions. Thus, organizations should change their attitude from equipment- centered view to education and learning- centered approach. Of course, fulfillment of this important point requires serious investment in the field of training and education. 


Forage yield stability in populations of Agropyron cristatum using parametric stability methods

Abstract— The Forage Dry matter (DM) yield were investigated for 18 accessions of Agropyron cristatum in an experimental based on randomized complete block design with three replication at two environmental conditions (rainfed and irrigated) in three research station as Mashhad, Brojerd and Karaj, Iran. The stability parameters of coefficient of variation (CVi), Shukla's stability variance (δ2i), Wricke's ecovalance (Wi2), Deviation from regression (S2di), Eberhart/Russell regression coefficient (bi) and coefficient of determination (Ri2) were estimated for all of accessions. According to Eberhart and Russel (1966) method the accessions G5, G10 and G11 with slope of 1.0 with low deviation from regression coupled with higher DM yield over six environments considered as more stable. Accessions G1 and G9 had (bi<1) and higher DM yield for poor environment. The Accessions G13, G15 and G18 showed (bi>1) and indicate sensitivity to environmental changes for DM yield. To better understand the relationships among the parametric stability statistics and assessment of stable accessions, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. The results of (PCA) showed that the two first components explained 48.58% and 38.31% of total variation. The accessions of G11, G18, G12, G10 and G7 were superior based on all stability parameters and the accessions of G17, G15 and G13 were stable based on CVi, Wi2 and S2di and had a high yield. The accessions of G1, G3, G5, G8 and G4 were classified as stable accessions based on δ2i, bi and Ri2 and this group had a low mean yield. The accessions of G16, G2, G9, G14 and G6 had a week stability and DM yield based on all calculated parameters and means of DM yield.


Determination Heavy metals Accumulation in Water, Sediment and Fish of Qarasou River

Abstract— The excessive increasing of population and industrializing societies, especially since second half of the 20th century, is caused to appearing new problems about environment pollutions. Heavy metals are some kinds of these pollutions that they are naturally marine ecosystems constituents. Even some of them have a crucial role in the living creatures’ existence, but their too much density causes the endangering of the aquatic creatures’ life. In this investigation, four stations were determined in order to determining the amount of heavy metals including Cu, Ph, Cd, Fe, Zn, and Ni in Qarasou River’s water, sediment and fish. Furthermore, physiochemical parameters (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, electronic conduct, SIO2, TP, TN, PO4, NO3, NO2, NH4, TDS, COD, BOD5, and PH) were measured. The results showed that the observed heavy metals in the water of the region relate to Zn, Fe, Cu, and Ni. In the sediments of basin Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni were seen and the heavy metals such as Zn, Fe, and Cu in the tissue of fish Squalies Cephalus type and Pb, Zn, and Cu in Copeata type were observed. Based on the observations of metals in water, sediment and the tissue of fish, there are Cu, Zn, and Fe in the form of bioaccumulation in the tissue of the fish. The observed results indicated that non biological parameters including Nitrite, Phosphate, total Phosphorous, TDS, COD, Zn, and Fe amount aren’t in complete desirable circumstances and some parameters like BOD5, however they are in normal boundary, their amount is comparatively high.


Effects of dietary supplements of probiotics, synbiotics and phytobiotics on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers under heat stress

Abstract- In order to investigate the dietary effects of growth promoters in broilers under heat stress conditions, 256 male one-day old hybrid "ROSS 308" broilers were investigated using a 2 × 4 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. In this experiment, treatment number is 8 and replications are estimated to be 4. Dietary treatments consisted of: 1-control (without any feed additives); 2-control treatment with probiotic (primalac, 300 mg/kg); 3- control treatment with synbiotic (biomin IMBO, 1000 mg/kg); 4-control treatment with phytobiotic (sangrovit, 200 mg/kg). Heat stress treatments also including: 1-normal heat conditions; 2- applying 39˚C heat were investigated during a 42-days experiment. The traits associated with growth performance (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion rate) were measured weekly. In 42 days of age, four birds from each treatments group were selected and killed by random; the weight of carcass, bors of fabricious, spleen and length of small intestine were measured. Relative size of these organs was obtained with dividing the weight of bors, spleen, and small intestine by the body weight and multiplying it to 100.The yield of carcass, bors, and spleenthat were under effect of treatment groups were compared with control group. The results demonstrated that average daily weight gain in period of 22-42 days showed significant difference between control and synbiotic treatment; so that, synbiotic treatment had more average weight gain in compare with other treatments. In total 42 days period, there was a considerable numerical difference between control and experimental treatments of synbiotic and phytobiotic. But effect of heat stress and interaction effect didn't have any effect on average daily weight gain. Generally, the results demonstrated that adding growth promoters causes improvement of growth and some of carcass characteristics.


An investigation on the effectiveness of education by mass media (film) on promotion of environmental knowledge, a sustainable development approach 

Abstract— This study was conducted to consider the impacts of mass media on environmental knowledge of Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training university's students. To fulfill the goals of this study, a questionnaire was prepared, the validity of it was considered by practitioners and its reliability was confirmed and calculated to be 0.77. The pretest-posttest design was implemented on the experimental and control groups. A random sample of 60 bachelor students out of 1450 students of Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University for whom there was no environmental course in their curriculum was taken. They were divided into experimental and control groups. For the later one, an environmental training by mass media was presented whereas the first group did not receive any kinds of environmental education. The final data were analyzed by t-test. The results of this study showed a significant difference between the environmental knowledge of individuals who have received environmental education.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 16 (Part III)


The Impact of Iranian Labor Law on Creating Job Opportunities in Payame Noor University 

Abstract—Despite the existence of labor law, approved more than two decades ago, there exists an increasing unemployment rate in Iran and there are many well-educated youths still between jobs. This research focuses on the impact of the labor law and regulations on increase and decrease of job opportunities with a critical view. The statistical population of the study includes all employees of Payame Noor University of Tehran province with the aim of finding out if Iranian Labor Law supports the Iranian employers or employees (workers) and if it increases the job opportunities.


Zoning suitable areas of apple cultivation in the northern Khorasan and Khorasan Razavi provinces

Abstract: Identifying and scaling climatic potential in order to cultivate apple and to identify suitable areas and their distribution method in areas can help to utilize from resources optimally and to manage suitably. In order to identify suitable areas of apple cultivation in northern khorasan and Razavikhorasan, firstly four layers were provided including spring frost, heat stroke, GDD and CDD for climatic limitations of this product.

Then these layers were weighted using AHP method and obtained by using weight factor combining method of final map that include suitable areas of apple cultivation in northern khorasan and Razavikhorasan. This map was divided to four zones including high suitable areas, intermediate area and unsuitable and poor areas.


Zoning inhibitive hot temperature during sunflower growth stages in Isfahan Province

Abstract: Tolerance of Sunflower is very low against inhibitive warm temperatures during growth stages and if Sunflower confronts these temperatures, the farmers bear heavy damages [we dealt with decreasing Sunflower contact with these inhibitive temperatures, studding temperatures required in each growth stages and estimating it and zoning time and duration of warm tensions in Isfahan.]To accomplish his task, the long – term meteorological statistics (1961–2011) the maximum temperature (day) and (night) of 26 synoptic stations and climatology stations in Isfahan province logy are used. For analyzing the obtained data the MATLAB, Excel, SPSS and GIS software's are used. For the heat needed of each growth stage of sunflower, the time and duration of inhibitive warmth of growth is divided in 10-day periods the drawn in zoning maps formats. The results indicate that fatal warmth begins from 3rd June, eastwards and continue to 1st August in central parts of Isfahan province. Based on these critical circumstances it is recommended that proper time and space be determined for Sunflower cultivation.


Preparation and evaluation of nanocomposite starch films containing ZnO for extended shelf life of fresh strawberry

Abstract— Bionanocomposites starch films containing ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by casting method from corn starch solutions. The nanoparticles of ZnO were homogenized by sonication and incorporated into corn starch solutions at different concentrations (e.g. 1%, 3%, 5%, and 7% w/w dried starch). Fresh strawberries were then packed in the polypropylene packages covered with these bionanocomposites, to be used as cap of packaging, and stored at 4oC. Microbial stability of the fresh strawberry was evaluated after 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days of storage. Dispersion quality of antimicrobial nanoparticle within the polymer matrix films were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis (TEM) and the mechanical properties of them were characterized by using Young's Modulus analysis. The results showed that microbial growth rate significantly reduced as a result of using this nanocomposite packaging material by up to 20 days. The TEM results revealed that ZnO nanoparticles with spherical and granular morphology had uniform distribution within starch polymer. Moreover, Young’s Modulus for all of the nanocomposites increased with the increasing filler loading. Consequently, ZnO nanoparticles have the potential as a filler in starch-based films for use as an antimicrobial packaging materials which help to extend the shelf life of fresh strawberry to 20 days.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 16 (Part II)


The study on the functional and physical issues of Tir Parks and design standards representation to develop tourism industry

Abstract— Tourism is one of the main factors of mobility-based development. Decrease in working hours and therefore increase in entertainment time and improvement of movement condition is a prominent process in tourism movement division which includes shortening in staying time, thus it is an undisputable factor in movement promotion and tourism short-term movement. Meanwhile, as function and physics of a space are two main characteristics of any space Tir parks play an effective role in trip capacity increase along the roads and promotion in tourism industry. This study is seeking to develop tourism industry with Tir parks designing standards and the issues of physical and functional aspects of Aftab Derakhshan Sahra complex in Qazvin. The methodology of mentioned study is based on the practical purposes with the origin of descriptive-case study. Data collection is in library and field study mode. The results show that the tendency of people to use Tir parks depends on various aspects such as functional, physical, perceptional, visual, social, cultural, economical, traffic, environmental aspects. Meanwhile, functional and physical aspects contain great portion which are related to some items including: present land uses in the complex, the location of the complex, space syntax, accessibility, local materials and etc.


Considering the present condition of urban green space (intraurban parks ) by GIS (case sample: district 18 of Tehran)

Abstract— Urban uses are considered as the main column and frame of the city so that the cities are assessed according to the functions and services of how to establish them. Green spaces have different functions in the cities specially big and industrial cities among the urban uses. Green space improves the bioenvironmental conditions of the cities from one hand and provides the suitable conditions for citizens to spend their free time from another hand. The public uses cannot provide desirable services for the citizens because of some reasons like the high density of population, disordering of establishment and location, not paying attention to availability radius and population thresholds. This matter I more visible in big cities particularly for uses like the green space ( intra urban parks). Urban green space is so important that the existence of these uses is one of the indices of development of the societies today. The green space of the studied district (district 18 of municipality of Tehran) is considered in analyzing urban green space to study the distribution of these uses within the district. Then the data are analyzed  by the geographical information system (GIS) so that some suggestions can be proposed by the attained results for determining the districts disadvantaged from using public facilities (parks) and directing the responsible to the necessity of paying attention to suitable locating and distribution of green space (intra urban parks) within the district. 


Features of Qajar Era Houses in the Temperate Climate of the Caspian (Case Study: Kolbadi’s House and Sardar Jalil in Sari) 

Abstract—Mansion of Manuchehrkhan Kolbadi is located in Abanbar-e-no neighborhood in Sari ,and was built around 140 years ago in the late Qajar era by the order of Sardar Jalil, a Sardar of army at the time. This monument was registered as one of the Iranian national monuments on October 31st 1998 with the registration number 2148. Currently, it has been turned into the Museum of Sari city. Architecture of this mansion and the house of Sardar Jalil are influenced by Qajar era architecture, having interior and exterior parts taking the climatic and architectural aspects into considerations. The main building of the two mansions in the interior part was built on two and three floors, and a basement and a dais and two-way rooms on each floor. Dais of the second floor is one of the most beautiful rooms of the mansion ,and every part of it recalls the decorative arts practices of Qajar era. Properties of the architectural components of the building such as rooms, chambers, dais, bath, stable, yard , the art used on their windows , sashes and their decorations with colored glass are unique in their own kinds. Over time, kitchen and parts of the servers’ residential units got ruined and now it has been replaced by new buildings. Like most buildings of Qajar era, this building was built with mud, lime, reed mace, stone, glass, ceramics and wood. The building has ceramic roof, false arc, lion head shapes, sash windows and brick façade. This paper applies library research method , and most of its subjects are obtained from people familiar with the building, and are descriptively presented in the paper. People who have tried to understand and introduce Tabarestan were mostly employees of the province’s cultural heritage and crafts organization.


Pathology of urban seismic areas using Inversion Hierarchical Weight Process (IHWP) and GIS; case study: Gorgan

Abstract— Physical components of urban areas such as buildings, open spaces and their physical characteristics like the size of mass, manner and place of settlement, size and appearance and their positions have a determining role in intensity and extent of cities’ seismic vulnerability during an earthquake. Many Iranian cities are located on the areas with medium and high risk of earthquake. Therefore, considering the quality of the elements and physical components of urban areas can dramatically decrease man-made disasters in Iranian cities. The city of Gorgan, with a population  over 330,000 and an area of 3600 hectares in 2011, is one of the cities which are located in earthquake-prone areas with high risk of earthquake. Residence of some 12 percent of the population in time-worn buildings (consisting roughly 10 percent of the whole area of the city) as well as the lack of a pathological zoning (seismic zoning) of the city has made the seismic zoning of the city a crucial issue. In the present article, vulnerability to earthquake was considered through calculation, analysis and combination of factors such as access to medical centers, the ratio of the streets width to the buildings height, (enclosure),  PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) of the area, building density, population density, land use, the structures quality  and the extent of vulnerability in Gorgan using Inversion Hierarchical Weight Process (IHWP) and GIS. The study showed that the buildings in the southern parts of Gorgan – compared to the other areas – are less vulnerable. Moving from the south to the north, seismic vulnerability increases. It is due to the fact that the north of the city enjoys wide enough streets and  resistant, young buildings.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 16 (Part I)


Waste management options to control greenhouse gas emissions –Landfill, compost or incineration? 

Abstract—Methane (CH4) is predicted to cause as much global warming as carbon dioxide (CO2) over the next 20 years. Traditionally the global warming potential (GWP) of methane has been measured over 100 years. The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007) warns that this underestimates its immediate impact. Viewed over 20 years it has 72 times the GWP of CO2.

The current study was prompted by concern about these emissions, and by a recent Government policy study in Melbourne, Australia, which recommended composting of municipal waste. The mass composting of waste would reduce landfill gas, currently used as a fuel. This study uses recent information (2006 IPCC Guidelines) with local data to estimate:

- How much greenhouse gas is emitted to the atmosphere from best practice landfill with methane capture Pipes? How much can be captured to use as fuel?

- Is aerobic composting or incineration better at controlling emissions than landfill with gas capture?


A Study of the Possible Solutions for Radon Concentration Reduction in Homes in Order to Minimize Energy Consumption in Ventilation Systems

Abstract— One of the main problems engaging the attention of scientific communities is air pollution especially in indoor areas such as homes. In this regard, radon is one of the most important and dangerous pollutants since various studies and researches have shown that this gas is the second cause of lung cancer after smoking. Aiming to increase efficiency and reduce costs, current buildings have caused a lower quality of the air inside homes. Therefore, an appropriate ventilation system is required to prevent such pollution in order to provide clean and fresh air at an acceptable level. This article tries to study an optimum condition for achieving two important goals i.e. human health and energy saving optimization in ventilation systems.


Nickel Removal from Industrial Wastewater at Arak Aluminum Rolls Plant by Eucalyptus Leaves and Poplar Ashes

THE PAPER HAS BEEN REMOVED DUE TO AUTHORS REQUEST.


Analysis of a hybrid building in Kerman

Abstract—In this paper has been paid to investigates a hybrid buildings (solar-Fossil) in Kerman. Amount of thermal load is calculated in the two positions of typical walls and insulation walls.  Then, according to the consumer of hot water is calculated hot water thermal load of building. From a Catalog is considered a solar collector and amount of energy extracted from this collector is calculated. Meanwhile, the number of collectors required to be installed on a building is determined. Also, due to limited the roof number of collectors installed on the roof and also amount of Percentage of hybrid is estimated in this building. The results of this study is that the total thermal load of requirements in Conditions of insulated and non-insulated 561036 Btu/h.ft2 to 952102 Btu/h.ft2 respectively. However, the rate of energy extraction from the per unit collector area is estimated to equal to 926 Btu/h.ft2.


Evaluation of potential hazard of infected local carp consumption by women and children in Anzali lagoon by of PHQ modal.

Abstract— Heavy metals for their poisonous susceptibility in more than permissible level are being considered as a great concern of environment. Metals enter to environment through many ways like industrial activities. In present investigation three unnecessary heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and chromium were measured by spectrophotometry method in muscle tissue of local carp. The mean of lead, cadmium and chromium concentration in muscle tissue were respectively 1.56 0.44, 0.16 0.04 and 0.83 0.11  g/g, and the possibility of potential hazard of consuming this fish was evaluated according to instruction of U.S.A environment conservation organization. The obtained amount of heavy metals concentration in local carp was (0.31 m/g) more than international standards (0.3  g/gwet weight) in 2007 .in addition, according to obtain results the most of daily consumption dose was for lead element.

In present study children more than women were under risk of carp consumption. Nevertheless estimating of potential risk of all elements showed less than 1 for native in habitants which shows that consumption of local carp has no peril for consumers. 


Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Groundwater in Isfahan Najaf Abad Study Area

Abstract— In this paper, quantitative and qualitative changes in groundwater of Najaf Abad Plain were evaluated. The quantitative assessment based on data obtained from 48 observation wells showed that the average groundwater level in this plain declined 24.25 meter from 1994 to 2012. Then, the average groundwater level declined averagely 1.28 meter per year. Zonation of the declines in this plain suggested that maximum drop is observed in intermediate aquifer zones. This decline even extends to 85 meters. The minimum drop rate equal to zero was observed in Zayanderood margins. Fifteen operated wells were analyzed physicochemically to evaluate chemical quality of the study area. These evaluations included measuring pH, total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids in water (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl ), sulfate (SO4), bicarbonate (HCO3). Comparing the results with drinking water quality standards of the World Health organization (WHO) revealed that many water samples could not be categorized as drinking water. Hydro chemical type and profiles using Piper diagram showed that dominant type of the study area is categorized as bicarbonate type with sodic profile. Wilcox diagram results and combining sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) indexes showed that only 66.6 of the samples are suitable for agricultural purposes. 


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 15 (Supplementary Part VI)


The influence of external and internal parameters of a solar cell on the output power

Abstract— The main goal of this paper is the study of the influence of internal characteristics of a solar cell such as resistance, current and the solar structure on the output power. Also the influence of the external parameters such as temperature and reflection angle on voltage, current and the output power, is presented.  Simulation results are obtained using  Matlab software. Finally, using these results, the parameters that have the most influence on the output power are determined.


The analysis of organizational education and training system from economic view and human capital and its role in sustainable development

Abstract-The social organizations are some of the foremost phenomena at present time. Many requirements are met by organizations in modern world. By the aid of their resources including technology, information, financial sources, and human capital the organizations meet the social requirements. The human capital of the organizations is deemed as the paramount and most effective organizational sources since other sources are perishable but the human capital can be developed. To realize this objective, the reviewing scientific method has been employed. The results of this investigation indicate that the growth and excellence of human capital in the organizations might be only possible through organizational education and training. This issue suggests that organizational investment in growth and development of human capital is more efficient than investment in physical and equipment- related dimensions and it contributes the organizations in realization of their goals and growth and development of organizations will help to national growth and sustainable development from various dimensions. Thus, organizations should change their attitude from equipment- centered view to education and learning- centered approach. Of course, fulfillment of this important point requires serious investment in the field of training and education. 


Environmental Effects of Climatic Factors on the Yield of Irrigated Wheat (Case Study of the Town of Roshtkhar)

Abstract: The investigation of fluctuation climate on agriculture products is in the field of meteorology. Climatic elements including precipitation, temperature and humidity are among parameters that have important effects on agricultural activities. There for investigation of climatic elements in different geographical areas is very important .The main objective of this study is the investigation of the Impact of climate parameters on yield of wheat in roshtkhar. The spss software has been used to analyze date. The results obtained showed reduced yield in recent years the city of Roshtkhar.correlation coefficients showed a significant relationship between climate factors and yields of wheat moisture performance significant.


Site location of temporary accommodation after the earthquake using GIS: A Case Study of Tehran Municipality's District 5

Abstract: Studies in the field of the post-catastrophe management shows that in most cases, especially in urban and more developed areas, construction and reconstruction after the event will be complicated and slowed down. This is due to several factors such as complexity, remains of the damaged building elements, the level of area development, administrative construction regulations, too many homeless people, basic living standards, etc. At this stage, supplying permanent accommodation after the temporary settlement is a major problem. One of the most important problems which is considerable after a quake for responsible crisis management organizations is choosing a suitable and safe place as a temporary residence for catastrophe-stricken people. Geographical Information System, due to its unique locating efficiency can be used as a proper tool for logical locating in the\ hands of decision makers. This article tries to study district 5 of Tehran city as a sample area in choosing trend of proper places for residing quake-stricken people soon after the event. So, primarily the conceptual sample was designed, and then various data needed to establish a data base including facilities, services, vital networks information, and also natural features and characteristics of the area were collected and put in a similar framework of numerical properties. The data, then, analyzed comprehensively using Geographical Information System. At the next stage, the standard features of locating emergency residing quake-stricken people data were entered into the location data base and researching as well as extracting the results were done based on the mentioned information. Considering all standards of locating a proper place as a temporary residence for the quake-stricken, such as vital networks of power, gas and others and also natural conditions of the area, the results proved that the best places for temporary residing operations are open areas of some parks in this district.


Environmental impacts of rural tourism

Abstract— Tourism in an environment that consists of human and natural characteristics of the human environment and the processes of economic, social and cultural. The natural environment of plants, animals and their habitat will be formed. We can distinguish between the human and natural environment. Tourism can be an important form of human activity has important effects. The effect on the target area, where tourists and the local environment, economy, culture and society interact very evident, therefore this study was to describe the environmental impacts of tourism, although tourism issues are multifaceted and often "a set of economic, social and environmental.

In this set of solutions and positive and negative impacts of tourism on the environment is studied. This descriptive study included the sustainable tourism, especially rural tourism development in the region can be achieved by considering the relationship between the three components of the environment is tourism. Tourist destination and host society considered, this relationship can be complex, dynamic, constructive or destructive. Therefore the aim of establishing sustainable rural tourism moderation and balance with long-term conservation of these three components is tourism. Since there is a close relationship between economic and environmental policies aimed at achieving the goal of a social or economic impact is inevitably environment if this policy is not to comment, if the root causes of environmental degradation and economic functions, the solution is the same.


Analyzing role of agriculture in food safety and using natural sources in world countries (international approach)

Abstract—Food safety determined human’s history. The world population will increase to 9 billion people until four decades later and the predicted required food will increase to two times more than this. This increase will have more pressure on natural resources such as water, soil nutrients materials. The gap in our science about world capacity for production of inputs from one hand and the need to sustainable production of crops and food safety from the other hand explains special paying attention to producing food inputs with optimal production. Limitation of soil, water, food and energy suggest that we need a new predicted solution in local and global. Growing requested of food material, combined feed for animal shows that for changing potency of power in earth management we need to improving productivity of crops and better using of resources. Therefore agricultural engineering has a major duty to these projects.


Education effect by using problem-solving techniques to inventive method (TRIZ) to increase self-efficacy and empowerment among trainees of Technical and Vocational Training Organization

Abstract— New approaches to learning and using them to improve and enhance the training effectiveness are as development requirement in skill training. The purpose of this study is to determine the education effects by using problem solving techniques by using innovative methods to increase efficacy and potency among trainees of skill centers, the research method is a quasi-experimental research and by considering the experimental and control group which was done among technical and professional training centers in Kurdistan province. Information gathering tool was using of Schere self-efficacy and Spritiz empowerment questionnaire and at the end, data were entered into the SPSS software and they were analyzed in two sections of descriptive and inferential approaches. The results showed that education with two methods by using inventive method has a positive and significant effect on potency and efficacy of trainers of Technical and Professional Training Centers.


The need to achieve sustainable development and utilization of renewable energy in hot and dry regions of Iran

Abstract: According to the importance of optimization and effective utilization of renewable energy, and the environmental pollution originated from fossil fuels in the manufacturing energy sector use renewable energy to produce electrical energy is felt. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal, hydropower and marine are part of the renewable energy that have many applications in supply needed energy along with the industrial development, and have been a good substitute for fossil fuels. renewable energy are necessity for diversification energy portfolio in each country in order to improve energy security, given the dramatic increase in energy demand is expected in the coming years .energy security will be considered as one of the priorities of each country's energy sector. Problems Fossil fuel supply for many areas of the country, especially rural areas(There are 60 thousand villages scattered across the country) Includes savings of fossil fuels, growing population and rising demand for different types of energy and environmental issues. One of the methods can named for save natural resource is energy management and replacement renewable energy instead of fossil energy that as two function for achieve to

sustainable development approach to save natural resources that is the birth right of future generations preservation of it is the plants current citizens responsibility Thus need to replace energy sources renewable energy achieve sustainable development in the country is felt every day over the past Hot and dry regions of Iran because of the long hours of sunshine and windy in some areas could use these resources to get targets of sustainable development.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 15 (Supplementary Part V)


A Study on the New Towns’ Rate of Success and Performance, and Scrutinizing their Obstacles and Problems.

(Case Study: Sadra New City)

Abstract— Cities and towns are dynamic systems whose shape and performance alters gradually. Factors as industrialization, migrations of villagers to cities according to land reforms, successive droughts, deceptive urban attractions and villages’ repulsive agents, has cause daily increase in the cities’ sizes and numbers and also has altered their shapes and performance. This process has resulted in the emersion of metropolises as Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Mashhad and Tabriz. The high density of population and activity in metropolises has lowered the citizens’ life qualities and caused economic, social and environmental problems. This has resulted in the construction of new cities with the purpose of decentralization of the mother cities. In order to approach to this purpose, prospections have been made about the attraction of population and occupations. When talking about new cities, automatically our mind goes towards utopias and an aggregation of ideals in these cities; cities which are optimum in their design, construction and execution and are accordant to innovative urban thoughts; and all citizens can live in safe spaces having facilities, sustainable neighborhood centers, powerful social centers with a calmness which has been predicted in the attitude of such cities. A question about if Iran’s new cities have such qualifications, arises here. This article is to survey these cities’ aims and reasons of failure, by studying their process of alterations, and finally evaluates Sadra new city as a case study. 


Review and evaluate strategies to achieve sustainability in Tehran, based on experiences using the analytic hierarchy Process (AHP)

Abstract—"Sustainable development" aimed at meeting the needs of today's society and to continually improve environmental conditions. The development of a justice-oriented and multi-dimensional emphasized that the usage of the resources. UN HABITANTS in consideration of concepts and approaches to sustainable development has established sustainable development program that incorporates principles and approaches in the field of advance guidance from national and international sources, to perform in cities. Unfortunately, Iran has not taken appropriate measures in order to implement this program. Therefore,  Tehran metropolitan as a case study to assess barriers, this study examined the. Increase in the population of Tehran, non-compliance and lack of indicators for sustainable development design and efficient program, the city's social, economic and environmental - are peripheral encounter. This research is trying to explore the cities' experiences in implementing sustainable development programs and comparing these experiences with Tehran, identify obstacles and problems in this city, in line with the implementation of the program up guidelines analyzing sustainable development and explore implementation of this strategy will determine the priority hierarchy.


A Study on Spatial - locational distribution of health care use, by GIS system

Case Study: Hospitals in Kerman

Abstract: Rapid growth of population in cities, especially large ones, has increased the demand for public goods and services. This increase in population is causing problems in providing services to these individuals. In most cities, the lack of appropriate space allocation and optimal placement of structural elements and services, particularly health centers (hospitals) and the number of affective factors in locating the centers has caused the increase of urban and citizenship problems. The need to plan for humanity's urban centers, which are the cities, is more than ever. And due to this lack of documented system and careful planning of cities, this issue has created a lot of problems. As one of most important problems we can mention the decrease in various per capita lands in the city. The places for treatment facilities are one of the main uses, and allocating space to this user is an important issue for planners and urban planning. Due to the sensitivity of the usage and its direct relationship with the families; how to allocate space and layout optimization is very important for therapeutic use. In Kerman, as the Province and also one of the metropolises of the south, the high urban population density, traffic, lack of adequate access, lack of land, lack of proper distribution of medical applications space has made this survey more urgent. We aimed to investigate the spatial- locational distribution of healthcare facilities (hospitals) and to identify underserved areas in the Kerman city, according to the locational standards and criteria.  The research method is field, descriptive - analytical, the data collection is done using GPS, and for data analysis Excel, GIS were taken into account. The results show that the spatial and locational distribution and health centers in the city of Kerman, unlike other urban centers of health, haveLess adherence to laws that classify urban neighborhood as the area, region and … .In general, the region number onehas a suitable situation while other areas of the city are facing shortages. 


Identification and Management of Black spots

Case Study of Haraz Road

Abstract— Road transportation accidents impose enormous costs to the country every year. Roads and their problems are some of the main causes of accidents. Road safety engineering is the knowledge to improve roads’ safety. One of the tools of the road safety engineering management is to identify and manage accident-black spots. The management of the accident-black spots is a reactive and systematic method to identify accident-related factors and to provide corrective strategies. The method involves identifying accident-black spots, identifying the causes, finding appropriate solutions, estimating the effect of proceedings, prioritization, implementation and evaluation. This paper outlines the method and compares it to the country’s current methods  in Iran.  Also, a case study is conducted using the accident data and the mentioned method in the accident-block spots of Haraz road.


Zoning Hormozgan’s tourism comfortable climate using the (TCI) index

Abstract—Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world and climate, as a source of tourism, plays an important role in this industry, so that more tourists determine the time and destination of their travel according to climatic conditions. In this study, using Mieczkowski (1985) Tourism Climate Index (TCI) and the climatic data from 9 synoptic stations, the climatic tourism in Hormozgan province has been evaluated. This index has systematically evaluated the climatic conditions for tourism using average maximum monthly parameters of daily temperature, mean daily temperature, minimum relative humidity, mean daily relative humidity, rainfall (mm), total sunshine hours and wind speed. An Analytical-descriptive method has been used for this study with the objective of qualitative evaluation of Hormozgan province based on comfort and bio-chemical aspects, as well as determining a tourism calendar based on the TCI index. For this purpose the homogeneous climatic data of one statistical 15 year period from the 9 synoptic stations of the province have been collected, and after processing and analyzing them with Excel, and also creation of a data bank, the TCI index have been calculated on a monthly basis for the various stations and by using the GIS method a TCI map, based on DEM, has been drawn for each month of the year.

The results show that climatic index of the Hormozgan tourism in the month of December and March have scored the highest points, therefore they have the best climatic conditions for tourism. On the other hand July and August, with the lowest scores, are the most inappropriate months for tourism activities.


Studying the effects of educational factors on the employment of physical education postgraduates at state universities in Iran

Abstract: This research has been carried out to determine the effects of educational factors on the employment of physical education postgraduates at state and open universities in Iran. This is a descriptive-survey and applied research. The participants of the research include all physical education postgraduates at state and open universities from 2007 to 2011.From the total number of 7,500, 360 student were randomly selected based on  Cochran formula as the samples of the research and then they were increased to 421 students to raise the generalization and validity of the research. To collect data, a questionnaire prepared by the researcher with confirmed validity, 0.97 reliability and 0.877 Cronbach Alpha was used. The analysis of the information was conducted by SPSS Software, Version 20. Employing confirmatory factor analysis, the most important educational factors affecting the employment of graduates of master's degree in physical education were prioritized. To state universities graduates, reinforcing self-employment programs, as a major factor, is of prime importance with load factor of 0.807 whereas to open universities graduates, attracting students based on the real educational needs of the society is the first priority.


The Analysis of Economical Factors Influencing Employment of M.S graduated People in the Field of Physical Body Education From State Universities and Open Universities
Abstract: with no doubt labor-force is taken in to consideration as the most prominent assets of a country and proper use of such assets in an integrated system is really essential. The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of economical factors on employing MS graduates in the field of Physical Body Education from state and open universities. The method of undertaking this research is descriptive-survey, based on the purposes and results. This research is of the applicable ones moreover it is a field study from conduction point of view which has been carried out in the form of a short-term research. The society under survey contains all MS gradates in this present research from all options since 2006 till 2011 from both state and open universities. The number of society samples in this research is 7500 people at which Cochran has been used and then dropped off to 360 people. Therefore the researcher expanded the number of society samples up to 421 in order to raise the reliability of the study and generalize it. The sampling was randomly carried out in cluster. Data collecting was done through questionnaire, made by the researcher which contained 14 questions to answer for statistical description as well as 6 tests for collecting social factors. The justifiability of the questionnaire was approved by School of Physical Body Education faculties and professors, School of Management and School of Sociology and Social Science. The Exploration Analysis Method was used for evaluating the justifiability of the structure and design of the questionnaire which showed an acceptable sequence of a research. As reported, the validity factor of and load factor the questionnaire were orderly found 0.97 and 0.748 and the questionnaire was verified by LISEREL statistical software. By use of SPSS software V. 20 and correlation statistical analysis method, financial factors has been found the most crucial factor influencing employment of Body Education graduates people from point of view of such people graduated from state and open universities. According to graduates opinions from state universities with correlation factor of 0.75 and also the graduates opinions from open universities with correlation factor of 0.734, the results obtained from this study have showed that among six economical factors influencing the employment of such graduates, the increased economical policy factor related to the self-employment and job-creation has got priority of the first choice. In general, economical factors play very important roles in employments of graduates.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 15 (Supplementary Part IV)


Measurement of stability indicators in urban residences (A case study: ChaharBagh neighborhood in Sanandaj city)

Abstract— With respect to current situation of the world, it is predicted that almost a half of global population will reside in urban areas with the advent of 3rd millennium. Investigation and identification of downtown neighborhoods and their problems in terms of sustainability and sustainable development in cities can be helpful in improvement of living quality and growing sustainability over downtown neighborhoods may prevent many urban problems, particularly those related to irregular physical development. To this end, in current research we have evaluated sustainability indicators in ChaharBagh neighborhood in Sanandaj City. The indicators of study in this neighborhood include: socio-cultural, economic and physical ones. Research methodology is analytical-descriptive and data collection was conducted through documents, field studies and questionnaires. Findings suggest that Chaharbagh Neighborhood doesn’t have suitable sustainability conditions.


The evaluation of Mehr housing plan of Baharan Township Project with approach toward urban sustainable development

Abstract— Evaluate and analyze the impact of urban development projects is one of the affecting factors in leading cities toward sustainable development. Mehr housing Projects in Iran is one of the housing policies that recently has been implemented in order to supply supported home to low-income people of the society. Although this project led to provide many houses for a large segment of low-income households, but inattention to its environmental, economic and social consequences have faced cities sustainable development with challenges. This paper followed assess the effects of Mehr Housing projects on urban sustainability indicators. To this aim, challenges that was created in the way of urban sustainable development due to Mehr housing implementation, identified with descriptive and analytical methods. Required data and documents of the paper collected through library studies, referring to the relevant administrative organizations, questionnaires, face to face interviews and field survey as research tools and operational solutions. Assessment indicators were collect through reviewing the relevant theoretical contexts. Study, analysis and assessment of Mehr housing indicators in Baharan town in Sanandaj city as the case study, shows that Mehr housing project in economic and environment fields is relatively acceptable, in social field is not acceptable and its implementation process is largely incompatible with the principles of sustainable urban development.


Study and Analysis of city networks in the Coastal Provinces of Persian Gulf

 (Hormozgan and Bushehr)

Abstract- Industrialization and pseudo-industrialization, decline of agricultural sector and spread of exogenous development patterns of city-based, leading to the formation of massive migrations of rural-urban, extreme population centralization and emerge of large cities and metropolitans in the Iran in the last hundred years that its result was imbalances in the city network urban system and polarization of city networks at national, regional and province level. In this paper, using a quantitative-analytical method and utilizes first two major characteristics of the city (with indices of urban primacy , both city: Mehta, Kitzenberg, Moomaw_Alwosabi) and decentralization indicator (entropy factor) and using quantitative categorized method (number of people) state of the network and urban hierarchy system in both coastal province of the Persian Gulf (Hormozgan and Bushehr) in the period 1966 to 2011 is analyzed. This results represent the urban primacy phenomenon and focus throughout the studied period (despite a gradual decline in some measures) and imbalance and disproportionate in the area of city network, are studied. Generally disproportionate, concentration and polarization of city network in the Hormozgan province due to 7- Bandar Abbas city and its distance 7 times than second city in population, is higher than the Bushehr province.


ECOLOGICAL CAPABILITY EVALUATION OF CITY DEVELOPMENT BY USING MCDM & GIS (study area: Sahand)

Abstract— Present study has been prepared with the aim of determining appropriate application of urbun development in Sahand region, Osko city, in east Azerbaijan. High development of Sahand City and the lack of scientific comprehensive studies on ecological potential evaluation of its development, cause to select application ecological potential evaluation of urban development of Sahand City with the multi-criteria decision making MCDM and GIS model, as a topic for the study. In this regard, in the first stage of Sahand’s study area and effective physical-ecological parameters in locating city development plan is determined in tow section: 1- Physical (including the geographical reviews, geology, agrology, hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology and …) and 2- biological resources (including flora and fauna reviews, protected areas and …)In the second stage, standardization and layer integration of data was done using software ArcGIS and aspects of urban development was determined. in the third stage, analysis is done with the way of ALC and AHP and the map of development ecological potential of Sahand City is being derived and is classified by comparing with the urban development model. Now, the area of Sahand Town is 2,329 hectares and the results show that 3326 hectares, of the total under study area of Sahand identified in 1712 ecological units and with the area of 45200 hectares, have degree 1 power, and 4270 hectares have degree 2 power of urban development plan. Now, spatial distribution of the population centers of the town mostly lies in degree 2 application (average), from whose important reasons are relatively fine textured soils, suitable drainage conditions, and favorable climatic conditions.


Study of factors that affect flooding in order to reduce natural hazards in areas Yamchi Dam Using by GIS

Abstract—Flooding obliterates facilities and causes physical damage and disrupts utilizing of highways and railways. In addition, flood is a barrier for effective drainage and economical use of land for agricultural and industrial purposes. Due to the high current or river runoff in catchment, huge erosion occurs across the basin and eventually creates serious problems in downstream of the falls which is caused by settlement and accumulation of sediment. Upper catchment of Yamchi Dam is the Sub Basin of Balkhly River in Ardabil which is located on the southern hillsides of mount Sabalan. Due to the topographic and climate condition of this basin, flooding is vulnerable here; and this causes damage to rural dwelling sites, farm lands, and communicative pathways. The occurrence of this phenomenon in one hand culminates into soil eroding increasing and soil exacerbation resources, in the other hand forces filling in Yamchi Dam reservoir. Therefore the purpose of this study is to identify factors that contribute to flooding in the mentioned basin.so as to approach above purpose factors such as slope, aspect, and lithology, distance from waterways and precipitation were examined as effective factors in which contributes to flooding; then their data layers in  (GIS) and Arc MAP were prepared and  as well as geometric factors such as  shape, area, and circumference, basin height and rectangular area were assessed and  investigated results suggest that following  basin study is  prone to devastated floods that mainly occur in spring. The results also showed that interfered factors in the flooding basin consecutively include slope and aspect, waterways, rainfall, lithology and the time of concentration and the time of delay. Because basin shape is round, so it shows more reaction which is attributed to shower and flood occurrence. The length of basin waterway is also high, which is indicating a high density of streams and the possibility of flooding occurrence is high, therefore, managerial and protective measurements should be taken in the basin.


Study of affect factors on flooding and crisis management in Yamchi Dam using by GIS

Abstract—Human life since the beginning up to now has always been associated with the risk of natural disasters. Due to climate variability and temporary instability and destructive condition of Iran, yet is one of the countries that are more vulnerable to natural disasters, that flood is one of the most serious ones. Upper catchment of Yamchi Dam is the Sub Basin of Balkhly River in Ardabil which is located on the southern hillsides of mount Sabalan. Due to the topographic and climate condition of this basin, flooding is vulnerable here; and this causes damage to rural dwelling sites, farm lands, and communicative pathways. The occurrence of this phenomenon in one hand culminates into soil eroding increasing and soil exacerbation resources, in the other hand forces filling in Yamchi Dam reservoir. Therefore the purpose of this study is to identify factors that contribute to flooding in the mentioned basin.so as to approach above purpose factors such as slope, aspect, and lithology, distance from waterways and precipitation were examined as effective factors in which contributes to flooding; then their data layers in  (GIS) and Arc MAP were prepared. The results also showed that interfered factors in the flooding basin consecutively include slope and aspect, waterways, rainfall, lithology, and the time of concentration and the time of delay. Overviewing the basin flood statistics confirms the fact that the majority of flooding occurrence in the upper basins of the Yamchi dam has happened in the months of April and May. Due to the floods occurrence in the following months some factors such as rainfall increasing, snow melting in the upper elevations of the watershed and poor vegetation in the basin are involved in this case. Therefore, attention to these issues and providing practical guidelines in the area may reduce the statistics of the future flooding.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 15 (Supplementary Part III)


Analysis of meteorological drought Gorgan station using indexes drought

Abstract— Drought is a normal part of the climate of each region's potential is even high rainfall areas.Resulting in a water shortage for many activities, especially the environmental and agriculture. Droughts are inevitable. And just by knowing its law-governing policies and strategies can reduce the damage caused by it. In the present study drought synoptic stations in Iran than 4 percent of normal precipitation index (PNPI), rainfall deciles (DPI), Governor Index (Z) and the Governor of precipitation (SPI) during the statistical period of 53 years (from 1953 to 2005 ) is used Based on the calculated values obtained from each of the indicators on an annual basis, according to the Cook pertaining to various classes of drought indicators of interest, to determine drought conditions during the period of time scales was studied. As the results were Due to the limited timeframe of four years of severe drought in 1953 and 1954 and the decade (1982 to 2000) during the past decades this has been the driest.


Enhanced of Yield and Yield Components of Zea mays L. by Different Tillage methods and Levels of Triple Superphosphate

Abstract— To evaluate the effect of tillage and triple superphosphate on yield and yield fractions of filed corn single cross 704 cultivar, factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was performed. The first factor includes no-till farming, minimum tillage and disk tillage and the second factor include triple superphosphate at three levels include 60, 120 and 180 Kg/ha. According to the variance analysis results tillage has statistical significant effect (P<0.01) on plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf area index, forage yield and dried forage yield. Triple superphosphate significantly affected the plant height, stem diameter, forage yield and dried forage yield, but did not affected leaf length and leaf area index. The interaction of triple superphosphate and tillage did not significant effect on the measured indices. The results showed that tillage enhances yield and yield fractions and tillage with disk has highest effect. Also triple superphosphate application enhanced plant height, stem diameter, forage and dried forage yield. The highest amount of forage and dried forage yield was observed at 180 kg/ha triple superphosphate. The highest plant height, stem diameter and leaf length was obtained at 180 kg/ha triple superphosphate with disk tillage. The highest amount of leaf area index was obtained at disk tillage with different levels of triple superphosphate and the highest forage yield was at 120 kg/ha triple superphosphate with disk tillage. The maximum dried forage yield was observed at minimum tillage with 120 kg/ha triple superphosphate.


Biogas production yield of anaerobic baffled reactor in low pH and HRT

Abstract— The purpose of this research is to examine the performance of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) in two different operational conditions with focus on biogas production. For this purpose, a pilot with 6 compartments, having overall net volume of 60 liters, was used and inoculated continuously with dairy wastewater. After start-up, the average COD removal efficiency of 82% was achieved for 36 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). In first step, by decreasing HRT to 18 hours, the overall COD removal efficiency and total biogas production yield were reduced 5 and 24%, respectively. Here, the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide content of biogas was reduced from 1.6 to about 1.14. In the second step, in HRT of 18 hours, the influent pH was reduced below 6 instantaneously. The experimental results show that the COD removal efficiency and biogas production yield were reduced dramatically about 46 and 82%, respectively. As a consequence, the M:C ratio was dramatically decreased to 0.14. It can be concluded that ABR with 6 compartments is rather a robust technology for dairy wastewater treatment and biogas production in low HRTs. However, it seems more susceptible to pH reductions. Therefore, for a well energy recovery, it obviously requires an equalization or pre-treatment unit as neutralization.



Review of effective parameters on the nanofluid thermal conductivity

Abstract—Nanofluid is produced by distribution of solid nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, organic fluids, glycol, oil, lubricants, or other fluids. In such a technique, increase in conductivity is the main idea of enhanced heat transfer in fluids. In this paper,  an introduction to the needs of using nanofluids are presented follow by preparing procedure and its applications as well as the effective parameters on nanofluid conductivity. The investigated parameters in this paper are: nanofluid type, nanoparticle shape, and size, acidity, base fluid type, nanofluid surface charge, nanofluid concentration, and temperature. The results show that all the mentioned parameters have significant effect on nanofluid conductivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects for correct collection of nanofluids.


Effect Different Tillage Methods and Fe Micronutrient Levels on Yield and Yield Components of Zea mays L.

Abstract— In this study for investigation of the effect of tillage and Fe micronutrient on yield and yield components of filed corn single cross 704 cultivar, factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted. The first factor includes no-till farming, minimum tillage and disk and plow tillage and the second factor was Fe fertilizer at three levels include 0, 15 and 30 mg/L. The results showed that tillage has been affected plant height, leaf area index, forage yield and dried forage yield at P<0.01, but did not affected stem diameter and leaf length. Also, the interaction of Fe and tillage did not significant effect on the measured indices. The results indicated that tillage enhances plant height, leaf area index, forage and dried forage yield. 30 mg/L Fe intake cause to increasing of dried forage yield. The highest plant height and leaf area index was obtained at 30 mg/L Fe with minimum tillage, the highest amount of forage yield was observed at disk and plow tillage with different levels of Fe and minimum tillage with and without 30 mg/L Fe.


Carbon sequestration, a stable way to conflict against climate changing in Iran and all around the world

Abstract—Global warming and climate changing resulted from green house gases such as carbon dioxide has caused some concerns. This concern has ended up to considerable attention to soils and its reliability for carbon sequestration permanently. The natural method is the simplest and the most cost effective way to decreasing carbon dioxide. Carbon sequestration can be considered an approach to sustainable development because it involves advantages such as improving some aspect of global warming and climate changing phenomena, desertification, rural development, decreasing poverty, employment, developing new energy, expanding the forest and ranch and so on. 


Laboratory Study on Nematicidal Effect of Methanolic Extract of Two Medicinal Plant from the Family of Solanaceae on Root-Knot Nematode “Meloidogyne Javanica”

Abstract—Root-knot nematodes are an important factor causing damage to agriculture. Recently, much attention has been paid to the use of medicinal plants as an efficient method for pest and pathogen control. This paper attempts to study nematicidal effect of different concentrations of methanolic extract of Datura (Datura stramonium) and Nightshade (Solanum nigrum) on prevention of hatching and mortality of second-instar larvae of root-knot nematode in factorial experimental design in a fully random manner with four repetitions. Statistical data analysis by SAS indicated that the methanolic extract of the aforesaid plants has a significant effect on prevention of hatching and mortality of nematode larvae compared with control treatment (distilled water).


Using a Cross Impact matrix method to assess the impact of traffic on air quality in Tehran city

Abstract—Tehran is one of the most polluted cities of the world. High car traffic and numerous factories and their geographical position have caused air pollution to be considered as one of the most important environmental and urban life issues inTehran. Air pollution produced by road traffic is one of the most serious problems in the management of urban areas in this city. This paper applies a technique as a preliminary tool for air quality assessments. For this, Cross impact matrix is used to determine the weightings to apply to spatial datasets within a GIS  to develop a pollution vulnerability map. Compared with sophisticated numerical models used in other studies, the method is less complicated and takes less time to be implemented. The purpose of this research is to explain how to develop a cross impact matrix method for assessing the environmental impacts of air quality resulted from traffic in a city. This technique provides pretty quick and understandable results that can be used by the city managers.


Economic and environmental waste recycling investigation in Khomeini Shahr (Esfahan province)

Abstract: Waste management is choose a combination of techniques , technologies and management plans to achieve it's goals such as environmental protection and control pollution from these substances on of the most interesting options in waste management is solid waste recycling that has been considered by economic saving and environmental benefits . So , to determine the quality and quantity of waste we sampled and its components were identified . Also , to determine economic – environmental evaluation and graduate studies library and internet resources were used. The results show that per capita waste for each person in Khomeini shahr is 500 g in a day weight of perishable materials 73% , paper 8.2% , plastic 7.3% , glass 5.2% , metals 6.3% were obtained . Amount of energy from burning and bene fits of recycling is respectively 787550 Gj and 4780000 Rials . In addition to economic aspect , it resorting forests and reducing damage to natural resources and environment . According to mentioned percentage in waste of Khomeini shahr , attention to recycling of these material clan fied to us that we can save for economic and environment with proper training and in formational source separation of waste produced . 


2014: Vol 6, Issue 15 (Supplementary Part II)


Surveying the spatial variations of water temperature of gaseous wells in Hamedan area in order to obtain geothermal energy

Abstract— Requiring more energy and limitations in using fossil fuels has caused human to goes on renewable energies such as geothermal energy .In recent years, the water of some of the agricultural wells in some regions of north of the state of Hamedan-has become corrosive, salty and gaseous. So it is assumed that these gases are evidence of the existence of a geothermal resource in the subsurface layers of the regions. In this project we decided that as a first step in the exploration, spatial variations of water temperature of gaseous wells in the regions to be evaluated. For this purpose, gaseous wells were identified and their temperatures were measured on a monthly basis over a period of three years. Then the data were analyzed using ANOVA variance analysis and the results showed that there was a significant difference between water temperature of gaseous wells and also the water temperature of evidences wells was lower than the water temperature of gaseous wells. 


Evaluation of electricity generation efficiency and productivity changes in the development programs of Iran By looking in the environmental issues

Abstract—Electricity is not a luxury commodity nowadays and Electricity defines as one of propulsion of the world, especially those who are in the development stage toward the economic boom. To achieve this goal should be maximized electricity production   by embracing production cost minimum. Therefore, in this study followed issues in order to see how is electricity generation efficiency during the years after the Islamic revolution in Iran? As result is shown Since the country is located in the oil region and existing institutional arrangement (generating facilities) Caused   the Schedule performances in the field of electricity generation is close to each other .The first program was lowest and the fourth program was highest level of improvement in the productivity and the efficiency. In relation to environmental efficiency, with the dedication and attention to the issues of environmental pollution, made performance got better than before 1389 and 1390 years.


Contamination and geochemical distribution of contaminant metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, As) in agricultural soils in the south of  Hossein Abad copper index (Abadeh Tashk – Fars)

Abstract— The area in this research is a part of an agricultural soil in Hussain Abad and Abadeh Tashk near the city of Neiriz. The results were compared with field samples and universal standards revealed high density of heavy metals such as Ni, Cu, Pb,As,  in some studied stations. The results showed that, in this range, the accumulation index for the elements Ni, Cu, Pb, is low, pollution index and enriched factor for the elements Ni, As is moderate and for the elements Cu, Pb is low. So if start operating and extacting, pollution in the area will increase.


An Overview of Thermochemical Methods for Hydrogen Production from Biomass as a Clean Fuel

Abstract— Fossil fuels that supply the major part of energy demand of the world are being depleted fast. Also Their combustion products cause environmental impacts and global problems such as global warming as a result of greenhouse gases emissions that follows with melting arctic ices, raising the ocean's level, and forest burnings so that after industrial revolution and increasing growth of machines and specially after discovering and extraction of oil and gas reserves, greenhouse gases emissions have increased significantly so that many of scientists and engineers believe that substitution of fossil fuels with clean fuels that come from renewable resources, is one of the best ways to solve these problems. Another important issue is energy security and availability. Hydrogen has attracted a lot of researcher's attention to itself as the most abundant element in the world that releases the highest energy during combustion (2.8 times higher than that of gasoline). Its abundance and minimum environmental impacts during conversion to power, are the most important criteria that make this element, the key energy carrier of future. Since hydrogen can be produced from abundant renewable resources, it is expected that the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel will increase dramatically. In this article we study about thermochemical methods of producing hydrogen from biomass as a renewable carbon-containing resource, affecting parameters of the process and the challenges of using this energy carrier.  


Determination the correlation between plant diversity and soil characteristics using systematic random sampling in Kaka Reza region, Lorestan Province, Iran

Abstract— there is a clear correlation between plant communities and soil conditions. To understand these relationships and preserve natural ecosystems, the role of ecological factors such as soil properties and its relationship with plant biodiversity was studied. The main objective of this research was to determine the correlation between plant biodiversity and soil characteristics. To achieve this aim, three stations with a surface of 10 hectares with about 427 plots (1.5 × 1.5) were constructed in Kaka Reza region, Lorestan Province, Iran. In each plot, soil samples were studied. Some about 673 species were identified using numerous flora in Lorestan University Herbarium. Weather conditions, altitude, key properties of the soil and Simpson diversity index were carefully explored. Then, results were interpreted utilizing Past ver. 2.17c Software.


Investigation of the Most Effective Climatic Parameter Regarding Performance Reduction of Wireless Networks Using AHP

Abstract - Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has gained application in many investigations and various fields; it is also used by a great number of researchers. Through weighting different criteria this method ,to some extent, can clear their role and can pave the way for further researches in the same field. In this research it is trying to find the most effective factors related to performance reduction of wireless networks; hence, some factors like fog, humidity, temperature, rain, snow, lightning, hailstone, atmospheric luminescence, and wind are chosen to evaluate wireless networks; moreover, quadruplet partitioning method of Dr. Ganji is used for the selected items. Results show that through weighting each criterion, dry and hot climate with weight amount of 0.04 has the least effect and moderate and humid climate with weight amount of 0.51 has the most effect on performance reduction of wireless networks.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 15 (Part I)


An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Model for Project Scheduling Under Uncertainty

Abstract: The concept of an intuitionistic fuzzy set can be seen as an alternative approach to define a fuzzy set in cases where available information is not sufficient for the definition of an imprecise concept by means of a conventional fuzzy set. In this paper a new method based on intuitionistic fuzzy set is developed to solve the project scheduling problem. In this method we consider several project characteristics in uncertain environment such as durations and precedence links and analysis fuzzy critical path with computing forward and backward pass calculations. Through a numerical example, calculation steps inthis method and the results are illustrated.


Effect of nano Ag+Silica composite packaging on quality and storage life of fresh-cut fruit nectarin cv. “Red Gold”

Abstract— Effect nanocomposite-based packaging was prepared by blending polypropylene (PP) with nano-Ag, nano Silica on the quality attributes and postharvest life of the fresh-cut fruits nectarin(cv. Red Gold) during storage at 0-1  0C with 90-95% RH for 21 days was studied. Compared with the control (PP), nanopackaging significantly reduced the fruit decay and weight loss rate (p<0/01). polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) activities and Browning index were decreased in nanopackaging fruit. These results indicate that nano-Ag+ Silica active packaging could be a viable technique to reduce fruit decay and maintain quality in “Red Gold” fresh-cut nectarins during postharvest storage.


Numerical Simulation of Flow Field around a Darrieus Vertical axis wind turbine to Estimate Rotational wakes Size

Abstract: Due to the increasing energy cost and reducing fossil resources, also with respect to environmental pollutions, sustainable energy usage is inevitable. In the last decades wind power is allocated to a particular share of sustainable energies. Design and optimization of wind systems requires aerodynamics analysis. Computational fluid dynamics is a guaranteed method for aerodynamics analysis of wind turbines. In this work at first we introduce briefly Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines and discussed their advantages and disadvantages compared to the horizontal axis wind turbines. Then tried to use a computational fluid dynamics method to simulate flow field around the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine with three straight blades that use NACA0016 airfoil as profile of blades. To do this, we used RNG K-ε turbulence model to solve RANS equations of fluid motion. Simulation has been performed for three values of the rotational speeds. Velocity distribution of wakes is obtained in some horizontal directions.


The effect of the compositions of sowing bed on germination, vitality, and viability factors of Pinus nigra Arnold with provenances of Urmia and Kelardasht in Nursery of Mahabad’s Darlak

Abstract— The present study has been done with aim to investigate the effect of different treatments of sowing bed on seeds and seedlings of Pinus nigra Arnold with provenances of Urmia and Kelardasht in Darlak nursery of Mahabad. To reach this purpose, the seeds were planted in plastic pots in 5 replications of completely random pattern with 4 different treatments including: control treatment “soil 1: muck 1: sand 1”, treatment 1 “soil 1: muck 1: sand 2”, treatment 2 “soil 1: muck 1: sand 4”, and treatment 3 “pure sand”. The results showed that the best seed germination traits of Pinus nigra Arnold was in sand sowing bed (treatment 3). Also the highest percentage of viability and seedlings with good degree of quality was in sandy sowing bed (treatment 3). From such results this can be concluded that the sandy sowing bed improves physical conditions of soil and increases germination rate, vitality, and viability of Pinus nigra Arnold with provenances of Urmia and Kelardasht.


Improved hybrid electric system using soft switching

Abstract—In this paper, an improved hybrid system is presented. main Energy source is a fuel cell but Due to fuel cell constraints and slow dynamic, Use it alone is not appropriate. To solve this problem, battery and super capacitors are used as auxiliary sources inside fuel cell.The strategy is based on dc link voltage control. Therefore, there are three voltage control loops: dc bus voltage regulated by a super capacitor bank, super capacitor voltage regulated by a battery bank, and battery voltage regulated by a FC. Each source is connected to dc bus by dc to dc converter. Converters are key part of system management. Since fuel cell is the main part of hybrid system so its converter is very important.in this paper we introduce a soft switching boost converter for fuel cell. This converter reduces system losses and lower fuel consumption. The results were simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK. Simulation of whole management system structure with soft switching scheme show reduction in losses and improvement system performance.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 14 (Supplementary Part V)


The Effect of Eight Weeks of Walking on Bastak Town Education Department Staff’s General Health

Abstract: this study examined the effect of 8 weeks of walking on Bastak Town Education Department staff’s general health (physical health, anxiety, social performance disorder, depression). Research method was quasi-empirical. The study sample consisted of 50 non-athlete employees of Bastak Town Education Department. They voluntarily attended this study. The sample was randomly divided into two control and test groups. Walking was done for eight weeks (three 1h sessions a week) with intensity between %65 and %75 maximum heart rates. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was applied to collect data. Questionnaire validity was reported acceptable. Its reliability coefficient was reported as 0.01 by Cronbach’s alpha. Data analysis was carried out using correlative t-test and SPSS16. This test showed significant reduction in the extent of depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, and significant increase in general health, physical health, and social performance among participants after walking (p<0.05). Results indicated that walking improved general health.   


Propose multi variable predictive models for estimation of shear wave velocity as a function of geotechnical parameters- A case study

Abstract—The present paper aims to propose and develop a multivariable correlation between shear wave velocity (VS), Standard Penetration Test (N and N60), vertical effective stress (σv’)and plasticity index (PI) for Miyaneh city which is located in the southeast of AzerbayjanSharghi province in northwest of Iran, based on nonlinear regression method. To validate the results, a detailed comparison between the real data, predicted ones and previous relations by other researchers have carried out. 

The influence of σv’ has not been considered by the vast majority of published relations betweenVS and N60, yet it was shown in this study to be a significant factor. Significant bias may exist in previous relations that neglected the influence of σv’.The results showed that the proposed empirical formula can be used as reliable relation in the northeast of Iran.


The Role of Spectral Indices in Identification and Preparation of Soil Salinity Map of Bare Lands and Vegetations

Abstract—Spatial and temporal  variation of soil salinity is large, therefore mapping the salinity is difficult. Costs of remote sensing data are less, so they are widely used. But extant studies generally study arid soils (bare) and less point to  halophyte plants  and their role as indicators of salinity. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between soil properties, electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe) and the spectral reflectance of vegetation species and bare soil, to offer a method to provide salinity mapping using remote sensing. Various vegetation species and bare soil reflectance have been measured. Spectral Response Index (SRI) for bare soil as well as soil with vegetations have been measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). (ECe), texture and  organic matter of soil samples were determined. Landsat5 imagery have been used to calculate Spectral Response Index (SRI). The correlation coefficient between (SRI) and soil salinity were obtained and a model was presented for soil salinity prediction. EC map was estimated using the proposed model . Correlation between SRI, and EC was calculated which was higher compared to other models (0.97). The results show that salinity map obtained from the model is in the highest level of compliance with field findings (0.87).


The study of correlation between cultivating traits and factor analysis in Rice

Abstract— We choose 15 rice genotypes among 10 traits to study factor analysis and correlation rate and also studied for Randomized Complete Block Design in agricultural researching  farm of Shaavor related to Khuzestan natural sources and agricultural researching department. It carried out in three replications during one year. Variance analysis of data showed that studied genotypes have significant in terms of studied traits of studied. The study of genotype correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant and positive correlation between grain yield with percent fertility, thousand-grain weight and panicle length. Correlation analysis based factor analysis method indicated that percent fertility has the most direct effect on grain yield and also percent fertility has the most indirect effect on grain yield through thousand-grain weight. Therefore, it was suggested to choose directly posses the most prior genotype in terms of grain yield.


Zoning inhibitive hot temperature during sunflower growth stages in Isfahan Province

Abstract: Tolerance of Sunflower is very low against inhibitive warm temperatures during growth stages and if Sunflowerconfronts these temperatures, the farmers bear heavy damages [we dealt with decreasing Sunflower contact with these inhibitive temperatures, studding temperatures required in each growth stages and estimating it and zoning time and duration of warm tensions in Isfahan.]To accomplish his task, the long – term meteorological statistics (1961–2011) the maximum temperature (day) and (night) of 26 synoptic stations and climatology stations in Isfahan province logy are used. For analyzing the obtained data theMATLAB, Excel, SPSS and GIS software's are used. For the heat needed of each growth stage of sunflower, the time and duration of inhibitive warmth of growth isdivided in 10-day periods the drawn in zoning maps formats. The results indicate that fatal warmthbegins from 3rd June, eastwards and continue to 1st August in central parts of Isfahan province. Based on these critical circumstances it is recommended that proper time and space be determined for Sunflower cultivation.


2014: Vol 6, Issue 14 (Supplementary Part IV)


Investigating city development strategy (CDS)

Abstract—These Rapid changes, increasing population, enormous development of caviling, poverty, unemployment, Marginalization, etc. has had various consequences and problems in today’s world especially in developing countries.Today ,These increasing problems that are originated from the lack of suitable designs and in efficiency of city management programs , has encountered many cities with a lot of problems and challenges in the absence of citizen and public partnership in order to provide the  mentioned design and this  is so for apart prom citizens demands and desires ,so ,according to the current problems of today’s designs comprehensive design , comparative design ,….) the urge to use the new city designs which have a corresponding and bilateral procedure toward citizens is an  essential necessity . In accordance with this aim, CDS :as a process to provide a long-term perspective of a city that the short term program would be planned on it ,can be the best  choice to achieve a permanent and constant city development by focusing on promoting economical competing and decreasing poverty and also different aspects of city’s environment ,city’s spatial structures fundamental structures, social; and  cultural aspects ,etc. 

Since CDS has made it easy to know –present and future subjects and problems, it can be proposed as a new procedure of practical planning in today’s city management planning to decrease poverty and increase the life quality and mutual cooperation and corporation of people and officials in city management of many cities around the world especial Iran.So this article at investing the mentioned process in order to create a suitable and sensible bass to cooperate, plan and make a sketch for making a common perspective in the following city’s development that would be a reasonable frame for future planning and designs. The recent research is the practical type and its research method is descriptive analytical on the library document basis.


Therapeutic positioning applications using multi -criteria analysis method

(Case study: Ardabil)

Abstract: The growth of cities is one of the most important global phenomena, which is occurring under the influence of environmental factors on the human, economic and political, and giving services to citizens and the city  are of the priorities of the urban planners and managers. To accomplish this, a variety of techniques have been used both classical and modern. Since the 1970s, the use of quantitative methods in problems locating utilities  increased  and each of these methods in addition to the advantages and disadvantages in this field is used to study how the spatial distribution centers in Ardabil has been studied as the case the system uses a multi -criteria analysis. In Ardabil total area of 5664 hectares allocated to different user -urban (excluding lands), an area devoted to the use of medication in the status quo 13/22 hectares and  per capita 5 / 0 square feet for each resident in the comprehensive program   of Ardebil has been taken . The total area of the space allocated should be over 67/25 acres. This represents a negative balance of the current area assigned to the application comparing  required area ( 55/3 ). problems of imbalance in related  clinical application in the city of Ardabil , when understandable  that we  also have pay attention to the uneven distribution of land and lack of commitment to the city charter to specify the location,. In this regard, due to the perceived need for techniques to analyze multi criteria  in spatial-place organizing  clinical application  ,  in an attempt Ardabil city has been selected as a case study , and  the capabilities of the Integrated Model of AHP and GIS in Analysis and prioritize suitable zones for therapeutic applications of location ,  will evaluated .


Challenges and Strategies for Restoring Informal Settlements (Case study: Ghaleh Hassan Residential Area, Iran)

Abstract—What is certain is that the range of informal settlements has become vulnerable and has lost its geographical, environmental and economic value due to physical exhaustion and the lack of proper utilities. High land prices and increased demand for construction of new housing units have increased citizen’s expectations day by day for the creation of residential spaces that fulfill their needs and welfare.  In this paper, information is collected using both archival and field methods. The statistical population of this study comprises the residents of Ghaleh Hassan residential area of Gorgan with a population of over 4,649 people. Finally, this study attempts to restore the settlements through social, economic and physical pathology and find strategies to accelerate the pace of renovation and improvement through direct and indirect intervention.


Studying of spatial characteristics of groundwater quality by using the factor analysis method and GIS (Case Study: Coastal Plain aquifer Surrey - Neka)

Abstract—Ground water in coastal areas is the main source of water for domestic and agriculture use. Water resources in these areas where are fertility and populated are faced by many biological challenges so understanding different effective on ground water quality factors can help to have a optimal management of the aquifer. The aim of this study is to have a spatial investigate in the qualitative properties of Sari, Neka aquifer. In this study, a combination of the two methods, factor analysis and geostatic was used to spatial analysis of groundwater quality. The results of factor analysis revealed three factors. Cl, Na, SAR, EC which represent the salinity in first factor, bicarbonate, magnesium, calcium and TH indicate water hardness in the second factor and potassium and PH reflect the impact of the geological factors and increasing in use of fertilizers and in the third factor. Finally, with the scores obtained from factor analysis we planned the spatial distribution of groundwater quality by kriging model. The first factor increases in some parts of coastal line and southern parts, the second factor increases in southern and the third factor increases in parts of central and coastal areas. According to the results, the effective factors on the quality of the aquifer can be agricultural land use and management, development of residential areas, salty water intrusion into aquifers and geological factors. 


Using Inversion Hierarchical Weight Process ”IHWP” Analysis to Identify Security Levels in Kerman Neighborhoods Based on Physical Indices

Abstract— Security in Kerman was studied from the viewpoint of physical factors that underlie crime. This article analyzes security levels in some neighborhoods of Kerman by considering physical indices underlying crime. The descriptive-analytic method was used and most of the information and data was obtained through on-the-ground observation and understanding of the situation in the neighborhoods. The six indices of openness of the space, compactness of texture, vegetation, lighting of the streets, urban furniture, and quality of the streets were used to analyze security levels. The modified model based on entropy weight was then employed to calculate the influence coefficient of each parameter of security and the technique of inverse hierarchical analysis was used to determine the actual and the ideal levels of quality of each neighborhood. It was found that the indices of lighting and quality of the streets enjoyed the highest influence coefficient and the index of the openness of space the lowest. Moreover, of the 13 studied neighborhoods, the Imam-e-Jom-e neighborhood enjoyed the highest, while the Allahabad and Taherabad neighborhoods, that were developed in the unstoppable urban sprawl, were mostly located on the outskirts of the city, and were the places where mainly people of low-income levels and non-natives lived, had the lowest quality.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 14 (Supplementary Part III)


Explanation of different aspects of cooperative learning and its implications for higher education system

Abstract—Due to the rapid changes and advances in science, our students need methods through which gain learning skills to learn science better, faster and synchronized by progress. The purpose of this research was to explain different aspects of cooperative learning and its implications for higher education system. The research method: for this, theory research method is used. The purpose of theory research is creation and criticism of conceptual schemata which makes the fundamental nature, structure of phenomena and curriculum processes understandable. The results of this research showed that in the method of learning, students learn through collaboration and participation within groups and feel responsible towards learning of each other. When their classmates need help, they hasten to help them and the success of others is their success and the failure of others is their failure. These show the necessity of identifying and applying active methods such as learning through collaboration. Conclusion: due to the sovereignty of traditional methods in Iranian schools, the necessity of developing a spirit of camaraderie and cooperation and development of social skills, identifying, the study and application of this approach in the classroom at all levels and fields of study are important more than ever.


Predicting the academic achievement of students through Spirituality and Self-regulated Learning Strategies

Abstract—Considering the importance of spirituality in human growth and excellence and its influence on most aspects of people's lives and an emphasis on self-regulated learning strategies in education, the aim of this study is to evaluate the role of spirituality and self-regulated learning strategies on students' academic achievement. the research was conducted in descriptive – comparative method. The statistical population was all students in Mashhad PNU among which 392 were randomly selected using Cochran formula. Data were analyzed applying statistical tests such as multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multiple regression analysis. Research results have shown that, a significant difference was generally observed among the different dimensions of spirituality in male and female students. A significant difference was generally observed among the different dimensions of spirituality in single and married students. No significant difference was observed among the different dimensions of self-regulated learning strategies in male and female students. Variables of spiritual beliefs, self-consciousness and cognitive strategies were among those predicting student achievements, thus it can be said that adding self-awareness and cognitive strategies variables to the variable of the importance of spiritual beliefs in the lives of students, the explanatory power of model has increased and all the explanations mentioned were statistically significant. Considering that the amount of student spirituality and self-regulated learning strategies can affect the academic achievement of students, those involved in higher education system are recommended to take steps to develop and strengthen spirituality and to hold workshops and training courses in this field.


The Role of Spiritual Intelligence in Life Orientation and Resilience of Allameh Tabataba'i  University Students

Abstract— Introduction: The present research was performed to survey the role of spiritual intelligence in optimistic or pessimistic life orientation and resilience of students in coping with the stress.Materials and Methods: The population of this research, were the male and female students of Allameh Tabataba'i University. 253 people (137 male and 116 female) as accessible samples were studied. The required information was gathered using Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and life orientation test . For statistical analysis, SPSS18 software, Pearson’s correlation and synchronic regression were used.Findings: The statistical analysis of the gathered information, showed that Spiritual Intelligence is interrelated with Life Orientation and resilience of students and Life Orientation can predict the resilience. Conclusion: We can conclude from the research findings that the development and nurturing of Spiritual Intelligence can promote the optimistic life orientation and increased resilience.


Assessment of male and female university students' learning styles and academic performance

Abstract—One of the factors affecting learning among students and their learning styles. People proportion to their individual differences, learning styles and methods as other skills, of through experience and learning gain. Objective: Therefore, in this study, students' learning styles and academic performance of male and female university students who were using these styles.

Methods: The study included 1800 male and female students of different fields of Sistan and Baluchestan. The stratified proportional sampling were chosen cognitive style Kolb, Rogers self concept test, Raven's Progressive Matrices and Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire completed. In the present study, the chi-square test to analyze the data - both are used.

Results: ANOVA showed that there is a relationship between students' learning styles and academic disciplines. The test results show that there is a significant difference between male and female students' learning styles.

Results are said to be factors in the academic achievement of students learning styles.Important results can be used to study and learn better how students learn better and deeper in the contract and they helped build.  


The study of sustainability indicators in the  countries of the polluted cities of the world compared to countries with high per capital income

Abstract: Due to increase in the economic activities , cities have ended up in evacuating the environmental resources and the increased pollution of the earth which is the most crucial factor to affect environmental imbalances . Of  these most important pollutions which has a main role in the rise of the earth temperature is air pollution . What matters is the relationship between pollution and the economic , social , and environmental development . The present paper deals with the study of the substantial  indicators in the countries having the most polluted cities in the world. Three basic indicators  ,  namely  economic ,  social ,  and   environmental developments taken from the variables within reach are studied. This survey is taken in comparison with the countries that contain .the  highest national  gross  income  per capita . The  population under  study  includes  countries  with 50  world  polluted cities marked  by  the  World  Health  Organization  as  first  rank  in pollution in 2014 and countries which have high national income. To this  organization , the pollution  index  is the appearance of 10 micrometers or less particles suspended in the air. The data is gathered through library study and  the    updated    in  formations  are   from   the sites of Word  Health Organizations , the International Agency of Environmental Protection , World Bank , and the Guinness Book of  Records. The results  indicate  a  substantial deep gap   between countries containing the polluted  cities  and  countries   with   the highest word income per capita. The negative correlation between the  amount of  pollution  and sustainability  rate  in   the   polluted. countries of the world is indicative of lacking a smart  development compatible  with  the countries  environmental  conditions.


Look at the situation in Iran for Migration With an emphasis on the city of Ardabil

Abstract: Rural Studies have long attracted the attention of several researchers , including sociologists, geographers lawyers were brutally executed by the criteria of the rural economy issues are viewed .

Migration from rural areas to cities in the more developed and less developed parts of the special problems created in many countries[11]  Yet the question arises as to whether to provide better services and facilities to the villagers attention to the origin ( rural) migration will decline or not? 

After the land reform , one of the consequences of this social phenomenon Political villagers migrate to the cities , which can damage both rural and urban aspects of the physical , economic and social.This phenomenon did not affect the outcome of Ardebil Province After the Islamic Revolution , many efforts to improve rural living conditions and prevent their migration has had, in this respect, one of Ardabil city Activities out by the Office of Agriculture . Similar effects on migration trends have varied activities such as the construction of the industrial park to the immigration of a number of villages in Ardabil has helped managers who had received a license renewal would result in job creation , family . In addition, a comparison of recent trends in migration and implementation plans of villages in Ardabil The conclusion was that the village had been implemented many schemes in which they are more open immigration and villages where the project was implemented at the lower of their origin was higher .

The mean net migration to this conclusion that in all rural villages in Ardabil province has a negative net migration are Origin, that despite migration from rural agricultural employment activities , and these activities are not held to benefit the villages of all returns.

The research described in this paper is an analysis of field data collection , library , internet and questionnaires were used Methods for the analysis of data using SPSS statistical analysis and inference and reasoning has been applied


The Relationship between Religious Orientation, Intimacy and Marital Satisfaction

Case study: married students of Payam Noor University - Ghaemshahr

Abstract - The present study examined the relationship between religious orientation, intimacy and marital satisfaction in married male and female students of Ghaemshahr PayamNoor University. In this study, the statistical population was 2936 and for statistical sample, 300 students were selected through random sampling method. In this study, three self-assessment questionnaires were used: Allport's 45-question questionnaire for religious orientation, Exis J. Walker and Linda Thompson's 17- question Questionnaire for intimacy and Enrich's 47-question questionnaire for marital satisfaction. This survey is correlation and gathered data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Findings showed no significant relationship between religious orientation and intimacy and marital satisfaction. There is a significant relationship between intimacy and marital satisfaction. 


The effect of training problem solving skill on public health and the student’s self esteem

Abstract— The goal of this research is to examine the effect of training problem solving skill on public health and the students’ self-esteem in which 100 people are chosen as samples from amongst the whole female students under cover by Imam Khomeini relief (aid) committee who were studying during 1390-1391 educational year. In this research Eysenck ‘s inventory of public health and self-esteem has been used to gather information and it has been analyzed by t-test and unilateral co-variance analysis and the result showed that training problem solving skill affects the female students’ public health and self-esteem.


The Impact of Pedagogical Agents’ Gender: On Learning, Motivation toward Science Learning and Facilitation of Learning in Fourth Grade Male Students

Abstract— Multimedia learning is one of the very crucial issues in E-learning. To achieve a better and more stable learning, multimedia education can be put into practice and the pedagogical agents can be used in the multimedia learning to simulate the real world classroom environment. This article reports an investigation for the influence of the pedagogical agent on learning and facilitation of learning and learning motivation of fourth grade primary school boys in science lesson. The sample consisted of 30 participants in two separate groups of 15.  A multimedia teaching program was used as a treatment in this study. One the groups practiced the multimedia program with a female pedagogical agent and the other group practiced the multimedia program with a male pedagogical agent. In the first step, 2 pretests were given to both groups; one related to the science subject itself and the other one related to the motivation of the learners toward learning science matters. After the treatment three posttests were conducted on both groups, one regarding to the knowledge achievement of the participants, the other one related to the participants motivation toward learning and the last posttest was related to how the learning process was being facilitated for the participants. The results of the study proved that the pedagogical agent of the same gender, with the students, had a bigger impact on the learning, learning motivation and learning facilitation of the targeted groups.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 14 (Supplementary Part II)


Modeling of PEM fuel cell with reformate feed

Abstract—Fuel gas containing Carbon monoxide severely degrades the performance of the PEM fuel cell. To evaluate the effects of such feed, a two-dimensional, single-phase and non-isothermal carbon monoxide poisoning  model for PEM fuel cell has been developed based on the conservation of mass, momentum, species, electrical charge and energy as well as adsorption, desorption and electro-oxidation kinetics. These equations solved with finite element method and good agreement seen between modeling and experimental results. The simulated results show that increasing the anode overpotential, increases the fractional coverage of catalyst surface by Hydrogen. In addition, inert gases like CO2 have too low effect than CO on polarization curve.


Modeling of photovoltaic panel using datasheet parameters

Abstract—the growing number of the PV panels that share power supplying all over the world makes it essential to have a model of panels to be utilized in further analyzing. In this study a single diode model, which is simple and accurate, is created for PV panel. The parameters that need to be extracted from datasheet specification in modeling of PV panel include photovoltaic current (IPV), diode reverse saturation current (I0), diode ideality constant (a), series resistance (RS), and parallel resistance (RP). For simplicity some authors eliminate the parallel resistance or both the series and parallel resistance, but these resistances have significant effect on PV model accuracy and its better not to be eliminated. This paper proposes an iteration procedure to estimate the amount of these resistances by changing the values of resistances to match the maximum power point with maximum power point voltage. Two different commercial PV modules with different technology (monocrystal and multicrystal) are selected and modeled in MATLAB/ SCRIPT. Their predicted output values at nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) provided by proposed model are compared with the NOCT parameters values provided by manufacture's datasheet and their relative errors are calculated to validate the proposed model.


Chemical and Biological Characterization of Animal Wastes in Livestock Industry and Offering Appropriate Management Solutions to Collect and Dispose of Them (Case Study of Dasht-e Azadegan Dairy Cattle Farm)

Abstract— One of the sources of waste production is the waste produced by the livestock industries. Animal waste contains nutrients  such as nitrogen , phosphorus , potash , high percentage of organic matters , and also pathogens transmitted from animals to humans , which not only do pollute the environment in case of waste mismanagement, but also endanger public health and sanitation. This research aims to investigate bacterial properties and the amount of fecal coliform and chemical properties and the total amount of produced waste per each head of cattle with regard to their weight and the average mean of daily produced waste of the studied dairy cattle farms and also to offer management solutions for their optimal disposal. In this connection, chemical properties such as percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium per dry weight , BOD, pH , C/N ratio, total and fecal coliform rate were measured. Pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Ascaris , Balantidium Coli , Tina Saginata were identified. The fecal coliform was measured as 26x109 MPN/g per dry weight. The amount of fecal wastes pr head of cattle with regard to the weight of the cattle and total amount of animal wastes was calculated in Susangerd and Hamidieh dairy cattle farms. The studied samples are Holstein dairy cows. The average amount of produced waste per each head of cow weighing 240 to 365 kg is 12.9 to 19.7 kg per day. The total amount of waste produced in Susangerd and Hamidieh dairy farms is 466.3 and 973.36 kg per day respectively. In order to compare the data, spss software was used. Scraper system and tractors equipped with blade were used to collect the waste. With regard to the climatic conditions and the soil type, biogas method and drying the compost indoors by dryer are suggested for the waste disposal.  


Advantages, Disadvantages, Obstacles and Strategies for Renewable Energy

Abstract—What we have seen so far of renewable energy, It was that, they are superior benefits than disadvantages .But the more interesting point Declining trend of The amount of renewable energy. In addition to the deleterious effects of this type of energy is rising we have more than ever to research on renewable energy gets. Renewable energy is derived from natural sources that are immortal as it has great advantages such as environmentally friendly and free. Has the disadvantage that requires investigation. After reviewing the advantages and disadvantages which represents a significant benefit .In this matter we realized that due to the superiority Obstacles affecting the development and evolution of renewable energy is which sometimes results in an uptrend or even stop the progress. Some of these factors have a greater impact Due to the high cost of setting up and installing energy absorption and others that are not reliable due to frequent fluctuations in the amount of energy available.


Synthesis based researches (Integrative Inquiry) of environmental education in terms of attention to the integrated and interdisciplinary curriculum

Abstract: This study aimed to assess the environmental education research in terms of attention to the integrated and interdisciplinary curriculums. This study is descriptive and uses synthesis method (integrated research) and regulated by a non-systematic review that performed through databases and search resources such as Scopus, Doaj, Eric, Scholar Google, Google and local sites such as SID, Noormag, Magiran, Irandoc, portal of human science and also library resources with combined keywords  as "Environmental Literacy", "Environmental Curriculum", "conservation Curriculum", "Environmental Education". Findings showed that the majority of Iranian researches of environmental education had few attention on presenting  framework, models and appropriate procedures to the practical and theoretical studies, and they just confined the descriptive, theoretical  and content analysis of these domains  in the content of the textbooks .


The Equity Assessment and Evaluation on the Health of the Families of Tehran and the Workers

Abstract-An important social category that is always affected by the process of the economic development and income inequality is the situation of the health of the people. This is why some countries establish different research organizations to assess the health conditions. In Tehran, along with its other health projects, the Health Office of the Social and Cultural Deputy of the Tehran Municipality conducted the urban health equity assessment (known as the Urban HEART).

This research aims to compare the workers that are covered by the Iranian Social Security Organization (SSO) with the total sample of Tehran City using the Goals Achievement Matrix and SPSS software. This comparison will be done in three fields including the physical and infrastructural environment, economic environment, and the human and social development environment. The results show that the health level of the sample workers is higher than the sample of the Tehran City. This piece of result is true for the “poorest” and “richest” samples as well”. Moreover, the results of the Goals Achievement Matrix show that the first quintile of the workers gained the highest health scores (179). These results have been adopted from the 2011 Health Assessment Project of Tehran City.  


Using of Precipitation infiltration for reclamation of rangeland

(Case study: Chah-Hossein’s Rangeland of Sabzevar/Iran)

Abstract: Chah-Hossein rangeland located in the southern city of Sabzevar/Iran has a dry climate and due to improper use of it, now, it course downward trend. In the fall of 2010 was carried out a project of range management in Chah-Hossein’s region. Preliminary results showed in 2011, planting potted plants such as (Haloxylon, Nitraria and Atriplex) into furrow with fencing or protection was successful and after 6 months plant canopy covers from 24% to 25% and plant production from 54 kg/ha to 70 kg per hectare increased. However, due to low rainfall and drought in 2010 and 2011, the sowing and seed clump planting operation on the hillside did not achieve any considerable successes. 


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 14 (Part I)


A Survey on Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions using Activated Carbon of Almond-Shell

Abstract: Cadmium is one of the heavy metals which is entered to water resources through different ways such as industrial, home and agricultural wastewaters or as a result of unhygienic withdrawal of urban and industrial wastes. Surveys in some regions around pollutant resources show that surface waters or underground waters is contaminated to cadmium in “0.1 to 1” mg/lit [1]. Activated carbon with nano pores is a green technology for separation of poisonous material in environment. The aim of this research is to determine the level of cadmium absorption by activated carbon of almond-shell in concentration of “20 ”, “50” and “100” per part million (ppm) and different insolubility times from “15 to 120” min. Experiments for determining isotherms were assigned discontinuous in different concentrations and different amounts of biological activated carbon (from “0.1 gr to 0.3” gr) and the cadmium with desired PH. Measurement of cadmium performed by atomic absorption device and based on the standards.  Observing the research results and the PH regulated on “6” , increase in primary concentration of cadmium resulted in increasing of absorption level and also by elapsing the time, absorption level was raised and the maximum absorption on “61%”  was happened in time range of “120” min. The results indicate that bio absorber containing sodium alginate containing activated carbon prepared from almond shell is new adsorbent for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous environments.


Using Integer Programming To Optimum Harvesting (Case Study: Shafaroud Forests)

Abstract: Most Costs for operating the forests are related to wood extraction from cutting areas and carrying it to the forest roads. Allocation of skidding machines should be done in such a way that total cost of wood extraction would be minimized. In this study, four skidding machines in operated parcels have been studied in series two of Nav, Asalem. Using the timing model, unit cost of each machine was calculated in different skidding distances. The output analysis of linear model based on zero-one integer programming showed that in plains slopes standard tractor and in the higher slopes Timberjack is more efficient. 


Applying the Knowledge of Operational Research in Agricultural Mechanization

Abstract—Applying any technologies that leads to increase productivity in the agricultural production is interpreted as mechanization. In another definition, the mechanization is the use of technology in agriculture in order to achieve stable development. If the latter definition is considered as the basis, it can be concluded that by using the scientific achievements which is considered as a type of technology and is accelerated the development of mechanical agriculture; steps have been taken to expand mechanization. One of these scientific achievements is the knowledge of Operational research. This knowledge which is one of the branches of applied mathematics is used to facilitate decision making based on scientific criteria and constraints. In the agricultural sector in which there are various restrictions such as weather conditions, economic and social issues; taking advantage of this knowledge can help to solve problems and make the right decision. This paper introduces knowledge of Operational research and its application context in agricultural mechanization.


Studying the effect of freezing on artificial ripening of ‘Mazafati’ date fruits in Khalal stage

Abstract−The palm bunch wilt or date bunch fading disorder (fruit shriveling and desiccation before ripening) and fruit abscission due to high weather humidity or strong local winds blowing have forced the palm owners to harvest the date fruit yield in Khalal stage and ripen it artificially, so that they may reduce the loss to a remarkable extent. The present research studies the application of the method of freezing and keeping refrigerated for artificial ripening of date fruit at Khalal stage. This experiment was carried out in a factorial manner and in form of randomized complete block design. The experiment included two factors that are 1) ripening stage in three levels (Khalal, semi-ripe, and Rutab), and 2) storing time in three levels (45, 90, and 135 days). After being stored in the freezer, date fruits at Khalal stage were taken out of the freezer in the related times and required tests in regard with fruit water content, pH, reducing sugar percentage, total sugar percentage, Total Soluble Solids percentage (TSS), and titratable acidity were performed on them in the laboratory. Results indicated that, after keeping fruits refrigerated, percentages of Total Soluble Solids percentage and total sugar percentage were significantly increased over time. Percentage of reducing sugar was lower in Khalal stage in compare to Rutab stage. Acidity and moisture content in Khalal stage were higher than in Rutab stage. Color of fruits in Khalal stage stored in a refrigerated condition turned darker over time, and the fruits tissue became softer, to the extent that they were marketable after 45 days. The more the storage time is prolonged, the more the fruits turn darker and softer. However, the quality of the fruits stored and marketed in this method were as the same as the newly-picked fruits. 


Kat, an Architectural Invention for Temperature Adjustment in City of Dezful: Economic Architecture

Abstract: One of the outcomes of the ever growing technology and urbanization is the incessant flow of new architectural styles expressed in different structures and forms we have been witnessing every day. The question arises as of the mass of the architectural structures and monuments which one could be characterized and introduced as a sustainable and durable work? Most of the traditional buildings are characterized as relatively sustainable architectures, since in their construction a good tradeoff could be achieved for such factors as culture, originality, climate, local materials, and functionality. Sustainable architecture at each time involves harmony with environment with the least damage to nature, maximum energy saving, roots in local culture, as well as a proper response to overall functional requirements of readability and unambiguity. This study explores “Kat”, a unique structure developed in an organic fashion along parts of the Dez River near Dezful city. The research is conducted based on a descriptive survey design where the required data is gathered through field observation, interview with local people, and library research. Our findings underline the highly adaptive and comfort seeking nature of human being which, in our case, is manifested in Kat thank to the benevolent presence of the adjacent natural rocks on the riverside. This place while serves as a resort, it satisfies the sustainability conditions privacy, introversity, dynamism, and economy of the structure) without adverse consequences for the natural environment.


Development of an Efficient in Vitro Micropropagation Protocol for Medicinally Important Plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

Abstract: The current situation of medicinal plants and increasing demand of plant derived drugs suggest an immediate need to conserve our medicinal plant resources. Stevia rebaudiana is a valuable medicinal plant species and it is being used for the treatment of diabetes. Currently, there is a high demand for raw material of this medicinal herb due to ever increasing diabetes disorder among the population. It is becoming an endangered species due to its infertile and small sized seed. The methods of vegetative propagation are not efficient to save this rare plant.  In order to meet the increased demand an efficient in vitro propagation of stevia rebaudiana was established. The present study attempted to develop in vitro micropropagation protocol for the important medicinal plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Shoot tip and node segment of healthy plants from natural condition were used as explants for direct organogenesis. Different concentrations of cytokinin and auxin both alone were used. The results showed that shoot tip explants was far better than node explants. The highest percent of shoot induction (97.78 %) and shoot length (14.3 cm) shoot were obtained in full strength MS media and ½strength MS media from shoot tip explants. The maximum of shoot length (14.6 cm), number of leaf (24 Leaves per explants cultured) and multiple shooting rates (14.4 shoots per explants cultured) were obtained in MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/l BAP from shoot tip explants. Highest number of root (6.4 roots per shoot cultured) and root length (5.2 cm) were observed in ½strength MS media fortified with 0.5 mg/l IBA. In this study physiological effects of different strengths of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and growth regulators cytokinin (BAP, KIN and TDZ) and auxin (IBA) on invitro Proliferation of stevia were investigated. Rooting was best achieved on half strength MS medium augmented with 0.5 mg/l  IBA. The plantlets regenerated in vitro with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully established in pots containing garden soil and grown in a greenhouse with above survival rate. The methods of vegetative propagation are not efficient to save this rare plant. Therefore protocols developed in present investigation are not only useful for its large scale propagation but also conservation of germplasm.


The Effect of Eight-Week Walking Exercise on General Health and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Employees of Education Department in Bastak County

Abstract—This research aims at determining the effect of eight weeks of walking exercise on general health and some cardiovascular risk factors among employees of Education Department in Bastak County. A semi-empirical methodology was adopted. The statistical population contained 50 non-athlete employees of Education Department in Bastak County who voluntarily participated in the study. They were randomly dividend into two groups of control and empirical. The exercise was done for eight weeks, each week including 3 sessions of 1 hour walking with the intensity of 65 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. After the walking sessions, data analysis by the use of T-test showed a significant reduction in the levels of depression, stress and sleep disorder, triglyceride, cholesterol, lipoprotein with low density in subjects; however they showed a significant increase in general health, physical health, social performance and lipoprotein with high density in subjects (p<0.05). Research results showed that walking increases the general health and reduces cardiovascular risk factors among employees. Therefore, walking has a positive effect on general health and prevents people from cardiovascular diseases.


The Effect of Eight-Week Walking on Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL Levels in Bastak County Education Department Employees

Abstract—This study determines the effect of eight-week walking on Bastak County Education Department employees’ cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and HDL levels. It was a quasi-experimental research. The study sample consisted of 50 non-athlete employees of Bastak County Education Department. They voluntarily participated in this study. The participants were randomly divided into test and control groups. Participants were involved in an eight-week walking procedure (three 1h sessions in a week at maximum heart rate between %65 and %75). Data was analyzed using correlated t-test. After the end of walking procedure, significant decrease was observed in triglyceride, cholesterol, and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Yet, significant increase was seen in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level (p<0.05). Results indicated that walking for eight weeks can have positive effects on some cardiovascular risk factors. 


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 13 (Part V)


Effect of Salinity Stress on Germination Properties in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var Chef fallat).

Abstract— The response of tomato genotype Chef fallat against five salinity levels (distilled water as control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. An experiment with conducted by using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, seed vigor, mean germination time, germination percentage and rate measured 14 days after germination. Results of data analysis showed that, there were significant differences between salinity stress levels for all investigated traits except mean germination time. Results of data analysis showed that, indicate that the maximum germination percentage during the test was related to the observer 25 mM and control (Distilled water) treatment. the maximum germination percentage at day 14, with an average of 98.76 and 97.66%, were related to the Distilled water and 25 mM treatments. The maximum root length, at day 14 of the test, was from the 25 mM treatment, which did not show a significant statistical difference with the control (Distilled water) treatment. In the entire measured traits, we achieved better results from the control (Distilled water) treatment and 25 mM treatments, in comparison to the 50 mM density, which indicates that the Chef fallat tomato genotype could grow properly in low-saline conditions, but this growth faces an extremely significant decrease with the increased salt densities.


Effects of Putrescine and Ascorbic acid on Flowering Characteristics of Ornamental plant Petunia hybrid

Abstract—A pot experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, to study the effect of putrescine (PUT) and Ascorbic acid (AS) application (50 and 150 ppm) was compared to the control (distillated water) on flowering Petunia hybrid. Results were analyzed by SAS software and Duncan test. The lowest number of days to flowering (132.32 days) and the highest number of floret (8341.7) was observed for 150 ppm of AS. The highest number of days to flowering (144.10 days) was achieved in 150 ppm Put and the lowest number of floret (5402) was observed for control treatment. By increasing AS concentration up to 150 ppm, the number of floret in 130, 145, 160, 190, 205 and 220 days after cultivation was 137.67, 479.33, 1188.3, 1578.3, 1587.3 and 1523, respectively. 


Effects of Putrescine and Salicylic acid on Flowering Characteristics of Ornamental plant Gazania (Gazania spelendens)

Abstract—A pot experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, to study the effect of putrescine (PUT) and Salicylic acid (SA) application 50, 100 and 150 ppm was compared to the control (distillated water) on flowering Gazania (Gazania spelendens). Results were analyzed by SPSS software and Duncan test. Results showed that PUT and SA had positive effect on the number of days to flowering, number of florets per stand and other vegetative traits. Mean comparisons results indicated that the highest number of florets per plant (788.33) and the lowest number of days to flowering (128.20 days) were achieved by application of 150 ppm of PUT. The lowest number of florets per plant was achieved in control treatment (515.33) which was significantly different from 150 ppm of PUT. The highest number of days to flowering was obtained by 150 ppm of SA (139.70).   


Performance Evaluation of Optimal Locating and Sizing of DGs as Hybrid Systems 

Abstract— Distributed resources can provide power (active and reactive) as hybrid system in transmission and distribution networks. These sources show desirable effects such as improved power quality, improved voltage deviation, reduced peak shaving and losses, increased reliability, etc in the transmission and distribution networks. To achieve the desired effects listed above, optimal location and size determination has a particular feature. Lack of proper placement of the hybrid distributed generation system in the network may increase the errors causing voltage fluctuations and may increase losses. Therefore, the technical evaluation as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis of a wide range of factors affecting network security and performance is essential in this case. This paper applies Binary Genetic Algorithm (BGA) for locating DG (Distributed Generations) to reduce losses and improve voltage deviation. Then, DG sizing as a hybrid system by PSO algorithm is done to reduce the net cost of the equipment. This approach is carried out on three IEEE networks distribution buses 9, 13 and 34 and, the best location and the optimal size is presented according to the objectives. 


Physical Properties of Particleboard Made of Canola Stalk 

Abstract— In this Study, physical properties of the particleboard made of canola straw mixed with Poplar particle was studied. The percent ratio of the mixture of canola straw and spruce particleboards at five levels (98%, 93.75%, 87.50%, 81.25% and 77%) and melamine formaldehyde resin to urea formaldehyde ratio as an adhesive at five levels (23%, 18.75%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 2%) and the particleboard mat moisture at five levels (10%, 12%, 15%, 18%, 20%) were chosen as variables. The physical properties such as water absorption and thickness of the particleboards are measured after they were immersed into water. According to the results, the increase in the ratio of canola straw to Poplar particle up to 87% increased the boards' water absorption and swelling, but above this value, they will decrease. According to the results of ANOVA the best treatment of the boards made of 82.65% canola, MF to UF as 6.25% and the moisture 18% using RSM was chosen as the optimum. 


The Relationship between Body Types and Self-Confidence in Young People (18-25 Years) in Marivan

Abstract— The relationship between body types and self-confidence was studied among the men and women of the 18-30 years age group in Marivan. The statistical population consisted of women and men between 18 and 30 years of age residing in Marivan. Of these, 50 were randomly selected for the study, and subsequently filled in the research questionnaires. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (SEI) was used as a criterion for measurement. Data analysis was conducted via the SPSS16, and the descriptive (mean value and standard deviation) as well as inferential statistics (variance analysis) were implemented for the collected data. The results showed that there was a significant relationship in men between self-confidence and body type (p<=0.05), whereas no such relationship was observed among women (p>=0.05).


The application of nanotechnology to eliminate environmental pollution

Abstract—Environmental Protection is an effective approach which is arising from the experiences of practitioners and environmental analysts in the world. According to the importance of human role as development purpose on one hand and the environment as human activity’s area in another hand, the healthy environment is noticeable for all generations. Harmful particles that have been pumped in the air such as lead, copper, zinc, iron, chromium and nickel are due to the human’s activities like heavy traffics of vehicles. high levels of air’s ultrafine particles with a diameter less than 10 micrometers can be attributed to increased cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. In this study, we have investigated on using environmental catalyst in order to purify exhaust gas and refining climate as a low-cost alternative.


The physiological Investigation of the cinnamon-sweet root-ginger-fennel effect with honey in NMRT adult mouse

AbstractـــــThe obesity is the fundamental health problem in the world which new ways are needed to deal with it. In thestudyofobesity prevention, the animal models is an useful tool. In this study, the adult male NMRT mice with base weight of 23 ± 4g with ahigh-fatand regular diet with combinations off our plant named the cinnamon-sweet root-ginger-fennel with honey for six weeks a scare group are compared with the control group. The mice weight measured once a week. After six weeks the mice became unconscious and their blood samples collected. In the end of the sixth week, the body weight of care group with fat diet with herbal medicine were reduced 15% and 35% respectively, comparing with the body weight of the control group (which received a normal diet without the herbal drug).The abdominal fat of control group were twice more than the care group with normal diet and herbal medicine and the relative accumulation of abdominal fat is also determined by using color.Among the investigated biochemical factors(cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL), only the triglyceride levels of control group is increased and in two care group had significant decrease. Overall, the herbalmedicine which consist of fourplants, the cinnamon-sweet root-ginger-fennel, with consumed honeycan beconsideredas a stimulus toweight lossin mentioned race within sixweeks. 


Curriculum Content Analysis of High School Biology, Chemistry and Geography Textbooks Based on Environmental literacy Approach

in 2013- 2014 school Year 

Abstract— This research was conducted with the aim of studying the current condition of textbooks based on the amount of attention paid to components of Environmental literacy including knowledge, skill and environmental attitude. Research method was content analysis using Shannon's entropy technique and page analysis unit (text, questions, exercises, illustrations) was High School textbooks. Data collection tool was content analysis checklist, validity of which has been confirmed by environmental experts and curriculum designers. Results of data analysis indicated that more attention has been paid to environmental knowledge rather than environmental attitude or environmental skill and textbooks do not address environmental components equally. Based on the findings of this research, revising the curriculum content in high school curricula with regard to attention to components and indexes of Environmental literacy seems to be necessary.


New and Sustainable methods and Approaches in protecting Natural Environment

Abstract— Natural environment refers to all environments in which life exists. It encompasses a set of external physical factors and living organisms that are interacting with each other and influence the growth, development and behavior of the organisms. Natural environment means combining different in science and includes set of biological and environmental factors in the form of natural environment and non-biological ones like physical and chemical factors that affect and are affected by the life of an individual or a species. Nowadays, this definition is related to human and his activities and the natural environment can be summarized as a set of natural factors of the Earth like air, water, atmosphere, rocks, and vegetation that have surrounded humans. In the 21st century, protecting the natural environment is known as one of the 8 goals of the century developments and considered as one of the 3 bases for sustainable development. In this regard, mechanisms like emphasis on idealistic approaches, i.e. diminishing realistic trend and resorting to critical modernistic approaches and International Environmental Law are thought to be among methods that guarantee the new approach of environment protection.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 13 (Part IV)


Ecological roles of anammox bacteria

Abstract-Types of bacteria such as anammox bacteria obtain their energy for growth from the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite to dinitrogen gas.Because of thisfeaturehas made anammox bacteria very valuable for industry where they are applied for the removal of nitrogen compounds from industrial and domestic wastewaters.Anammox bacteria are also important in nature where they contribute significantly to oceanic nitrogen loss. Further, anammox bacteria have similarities to both Archaea and Eukarya, making them extremely interesting from a cell biological perspective. The anammox cell does not conform to the typical prokaryotic cell plan: single bilayer membranes divide the anammox cell into three distinct cellular compartments that possibly also have distinct cellular functions. The innermost and largest compartment, the anammoxosome, is the location of the energy metabolism. The middle compartment, the riboplasm, contains the nucleoid and ribosomes and thus has a genetic,information processing function. Finally, the outer most compartment, the paryphoplasm, has an as yet unknown function. 


Estimating and analysis of canola production function with inputs affect water, land, seed, labor, fertilizers, pesticides and machinery

(instance study in selseleh township)

Abstract— The aim of this present research is estimating and analysis of  canola production function in selseleh city. In this way, by use of weighing economy analysis Ways , considered and experienced usage effect of factors like fertilizer , poison , seed , water , labor force , land and machinery on canola by way of in one’s Presence interview with 150 persons of canola farmers whom they were related to Propagation center and jahad kheshavarzi services of the city in georgic year 2011-2010 and with sampling by the way of classification  among of 985 persons . then the evaluated by use of linear production , cupdaglos , Leontief , radical And  translog functions . the examinations showed that translog model has the best model among the production functions . According to  the to results of the investigation , usage of fertilizer and labor force factors , located in the third region of the production and because attractiveness of usage of these two factors was negative , so proposes with propagational performances and correct instructions of revenuers , attain to optimum level , also another result of this paper is to use of land and water factors has been located in the first region that proposes come together ways of more usage of these two factors because more usage of them is frugal.


Evaluation of Remote Sensing Data for Estimation of Precipitation

Abstract—Precipitation patterns determination for dry periods in space and time is necessary for drought adaptation plans. Precipitation data plays a key role in drought monitoring, however short period of measured data and inappropriate distribution of weather stations, the study of water resources / climate in some regions of the province is carried out with difficulty. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize other reliable climatic data resources. Then to overpass the difficulty, after verification, the data is used to complete or substitute the existing data. Accordingly, in this research for Khorasan Razavi province using data from 10 synoptic stations around the province, the monthly precipitation data of TRMM satellite was evaluated. The evaluation was measured using MBE (Mean Bias Error), R2 (Coefficient of Determination) and relative bias (percentage of relative bias). The results showed that there was a very good consistency between earth and satellite rainfall data. R2 (ratio) average value for stations with less and more than 200m annual rainfall was 0.88 and 0.93, respectively.Based on the results, it can be concluded that the satellite data has the capability use for rainfall source over the province.


Genealogy of International Environmental Law

Abstract—International Law as the international community laws entered a new realm after World War II and the foundation of the United Nations in 1946. Otherwise, indiscriminate and unilateral economicdevelopment and its impacts caused widespread environmental degradation in the world. Scientists Warning and international public pressure forced sates to deal more responsibly towards protecting the global environment. In this regard, development of legally binding and non-binding instruments concerning global environmental protection in international law began in the 1970s. Despite global efforts for the development of legally binding and non-binding rules, there are environmental concerns such as global warming, climate change, desertification, and deforestation etc.…. In this regard, this paper focuses on some conditions and situationsinvolved the emergence of international environmental law.


Evaluation of microalgae biomass, A convenient source of energy

Abstract – A variety of species of green and blue algae from water and soil samples were enriched and isolated. The isolated strains were identified as Chlorella, Nostoc, Chlamydomonas Oscillitoria, Anabaena. Chlorella vulgaris a variant was cultivated under optimal conditions to produce biomass as laboratory as well as the site in both bioreactor and open pond systems. Dried biomass with 10% moisture was tested for calorific value by standard methods and the same were in a range of 3000-3500 kcal per kg. Biomass was subjected to recovery of oils as well as blended with coal and calorific values were 4200 to 5300 KC/KG. 


Performance evaluation of herbal pesticide Palizin® compared to chemical insecticide Mospilan® in reducing eggs and nymphs pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae

Abstract— Common pistachio psylla, the pest of pistachio orchards in Iran which feed on plant sap in the leaves and fruits of pistachio creates irreparable damage, so many farmers use insecticides to control this pest. With the aim of reducing the use of chemical pesticides in pistachio orchards, plant pesticide Palizin® (2000 ppm concentration) compared to chemical insecticide Mospilan® (250 ppm), were tested in the fields of Kashmar region, during 2012. The results showed that pesticide plant Palizin® better performance in reducing the number of eggs and nymphs pistachio psyllid found. 


Snow water equivalent estimation in the upstream basin of Karun 3 dam using satellite data and SRM model

Abstract—In this study, using 8 day MODIS snow cover images and data of daily temperature and precipitation, daily runoff flow in upstream basin of Karun 3 Dam is simulated by means of SRM model. In order to calibrate and to evaluate the model, 2002 and 2003 water years are respectively chosen and based on 2002 daily measured discharge data, the parameters of the model are evaluated and calibrated and the coefficient of determination and volume deference percentage are respectively 0.81 and 2.98. The daily measured discharge data of 2003 are used to evaluate the model accuracy and the coefficient of determination and volume deference percentage are respectively 0.71 and -0.38. Results show that SRM model in line with satellite data is efficient to simulate daily runoff in ungagged basins. Besides, sensitivity analysis of the model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive and least sensitive, respectively to recession coefficient and time lag.


Watershed management along with indigenous knowledge to provide nutritional needs (Case study: Shahindezh City)

Abstract—In our country, application of indigenous knowledge has been used by residents of watershed-basins from the distant past, so that the role of these methods in the conservation of soil and water resources is undeniable. In present study we tried to represent the indigenous knowledge development model as a novel approach for management development of watershed-basins, while expressing the importance of indigenous knowledge and its position forreducing disasters’hazards in watershed-basins, and also in participation to organize watershed management projects to protect water and soil resources, which are rich sources to providing human nutritional needs.


Analysis of recognition informal settlements Case Study: Qom, Iran

Abstract— Informal residence is abnormal phenomenon that is observed in comparison with conventional tissue. This phenomenon is a manifestation of meeting the housing needs of low-income housing that has no place in a formal atmosphere and city planning And in the above legal limits to beyond their capacities are struggling to establish settlements in the border town. The purpose of this paper to address the issues of marginalized and informal settlements and urban fringe areas of knowledge. The study area was the city of Qom and research methodology is descriptive - analytical study which uses the library studies and surveys have been conducted in the study area and data collection methods have been used library with field studies. Findings of research shows that in general there are 16 settlements informal Qom, most of which is adjacent to the highway, railway and high voltage electricity pylons in terms of health risks, and physical break in such high-risk areas. The most deprived neighborhoods in marginal neighborhoods Shadgholy Khan and Ghale Kamkar were known as the mean average of respectively 76.2 and 68.5 percent.



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2014: Vol 6, Issue 13 (Part III)


Evaluation of the efficacy of shrimp farms in the west Hormozgan province (Iran)

Abstract- In this study, the technical efficiency of shrimp breeders in the west Hormozgan province is measured using the data analysis approach. We also study the affecting factors on their efficiency. Required data for this study was collected through questionnaires in 1392. The data is analyzed using the software SPSS, DEAP and EVIEWS. The results of this study show that the average efficiency of shrimp breeders under the constant and variable returns to the scale assumptions is 0.87 and 0.91, respectively. Moreover, the influence of various factors such as age and experience are assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficients. Other factors such as the type of management training courses, membership in cooperatives, having insurance and taking out a loan are assessed using the t tests. The level of education and facilities are evaluated using the analysis of variance. Then, the simultaneous effect of variables on efficiency is studies using a linear regression model with the method of OLS. The results show that each of the variable, i.e. experience, education, utilities, participate in training, the use of credit and insurance independently have a significant relationship on the efficiency. The study of combined variables in the regression model shows that the variables of experience, education, training courses, facilities and insurance have a positive and significant relationship on the efficiency.


Flood Zone Investigation and soil erosion potential mapping in Kahsan watershed using GIS

Abstract— Flood is one of the natural disasters that the control or decrease of its damages needs a special planning. Investigation of flood potential area and erodibility of watersheds have an important role in integrated watershed management. The main aim of this study is to estimate flood and erosion potential of Kashan watershed using EPM (Erosion Potential Method), SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and field data using GIS software. The rate of erosion and deposition was evaluated using EPM model. Discharge at each sub-basin was estimated using the SCS model. Annual runoff volume was estimated via runoff coefficient, and annual precipitation for each sub-basin. According to results, sub-basin preference for practical watershed management works was different due to method of classification. Based on results, classification of sub basin was organized by overlay maps of discharge, special runoff and erosion maps using Arc Gis 9.3.


Identification and classification of suitable water recharging/harvesting site in an arid environments area using GIS approach

Abstract: In the arid and semi arid area of the world, also rainfall patterns are unpredictable, both in amount and time, but, rainfall could be sufficient to make rainwater recharging/harvesting as a reliable and economical source of water .Artificial recharge methods describes all methods for concentrating, storing and collecting runoff from rainwater. The main object of this research is investigated to identify the potential sites to construct rainwater-harvesting structures using remote sensing and geographical information system. Attempt was made to understand the basaltic terrain in spatial context to find out the rainwater harvesting structures like farm ponds, check dams and flood spreading deriving from thematic layers such as landuse/landcover, slope, soil, drainage and runoff from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery and other collateral data. Subsequently, these layers were processed to derive runoff from Soil Conservation Service Curve Number SCS-CN method using Arc-CN runoff tool. The thematic layers overlaid using intersection based on these specifications. Derived sites were investigated for its suitability and implementation by ground truth field verification. In conclusion, the method adopted in present study deciphers the more precise, accurate and ability to process large catchment area than other methods. 


Spatial Distribution Analysis of Groundwater Quality Using GIS

Abstract— groundwater quality comprises the physical, chemical, and biological qualities of ground water. The purpose of this study is to assess the groundwater quality. The groundwater quality parameters were analyzed for 750 samples collected from the existing wells in Fars province in 2010. The maps of each water quality parameters were generated using geostatistical (ordinary Kriging) approach in the ArcGIS software. Experimental semivariogram values are tested for different ordinary Kriging models to identify the best fitted for the four water quality parameters (TDS, SAR, Ec, and Na) and the best models are selected on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE. The results show that the best model for providing ground water map is Spherical model for four parameters. 


Assessment soil organic carbon in different land uses in the College of Agriculture, Lorestan

Abstract—today, the population growth increases pressure on natural resource, including soil and non-systematic exploitation. Land use changes are causing damage to ecosystems. Different forms of land use change takes place and the changes in physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as soil organic matter and organic carbon. The total carbon content between different lands uses vary by more than 15 times. Soil organic carbon plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions and is vital indicators of soil quality. One way of reducing carbon dioxide emissions is increasing carbon sequestration in soil. The experiments conducted to investigate the effects of different land use on organic carbon content in the College of Agriculture; University of Lorestan. Results have shown that the amount of organic carbon in forest and orchard land use is the maximum amount but in cultivated land is minimal. The highest rate of carbon sequestration is in land use of garden, pasture and forest. And has been observed highest of clay and the lowest bulk density in forest land use.


The effect of management factors on the control of potato pests in Jiroft region

Abstract— Potato is the most important staple food of people, after rice and wheat. Potato cultivation in Iran in recent years is about 150,000 hectares with an average yield of 7.20 tons per hectares that is about three thousand acres under cultivation in Jiroft. Hence pest control management is very important. Thus, social and technical economic factors can be expressed in terms of management. In this research by using data obtained through questionnaires and interviews with farmers the role of economic and social factors in farmer decision making were evaluated by the way of production function and statistical analysis. In investigating elasticity of production inputs being Significant inputs of pesticides insecticides, fungicides and herbicides as well as its negative claim that farmers use inputs of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides than their optimal. Indiscriminate use of pesticides indicates, that farmers have not adhered Stability Index to maintain crop health and the environment and this itself will cause a decrease in performance. Fertilizer used by farmers is in a manner that has a significant positive effect on performance. In assessing the effect of factors such as age and years of farming, frequency of participation in educational programs, credit and income second job on chemical pesticides consumption a significant positive correlation has been seen, And also there is a significant negative relationship between the education and access to pesticides and pesticide application.


Investigation, the administrative-economic factors, influencing the adoption of Integrated Campaign against pests of pistachio in Rafsanjan

Abstract—The difficulties arising from chemical pesticides to human health not covered on a person. So, to avoid pest damage is necessary to according to integrated management and fight against them as a step towards reducing the population and damage them. The integrated management system used all the methods of struggle on a consistent basis and in a manner that apply minimum disruption in effective control of this pest in the long term. These methods can be referred to using a variety of mechanisms to fight including agricultural mechanical, physical, biological and chemical and pheromone. Predatory insects such as green lacewing ladybird predator are active in pistachio gardens in Rafsanjan region and therefore are the need to support mass rearing and release them in pistachio gardens. The present study used a multistage cluster sampling to determine the management-economic factors influencing the adoption of Integrated campaign against pests by farmers. In general, the results of this study suggest that there is a significant relationship between adoption of integrated pest management with a distance of home to garden having a second job in addition to farming the amount of relationship with agricultural service centers degree of opinion leadership in integrated campaign the amount of annual income from agricultural activities, attendance rates promotional educational activities the amount of use of chemical pesticides and the use of integrated control costs compared to chemical pest control. However, the most important factor influencing the success of the development and application of integrated control programs and the participation of all farmers in all stages. In this regard, it is recommended that the provision of training and participation of farmers is necessary to hold regular classes. Placed at the disposal of farmers students use integrated control, including biological methods are receptive to the technology as transparent and positive way.


A comparison of EPM and MPSIAC models in estimation of erosion and sediment yield in Mashangi Watershed (Rudan, Hormozgan Province)

Abstract—This study aimed to compare two models of MPSIAC and EPM in order to estimate the erosion and sedimentation of Mashangi watershed (a part of the watershed of the Esteghlal dam of Minab, Rudan-Iran), to do so, at first the existing information and mapping of hydrology units and sub-basins, the factors of models in the region of interest were investigated. Then the MPSIAC method was used with mapping of geomorphology, and specifying facies as a complementary method of PSIAC model. Using the two above mentioned models the amount of erosion in the basin area was estimated. the Comparison of  the results of two models of MPSIAC and EPM with field observations suggest that although the results obtained from the model in most of the regions are in a good agreement, the results of EPM model in compare to MPSIAC model are less reliable in identifying regions with medium and higher level of erosion.


Structural role of regional flood analysis in vegetate coverage protection: a solution for sustainable development of environmental resources (case study of Jaqtoo River watershed)

Abstract—The discharge of design and its assigning according to the instantaneous peak discharge of the given region is a vital parameter.  In order to analyze floods, at first the limitations of  time series data of peak discharge in two hydrometric stations located in Jaqtoo watershed, W-Azerbaijan, Iran adjusted. Then, by use of Haifa Software, the most proper probability distribution of the region (log-Pearson type iii), peak discharges with different return periods estimated. The results of structures evaluation indicate that assigning the design discharge according to flood analysis results in a better protection of vegetate coverage of the region.


Evaluating the most suitable statistical distribution in estimation of maximum instantaneous and annual average water-flows (Case study: Kur River-Chamriz Station)

Abstract—The operation of any water project depends on forecasting the hydrologic events in future. In hydrology, using physical models in order to forecasting the coming events, is not possible, and it has been welcomed less, and mostly the single models that explain the system by mathematical concepts, are used. One of the common methods for estimating the water-flows with different return periods is statistical distribution. In this research, in order to obtain most suitable statistical distribution for estimating water-flows series with different return periods, instantaneous and average annual water-flows from Kur River-Chamriz Station- Fars Province, were gathered during a 30-year statistical period. After homogenous and statistical adequacy tests by graphical test of SMADA Software and calculating the residual sum squares (R.S.S), they were evaluated and compared. Based on the concluded results from experimental and observational curves for instantaneous maximum water-flow, Gamble distribution with R.S.S of 71.15 and for annual average water-flows, Log-Pearson Type III distribution and after that Gamble distribution with R.S.S of 1.77 and 2.01 show most fitness and conformity respectively.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 13 (Part II)


Formulation system strategic plan for sustainable development of ecotourism in protected areas with the benefit compilation of techniques SWOT, IEM and QSPM

(Case Study: Varjin Protected Area)

Abstract: Today, ecotourism is considered as a strategy for preservation of natural ecosystems. Whatever is expected of ecotourism is having economic benefits, training opportunities and incentives for natural resource conservation. Varjin Protected Area is located in Tehran province & Shemiranat county which it has high ecological capabilities and environmental value. Ecotourism potential of the area was used to determine the SWOT model that it is based on identifying strengths and weaknesses (internal factors) and opportunities and threats (external factors) the results of it was presented in tables analysis of internal and external factors . Total weighted scores internal strategic factors was determined equal to 2/428and total weighted scores external strategic factors was determined equal to 2/964. This issue suggests that despite area abundant natural potentials to attract tourists due to lack proper infrastructures and systematic planning. In order to ecotourism development in terms of internal factors, it has weaknesses and also serves about use of opportunities and counter of the threat. After providing strategies and strategies was used to determine status of region of IE matrix. IE matrix results show that Region is in conservatively Status. So should be used strategies WO (weaknesses- opportunities) minimum / maximum. For final analysis and strategies prioritization was used of quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM). Strategy 5WO (allocate more funds in order to management and conservation of region and also to carry out research projects) was placed in the first category with a score of 12.895. In a general conclusion it can be said that a successful and sustainable ecotourism in Varjin protected areas needs to Management and planning principled to limit environmental impact, creating favorable infrastructure, Participation of local communities and the correct training zone. 


Developing optimal strategies of urban waste management systems using SWOT and QSPM matrix (case study: District 8 of Tehran Municipality)

Abstract: Today with advancement of technology, production and management of solid waste also were much metamorphosed. So far different strategies in different countries are designed in order to improve the efficiency of waste management system, and considering that in the present era strategic management effective step to achieve sustainable development and also achievement of organizational goals in the long term, according to this view, in this study we used of SWOT (analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threatening) that  is one of most appropriate techniques planning that today is considered as new tools for analyzing performance and status gaps used. For this purpose, the identification of internal and external factors affecting waste management   of District 8 of Tehran Municipality was attempted and then strategies SO-ST-WO-WT were developed. Then identifying status of region was evaluated by matrix, in the next step was investigated and specific strategies are formulated using matrix QSPM. In last step also was identified a prioritization strategies. Now Tehran region 8 with a population of 377806 people, daily it has more than 298 tons of productive waste per day (dry waste tonnage 50 tones, wet waste tonnage 248 tones) that in order to formulating waste management strategies of municipality Region 8 initially weak points were identified (10 cases), strengths (8 cases), opportunities (7 cases) and threats (12 cases) in collaboration with experts waste management and field visits. In this study, it was calculated with questionnaire distribution internal factors evaluation matrix (strengths and weaknesses) and the matrix of 2.97 the assessment of external factors (opportunities and threats) 3.04. Then with IE matrix the situation region was placed in aggressive home. To determine Strategies priorities were used of the matrix QSPM. SO5 strategy with a score of 12.68 was recognized as a superior strategy.


The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Apple seeds on amount of Uric Acid, Urea, and Creatinine Concentrations in Rats

Abstract: Background and Purpose: Apple plant with scientific name of Malus domestica borkh, contains many antioxidants including plant flavonoids, phytoestrogens, and a material called Amygdalin, quercetin, and their derivatives. In the present study was investigated effect of apple seed ethanol extracts on kidney function in rats.

Methodology: Thirty-five mature two-and- a- half-year-old Wistar race rats each weighing about 170±10 grams were randomly divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any solvents or drugs. The witness group was given a daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 milligram per kilogram of normal saline solution. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 received intraperitoneal injections of 100, 200, and 400 milligrams per kilogram of apple seed extracts once a day for 21 days. Uric acid, urea, and creatinine concentrations were measured using the photometric method.  

Findings: Results showed that serum uric acid concentrations in the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the control group but that urea and creatinine concentrations did not show any significant changes.

Conclusions: Given the obtained results, we can conclude that apple seed extracts could create changes in uric acid concentrations in rats.


Strategic planning of development urban tourism towards the sustainable development; Case study (Nurabad mamasani – Fars -Iran)

Abstract: City spaces have been attractive places from a long time ago because they are the most civilized dwelling places including important economic, scientific, recreational, medical, etc. centers and also have natural and historical attractions; that is why they are the most interesting places for tourists. In this regard, sustainable tourism is defined as a method of tourism sector organization and performance, as well as a general perception and a hierarchical characteristic, for achieving satisfactory social and economic goals without underestimating the value of tourism and natural resources. In this descriptive-analytic study, the survey methodology and the SWOT management model were implemented to identify the factors affecting sustainable development of urban tourism in Nourabad, Mamasani as well as study the advantages, disadvantages, and possible threats that might exist in this regard.  The results show that due to its various natural and historical tourist attractions, Nourabad has a high potential for sustainable development of tourism.


A Comparative Study of Concepts, Principles and Traditional Methods of Iranian Architecture and Urbanization in the Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism    

Abstract: The study of Iranian past architecture and its education in a proper manner corrects inaccurate and ungracious contemporary architecture ¬and establishes a suitable method. Any kind of architecture is organized and can be considered as an organizer of the space of human environment. The purpose of this study is understanding the past events  and learning about the essence of the basic architecture ,i.e. space. Something without time aspects time and urban space fulfils the same essential essence, especially in spaces that have gradually formed during history. Architecture of ancient land of Iran is an interconnected chain of experiences and values that have been continued from thousands of years a go by artists, architects and Iran people from one generation to another. During this gradual evolution, Iranian architecture and urbanism at all times have been formed with a focus on the cultural, religious, social and natural infrastructure of ¬ that time and a variety of styles of architecture and urbanism created in different parts of Iran because of various ethnics, religions and climate conditions. Simultaneous construction of Iranian buildings in cities ¬and villages ¬ at different times and places with social, cultural, religious and environmental infrastructures cause Iranian architecture always meet the material and spiritual needs of the people. Architecture and urbanism in central and desert regions of Iran which completely reflects traditional Iranian architecture and urbanism, is mostly in harmony with cultural, religious, social and natural infrastructures. There is a close relationship between architecture and city and human and nature which show the existence of sustainable concepts and features in Iranian architecture and urbanism.  This inspires Iranian and even non-Iranian contemporary architects. However, globally the issues of greenhouse effect, urban traffic, land congestion, urban air pollution and population growth have created undesirable effects on quality of life in cities. These issues cause the subject of sustainability of cities to be at the top priority.  In this study, in addition to a comparative study of the concepts and features ¬ of sustainable architecture and urbanism, the concepts and features of architecture and Iranian traditional cities are investigated. The result of this study is to achieve specific ¬shared features between the two studied categories.  


Analyzing the environmental carrying capacity and stability of tourism using conceptual model of Manning and Lime,case study: The Badab soort springs

Abstract— Regarding to the necessity of developing sustainable concepts  in the fields like tourism that are the base of long term development, in this paper we tried to analyze concepts like sustainability, carrying capacity and necessity of attending them in which we can reach these goals. Given different environments and variety of topics in attractions that here our bed is natural environment, we used qualitative matrix (SWOT) based on taken strategies using  conceptual analysis of  Manning And Lime from mentioned operator and also the most visited existing tourists, orally prepared in tour that is strength of decision making in the attraction quality and help us and planners in developing to deal with probable dangers effectively that has been made attractions in exposure. Our case study is Badab Soort springs that is known as second natural place of  Iran after Damavand peak. Given the importance of domestic tourism and its more positive effects inside the country and stakeholder's extra enjoyment and many other factors, there should be more attended by officials for alike sample of country and this issue is considered due to the existence of foreign sample (Turkey), whilst tourists are attracted to this place intending many pull factors and its interests finally flow into the packet of another country. Indeed it is hoped that to be applied suitable priorities in macro level by local managers and planners.


The role of public participation in old urban development with an emphasis on international experience

Abstract: Improvement and modernization of urban old areas within the policy of internal development emphasize on the implementation of the actual and potential using the urban public participation. The actual participation takes place in public and reflects in population. Thus, participation is considered as a social process. Public involvement in administrative affairs, urban development especially in old urban areas is already important. This study seeks to answer this question what are? The ways to draw the attention of people about the old areas our method is based on the descriptive –analytical objective and also according to the library studies .The purpose of this study is to achieve the strategies to increase the public participation in urban old areas regarding the global successful experiences. In activities to repair or develop the urban old areas in Tehran or other cities of Iran the authorities has seeked the consent of the people to run the programs effortlessly and corporate them in profits and people have not participated in any programs.  Therefore in order to involve people d in old urban areas development and repairing of the old building there should be an appropriate background and the essential instrument should be provided.


Investigating the relationship between the components of talent management and organizational culture

(Case study: Employees of University of Chaloos)

Abstract—In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization , especially at the managerial level .But the challenges that organizations face include :attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the components of talent management; organizational culture in the university of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings and also to look for ways to improve employee performance is discussed. This study is based on data collected from all employees of the University of Chaloos in August 2013; through two questionnaires have been developed. The statistical population has been considered 407 persons in these universities and according the Morgan Table, 198 persons were selected as sample of among research society. Moreover, 59questionnairescontain 28questions are used for determining components of talent management and31questionsare utilized for analysis of organizational culture. The methods used in this study include structural equation and T is the chi-square tests. Finally, research indicates that there are a significant relationship between talent management and organizational culture in the University of Chaloos. Moreover, we concluded that improving the corporate culture will lead to the enhancement of talent management.


A Study on Budgeting and Its Role in Achieving the Objectives, Planning and Performance Improvement of SAIPA Corporation

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of budgeting in achieving the objectives, planning and performance improvement of SAIPA Corporation. The study is conducted through a descriptive survey method. A standard questionnaire is used to collect data depending on the type and nature of the study.

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Ver. 16) is used to analyze the data. Statistical analysis includes the calculation of descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions, percentage frequency, mean and inferential statistics including Kolmogorov–Smirnov normality detection data and the one-sample t-test to infer the presence or absence of significant differences between variables. The results show what has the desirable effect on budgeting for achieving objectives, planning and performance improvement of SAIPA Corporation.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 13 (Part I)


Correlation between genetic diversity and genotype of advanced atmospheric weather conditions Ahvaz

Abstract—In order to determine the genetic diversity and heritability promising genotypes of barley crops in 2012-2013 form of randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station in Ahvaz. Plant height, peduncle length, spike length, awn, awn length, spike-free, grain weight, flag leaf area, number of spikelets per spike, harvest index, number of spikes per square meter, number of seeds per square meter, number of seeds per spike, yield, biological yield, days to maturity, days to anthesis, days to flowering, grain filling duration was measured. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for allCharacters studied.there was an  indicate that genetic diversity in the genotypes. 19,3,15,5,2genotypeshadthe highest grain yield.Correlation coefficients showed the highest correlation attribute of grains per spike (r=0.96**) with grain yield. Principal components analysis of 17 variables into six components, announced that the six components of (87.6%) of the variation explaineGay traits days to come, days to anthesis, days to flowering, number of grains per square meter for the first component and the harvest index, number of kernels per ear, yield, biological yield for the second component of the main characters. Results of cluster analysis, the genotypes were evaluated in three different groups. Cluster 1 consists of six genotypes of four character figures that were higher than average. Cluster 3 to 6 trait were higher than average. Cluster 2 with 8 trait were higher than average and some intermediate traits.


Antioxidant effect of grape and garlic extracts on the quality of marinated kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris) during storage

Abstract—This study aimed to determine changes in chemical and sensory properties of marinated kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris) that contains grape (8%) and garlic (5%) extracts during storage at 4 ºC. According to results, Higher values for Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were found in samples without extract than those with extract. There was significant difference (p> 0.05) on TBA, TVB-N value and sensory analysis between control and samples with extracts. sensory analyses showed that sensory quality of the marinades was getting decrease while TBA value was getting higher at the end of 75 days at 4°C, but the experimental (with extract) group was good quality after 75 days. 


Study of the Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Explants Type on In vitro Regeneration of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)

Abstract: Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a perennial, herbaceous plants belonging to the family of Asteraceae, The it have great economic and medical importance, because this plant have high sweeteners and non-caloric property. Genetic engineering of stevia requires to efficient method and effective tissue culture. Regeneration from tissue culture is one of the suitable methods for large scale production and genetic engineering plants. In this investigation were studied effective factors on regeneration of stevia such as explants type and different concentrations of growth regulators in order to achieve efficient protocol. For this purpose, different concentrations of TDZ (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/l) and NAA (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) with two explants (Leaf and Internode) were used. After 4 weeks number of regeneration were evaluated. The results showed that the regeneration was increased with increasing TDZ concentration. The highest percentage and number of regeneration obtained in leaf explants with 1.5 mg/l TDZ and 0 mg/l NAA.


Effects of Agropyron elongatum drilling operations with contour furrows on the production and vegetation in semi-arid rangelands (case study Ghochan city, region Bharkysh).

Abstract— This study aims to evaluate the corrective actions contour farrows with drilling impact on productivity and vegetation in Bharkysh Ghochan range. For systematic random sampling method, used the six transects 100m at each site based corrective and control area and along each transect Was used ten plot 2m2 for harvest vegetation information. Comparisons showed that rangeland statistically significant difference in the level of a percent.


Study Effect Entrepreneurship Development on Sustainable Development Rural

Abstract: One of the most effective factors in rural development is entrepreneurship, because this can have a significant role on promotion and life quality improvement in rural's lives with creating new job opportunities. Entrepreneurship is an activity that can somehow solve the major problems in rural areas like unemployment, low income, lack of diversity in economics, etc. And in final to prevent the villagers not to immigrate to cities or metropolitan cities, besides this can have a positive effect on the other aspects of their human living. Therefore, we conclude that rural entrepreneurship is a new solution in theories of empowerment development and capacity building in rural areas in order to reduce the rural and urban gap, having an equal economy, social and an institutional environment as an important tool in stable rural development. The main purpose of this article is to research on the effect of entrepreneurship development on stable rural development in rural areas. Information in this survey is a library kind and it is documentary. Results of this survey demonstrate that the most important solution in Sustainable rural development is to create entrepreneurship based on capacities and potentials in every rural to achieve a better economy. In conclusion increasing on all the aspects of life quality in rural areas with use of capacities and potentials corresponded with the same rural, and in the end it leads to the substantiation of stable rural development.


Effects of methyl jasmonate vapor treatment on display quality, anthocyanin content and membrane stability index of gerbera cut flowers cv. Pink Elegance

Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate vapor treatment on physiological and biochemical characteristics and vase life of cut flower gerbera in a completely randomized experimental design with three replications. In this experiment, cut flower stems were placed in preservative solution containing 200 mg/L 8- hydroxyquinoline sulfate and sucrose 3% and exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 µlL−1 methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 20 µlL−1ethanol. After fumigation treatment with MeJA for 24 h, treated flowers were removed from glass chambers and placed on benches at 20 ± 2 ºC and 65 ± 5 % RH. The results indicated that different concentrations of methyl jasmonate significantly increased vase life and total postharvest longevity of flowers compared to control and ethanol. Methyl jasmonate treatments were significantly increased membrane stability index and the petal anthocyanin content compared to control and ethanol. Uptake of preservative solution under methyl jasmonate treatment was higher too. Although the relative fresh weight of flowers was higher in methyl jasmonate treatments, no statistically significant differences were found between treatments.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 12 (Part III)


The role of public participation in the protection and development of urban green space

Abstract— Due to population growth and increasing pollution in the urban environment, it is increasingly vital role of green spaces. Green space as a natural filter to reduce environmental pollution and to ensure that the relative range of personal and social health of city residents and the environment is relaxed. Measure citizen satisfaction with existing services in the field of urban green space to enhance the quality of service is necessary. Today, the world of contemporary urban problems except by recognizing the needs, demands and attitudes of citizens’ awareness cannot complete and may be fertile ground for reasonable and proper communication between the citizens and the citizens provide. One of the most important municipal services that have great impact on the mental health of its citizens, including the most important tasks is to change the culture of urban green space for numerous urban institutions and the citizens of one of the best methods to encourage them to maintain and develop the space green of urban.


A Eco-Efficient Concrete Made with Ceramic Sanitary Ware Industry Waste, Integration with Nano-SiO2 as Cement

Abstract— Sanitary ceramic ware waste is classified as belonging to group of non-biodegradable industrial waste. Due to its physical, chemical and mechanical properties, the waste inevitably generated by the ceramic sanitary ware industry can be used in the production of concrete. This study investigates the feasibility of replacing 5, 10 and 15 percent of recycled sanitary ware powder, separately or in combination with nano silica powder, as part of the cement in concrete. For this purpose, the compressive strength and water absorption of concrete specimens at different curing times were investigated. Results show that using only sanitary ware wastes in concrete, reduces the compressive strength in early ages and water absorption. Also, using nano-silica powder in combination with sanitary ware powder compensates the reduction of compressive strength, while it induces further reduction in water absorption. Eventually, it can be concluded that using the wastes of sanitary ware industry, leads to proper recycling of these wastes, reduction in cement consumption, assist in construction economy and Protecting the environment.


Quality and quantity of solar radiation energy in Iranian desert

Abstract— Renewable energy refers so unlike non-renewable energies are capable of returning to nature. In recent years, the environmental problems caused by global climate change and the use of renewable energy sources of energy have intensified. Iran’s geographical position makes it a great source of solar and wind energy that is available. The renewable energy source, free and environmentally compatible. The most important factor for the proper design of solar devices and general applications of solar energy in every place, and statistical information about the amount of solar radiation is the place. Identification of suitable sites for deployment of renewable energies such as solar energy is required. Iranian deserts, including areas that have a high potential for solar energy. In this paper cities including Kerman, Yazd, Shiraz, Isfahan, Zahedan, which are located in the desert area of highest intensity of solar radiation are examined. The amount of energy received during the day from the Meteorological Agency statistical information on energy intake during the 10-year period (1389-1380) was received. The results show that the highest sunshine hours per day in 5 cities started in April and May to reach its peak and then it decreases the amount of solar energy received at least a month in Novamber. Using renewable energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and subsequent impacts of burning fossil fuels and gases such as carbon dioxide increases in charges against nature. Generation of electricity using solar energy power plants, solar water heating (solar water heaters for homes, factories, etc.), heating and indoor air ... Be used. Approach to renewable energy like solar power in desert areas to provide appropriate facilities to attract people to get to keep a percentage of the desert.


Investigation of New Packaged Biological Wastewater Treatment in laboratory and Industrial Scale

Abstract—The earth with its limited sources of the air, water and the land is the only habitat of human and other creatures. Saving these blessings is necessary to survive the human race. The development of science and efforts to provide the comfort and survival caused changes in environment and non recoverable damages to the environment and all animals. One of the damaging factors of environment is the sewage made by humans activities.

The final purpose of the wastewater treatment is saving the environment in a way which is match with the principals of public health and the economic, social, and political situation. Because of the sewage gathered from the villages and the cities would be returned to the earth and the water sources, saving the environment should be considered. On the other hand the way of settlement which is usual in most of the refineries has some problems, like needing the high budget for investigation and big land to establish. As a result in recent years the usage of new wastewater treatment packages increased, especially for the small societies. 

In this project the efficiency of the wastewater treatment packages for the settlement of the city’s sewage and its advantages in compared with the usual way of city sewage settlement will scrutiny. After that, the most common way of settlement used in such packages will explain. And at last the wastewater treatment package of the Kashi Marjan factory which is use for the settlement of the Sanitation for the employees of the factory to test and the interred sewage was sampled. The test of the chemically Oxygen demand and the pH test (based on the standard instruction of the environment organization) done on the sample. Due to the fact that the enough reduction of the oxygen needed of the sewage chemical which came out of the package the efficiency of the statement of the factories sewage to use for agriculture proved and now this water use to irrigating around the factory.


New technologies for photovoltaic systems

Abstract— Solar cell technology is classified into three generations. In this paper, an overview of the technology, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic technologies described first and second generation and third generation photovoltaic systems deal with the latest developments. Based solar cells, organic solar cells by concentrated photovoltaic technology, and in particular progress regarding the use of solar cells based on quantum dots include Schottky solar cell transplantation depleted heterogeneous, extremely thin absorber, links heterogeneous mass (polymer) cells sensitized with quantum dots is discussed.


The Study of Noise Pollution  Using Sound Maps in Desalination Unit of Karoon Oil & Gas Production Company , Ahwaz – Iran

Abstract— Being exposed to noise pollution is one of the most widespread type of industrial pollution endangering the health of many workers. The study was conducted on three generating sources of noise pollution and 51 effective points. The type of studies is descriptive –analytical aiming at determining generator sources in making noise pollution , providing colorful Contours and isosonic curves in order to determine the current condition of noise pollution and to make appropriate policies for lowering of noise pollution effectively in the future. By using SURFER10 & ARC GIS10  software , safe and unsafe places were identified .


Comparison diagnostic validity of the completed fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-IV) with Tehran - Stanford - Binet Intelligence test in learning disable Student in Ahwaz 

Abstract—The purpose of of this study to compare the diagnostic validity of the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Intelligence Laboratory, Tehran has completed the Stanford - Binet learning disabled students in Ahvaz city. In this study of 60 learning disabled students (22 girls and 38 boys) elementary schools during the academic year 2013-2012 available were selected through purposive sampling and tools to complete the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Binet intelligence test - Tehran were run individually on them. Causal comparative research design was descriptive. Diagnostic validity of three methods to calculate the scatter plot, intelligence and confidence intervals based combination was used.

The results showed that the scale Tehran - Stanford- weakly with all three methods, but has diagnostic validity of Wechsler scale combined with the diagnostic validity has no axis, but the other two methods of diagnostic validity. So the scale of judgment learning disabilities enjoy.


Quality evaluation and stability index determination of Kermanshah potable Water resources

Abstract— This study aims to determine the potential of corrosion and scaling of water in Kermanshah. Samples from different areas of Kermanshah were taken and all of the samples were analyzed. Parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and hardness were measured. According to Langelier saturation index, water is corrosive and based on the values of Rysner index water has a tendency to severe corrosive. Due to the effects of corrosion and its damages to water supplies and distribution systems, this is very important to pay attention to this issue and control water chemical balance.


Evaluation of the most economic area to utilize the power of wind in Isfahan Province

Abstract—Currently, localization of wind power is investigated in Isfahan Province. to study establishment of a wind powerhouse in Isfahan Province, climate statistics of wind speed in four areas, Boroujen, Mourcheh Khort, Varzaneh and Moghar was received and then turbine power and finally the cost of electrical power unit were calculated for consumers by using an AV 928 2.5 MW turbine and using two-parameter Weibull distribution. The results showed that if investment of wind powerhouses in Isfahan Province is economically considered, the southern areas of the province are more cost-effective than others. Also, increasing the height of turbine base will decrease the power unit for consumers. In southern areas, the south-eastern area will also be the most proper area to investigate wind renewable energy.



Geopolitical interaction and international law of energy  

Abstract—If we knew Geopolitics as the complex relations of power in the international system based on political geography, economy and culture, energy as the primary source of human activities in all aspects of life has an important role in this framework. In contemporary international relations, accurately mapped geopolitical interaction with energy can be put many opportunities for decision-makers and decision makers of a country's foreign policy. On the other hand, the international law of energy as a relatively new field in the interaction with the geopolitics formed and developed. Exploration, extraction, energy transfer, finitude of fossil fuels resources and the emergence of environmental problems, has created a new discourse in international relations. Also, the sustainable development and environmental protection, the use of fossil energy carriers should be replaced with renewable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy and etc, is the beginning of a new geopolitical conflict in the contemporary world. Hence and given the positive points of environmental, economical and especially legislation in other legal systems such as European Union agreement regarding the energy charter in 1994 and since that study and analyze the energy issue and status not only environmental and economic point of view, but legally has also a special place, therefore the current paper focuses on the issue of energy sources & consumptions status in European Union law in order to provide legal pattern in Iranian legal system and comprehensive energy policies managed by European Union in the grounds of energy such as environmental protection, renewable energy applications, diversity of energy sources, using new technology  in reducing energy consumption, expand international cooperation and regional laws and regulations regarding energy and environmental protection. 


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 12 (Part II)


Studying the Effect of Architectural design in modification of thermal comfort by using ecological indicators of climate Digital, Field Study of Arab Zadeh's house in Yazd, Iran

Abstract—a lot of environmental and allocated factors explain the thermal comfort and following that the environmental comfort. Also designers mostly focus on factors which they can control to improve the quality of comfort in designing process.  Temperature, humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, are environmental factors that have a direct effect on comfort ranges. Temperature and humidity don’t have enough impact on the design factors But the wind and the sun and the ground under the radiant temperature can be greatly affected the designing process. 

The main purpose of this study which is "studying The Effect of Architectural design in modification of thermal comfort by using ecological indicators of climate Digital" is to show the impact of design guidelines in controlling and adjustment of comfort territories. According to this study, field study and hypothesis testing is a good way to gather basic data and methodology of this study is descriptive - analytical. These studies have taken place in Yazd, A city which is residential only because of intelligent design and great use of natural resources and modifying and compiling the difficult weather conditions. Due to the diversity of urban areas in Yazd we had to limit our studies to traditional places and homes and we chose Arazb Zadeh'd house which is located in old quarter of the city. Analyzing the results with simulation and measured data by valid climatically indicators is Based on the balance of the human body and the physiological equivalent temperature predicted in the survey and standard effective temperature. Comparing these results with data from Yazd synoptic stations shows that the spatial structure has a great deal of impact on the micro-climate. the results from this study implies that the designing process has been very effective on modifying the climate conditions for people to live in the hottest days of summer and coolest days of winter.


An analysis of the pattern of physical development of Abdanan city by the means of quantitative models

Abstract- Increasing the population of the country’s cities, the pattern of physical development of the cities has altered. The study of these patterns has contributed urban planners and designers greatly to provide urban plans. By the means of descriptive-analytical method, this paper studied the pattern of physical development of Abdanan city and aimed to answer following questions: 1- How is the pattern of physical development in Abdanan city? 2- How many percentages of urban development are related to population increase and how many percentages of urban development are related to Aspral growth? In this regard, required information was provided by the municipal of Abdanan city. The information was analyzed using Shannon entropy and Holdern models. Tools which are applied in this paper are Exell and ARC MAP. Results obtained by applying Shannon entropy model indicated that the pattern of physical development in this city approaches instability; and results obtained by Holdern model indicated that 100 percent of physical development obtained in the period of this research stems from population growth. Finally we offered some recommendations such as the policy of tall buildings, reconstruction of old texture of the city for future and etc.


Studying the environmental pollution resulting from tourism in plages and some strategies for reducing it (Case Study: Shahrdari Plage and Tooskasara Plage in Ramsar City)

Abstract—Beaches and plages have an important role in attracting tourists, because they have natural features. Tourism causes income generating, as well as environmental degradation in the region and types of pollution. Since these areas are not vast, in a short time, large amount of garbage and sewage will be produced there. We studied the conditions of Shahrdari plage and Tooskasara plage in Ramsar. The purpose of this research is to study the amount of produced garbage and sewage of tourists and their seasonal distribution in the most and least visited days and to compare the number of tourists and types of pollutions of the mentioned plages. Our methodology is cross-sectional and it is a library and field-based study. We went to the municipality of Ramsar for data collection. Since our study is field-based, we went to the plages to observe and measure the number of visitors and the amount of garbage and sewage in April, August and December. We put statistics on diagrams in excel. The results suggest, there is a lot of garbage and sewage in the most visited months because of many tourists, lack of proper environmental controls and their limited area and there is more garbage and sewage in Tooskasara plage due to its better facilities. Thus, using modern methods of pollution control, eco-tourism facilities and proper culture building will keep tourists and protect the environment of the region.


Studying the Functional Architectural Patterns of Historical Baths

(Case Study: Bathhouses in Ardabil in Safavid and Qajar Periods)

Abstract— Historical buildings, particularly public ones are of great importance; therefore good understanding, documenting and understanding the architectural design patterns of these buildings seems necessary. On the other hand, complex and diverse conditions and particularities in designing the historical bathhouses have given rise to particular architectural pattern; and studying and finding these patterns is important. Historical bathhouses were considered as major urban areas and they had a rich and valuable architecture and like other old buildings, they follow certain patterns. The present paper investigates the functional architectural patterns of historical bathhouses of Ardabil. Analysis of these structures can help us in achieving the useful information in order to properly use and maintain and repair these works and also to take the benefit of design patterns of local architecture of the region. Using historical documents, available resources in this context and field studies, this research has studied the functional factors influencing the architectural design of bathhouses of Safavid period up to the middle of the Qajar dynasty in Ardabil; then its functional architectural patterns have been presented.


Examination of social identity and social studies training in school

Abstract-The goal is examination of social identity and social studies training in schools. Importance of subject examination is, respect to socialize or prepare students to attend effectively in community and comprehend timely and coordinate, functions and community culture to show reasonable performance including reactions, behavior or action to meet needs and reach to mass goal.

This study is based on library method and analytical and collection research considering the role of social studies Training in schools that form direct the identity toward culture, values and current ceremonies in state into learners existence.


Analysis of Health Education Components in Elementary Text Books: a Pace to improve Health Literacy Level in the Society
Abstract— This study investigated analysis of health education components in the elementary text books from Shannon Entropy. To carry this study the elementary textbooks of 2011-2012, educational year, with seven headings: (Read) farsi, (write) farsi, sciences, sky gifts, sky gifts (homework), Koran and social education were chosen. Methods: The research method is content analysis, Shannon Entropy, and unit of analysis is also the concept (text, question and exercises, and images).According to this method, which is named as compensation model the researcher, chose six components of skin hygiene, mouth, mouth and teeth hygiene, sport and body activity, nourishment, attention to aids, smoking and drugs for his study. Results: obtained components were evaluated based on Shanon’s view. So the statistical value showed that the skin hygiene was the component that the textbooks pay attention to more than other components, and there was a little attention toward the nourishment and Aids in the text books. Conclusion: Health promotion and health-related education should be initiated beginning and then the school will develop. Health education as investment topics, lesson book, as it has not been considered areas requiring attention.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 12 (Part I)


Effect of caffeine supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of male broilers chicks

Abstract: Caffeine added to drinks and food as a stimulator drug, and causes HCL secretion in stomach, hypertension and dilated blood vessels. In this experiment 200 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (5 pens/ treatment of 10 male broilers each) in a completely randomized design. First treat was a control and the next three dietary treatments were supplemented with caffeine: 2) 0.5%, 3) 1.00%, 4) 2.00%. Broiler starter, grower and finisher diets, based on corn and soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and fed ad libitum. All data were analyzed by the analysis of variance general linear models procedure of SAS/STAT software and when treatment means were significant (P < 0.05), Tukey’s multiple range tests was used to compare means. Before analysis, the univariate test was used to assess the normality of all data. Results show that with inclusion levels of caffeine, FI and DWG significantly decreased. Different levels of caffeine had no significant effects on FCR. Pancreases, neck and bursa relative weight and carcass percentage in 21 d and neck, gizzard and thymus weight in 42 d significantly increased with higher levels of caffeine. It was concluded that there was no significant difference in 0.5 and 1.00 % of caffeine and 2% caffeine cusses caffeinism in broiler chicks. 


Evaluation of pressure treatments on microorganisms

Abstract: Novel food processing technologies aim to provide safe, high quality foods with desirable nutritional and physico-chemical properties. One of those emerging processes which could serve as an alternative method for food preservation is the use of high hydrostatic pressure. This treatment permits the inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes at low temperatures, whilst valuable low molecular constituents, such as vitamins, colors and flavorings, remain largely unaffected. Hydrostatic high pressure technology is relatively new to food industry and is more and more considered as an alternative to traditional preservation methods like heat processing. Inactivation of bacteria, spores, and virus has been demonstrated.


Analyze of the Components of Social Capital among Agriculture Students  

Abstract—The aim of this study was to analyze the components of social capital among agricultural students with emphasis on entrepreneurship. This survey was descriptive and correlational study. Statistical population consisted of agricultural students in Tarbiat Modares University (n=468) which 181 student was selected as samples by Bartlett table. Samples were studied via using simple stratified random sampling method. Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by pilot test and Cronbach's alpha was calculated 91 percent. Results of exploratory factor analysis showed that in this research social capital consisted of six components: social cohesion, social cultural values, social participation, social interaction and trust, social recognition and awareness and job security. These components explained 60 percent variance of social capital.


Optimization production method of red Ray onion cultivar for sustainable cultivation 

Abstract—Onion is one of the important vegetables. Onion production was done by seed planting and transplanting methods. Transplant age, plant density and its interaction with transplant age is important subjects. Research was done in Mohammad-Shahr Karaj in 2012.The experimental design was split plot in RCBD base at 4replications.Main factor was plant density (5,7.5,10,12.5cm), sub factor was transplant age (45,55,65days). Each plot had 6rows that the length of them, was 4 meters & 30cm distances. Statistical operations were done by Dankan method with MSTATC software. The results showed that using of 45 and 55 days transplants and 5and 7.5cm plant distances were the highest in the traits.


Re-Construction Management on Urbanities based on spatial approaches

Abstract: In the case of developing countries, the pace of urbanization is rapid compared to their level of industrialization, resulting in irregular settlements. It has been pointed out that the phenomenon of “over-urbanization” occurs as the urban population swells more than the level of economic development can support. Thus, it is now recognized that poverty is an important driving factor in the growth of cities in developing countries. The types and severities of urban environmental problems differ depending on the development level of “hardware” (infrastructure such as mass transportation systems, water supply and sewerage systems, and waste treatment facilities) and “software” (such as legal systems and market economy mechanisms) for a given level of urban economic activity. With this over-urbanization phenomenon, urban environmental infrastructure is a cause of shortages, and poverty is an important factor preventing the formation of financial mechanisms that could facilitate urban environmental infrastructure improvements (Kidokoro 1998).

Nevertheless, since the 1980s, the economic growth of cities has been helped along by increases in foreign direct investment (FDI), as cities became connected to the global economy. Factors such as these are changing the patterns of urban growth. While such urban economic growth can be a factor that drives improvements in urban environmental infrastructure, it also encourages urban population growth. Moreover, this can intensify problems associated with both environment and environmental infrastructure. In following sub-sections, the issues related to urbanization, economic growth, environmental problems, and their inter-relationship are discussed. 


Assessing the Influence of Development of Virtual Spaces on Economic, Social and Physical Processes of Tehran City from the Viewpoint of Citizens (Case Study: District 6 of Tehran Municipality)

Abstract: This study was performed using the descriptive-analytic research method to assess various relationships among the physical form of urban places and development of electronic places in the context of social, economic and physical processes. By providing a valid and reliable theoretical basis, the conceptual framework of the study was examined in a case study (District 6 of Tehran Municipality was selected because of its existing virtualpotentials) by going through scientific steps. In expanding different viewpoints, the highest level of advantage was taken from the theoretical approach to the social and political constructs of technology. The primary objectives of the research were also determined based on the results of assessment of the viewpoint of citizens on the influence of development of virtual spaces on economic, social and physical processes. Results indicated that the rate of usage of some virtual services (such as the Internet, banks and institutes electronic network, spending leisure time, city electronic portal, etc.) is high among citizens. In addition, results of the assessment of the viewpoints of citizens on the positive effects of development of the cyber technology on economic, sociocultural and physical processes showed that development of the cyber technology has a positive effect on these processes. Therefore, development of virtual spaces and transition from conventional processes provides for overcoming temporal and physical obstacles and limitations in the district. It also will drastically reduce the frequency of physical visits paid by citizens to receive services.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 11 (Part II)


Examination of environmental effect of green roofs through a sustainable development approach

Abstract__Expansion of cities leads to destruction of natural environments and farm lands. Therefore, establishment and development of green spaces has a critical role in live of all creatures including human being. Considering the data is published by IEA, 40 percent of world energy is for consuming energy in buildings . Attention to different aspects of foundation of these buildings and houses with low energy consumption and maximum conformity with the natural environment and producers become doubled. Green houses and roofs hold several advantages of reduction of air pollution, sound pollution, energy storage, recreational spaces, decrease of cost of maintenance and exchange of roofs all together. In the current paper, through using library sources besides collecting required information descriptively –analytically, different aspects of green roof and analysis of methods of its development in cities on the basis of standards of sustainable development are considered. 


The review on regulations of urban furniture standards in Sardasht,Iran

(Case Study: Seyed Qotb and Vahdat streets)

Abstract— As one of the foremost elements in urban environment, the urban furniture may play essential role in utility and aesthetics of space from citizens’ view and on the other hand in standardization of urban furniture leads to rising of efficiency in these elements, more sustainability of urban furniture, and improvement of level of users’ satisfaction. The present research is aimed at study and evaluation of urban furniture in Sardasht city and furthermore this investigation is of applied type in terms of objective and it is descriptive- analytical in terms of methodology. The evaluation forms have been designed for any furniture through field studies in this survey and also it has explored on current position of street furniture within the studied area by benefitting from technique of interview with the relevant organizations (including municipality beautification organization of a typical city etc) and data and information and then the existing information has been adapted to the prevalent standards and the adjustment model has been presented in the cases where lack of congruity was seen. The study results signify that some weak point are observed in design, topology, and planning for these elements throughout the given zone which include shortage of press kiosks within studied zone, inappropriate height of mail box slot from the ground level, the high distance between street lights in some points of the zone, and lack of drinking water tap in Vahdat Street etc.


The study on economic- demographic performance and position of medium-sized towns in urban system and regional sustainable development of Eastern Azerbaijan Province (With focus on Maragheh Town, Iran)

Abstract— The present article is intended to explore into the role and performance of medium-sized towns in urban system and regional development at Eastern Azerbaijan Province (Iran) with focus on Maragheh city. The methodology of this study is of descriptive- analytical type in which some quantitative models as well as Excel computerized software have been utilized. And also data collection has been done by means of documentation and library method. The results of demographic models may show that medium-sized towns and Maragheh city have enjoyed flexibility, population- attractive, and susceptive for migration and regardless of their demographic performance, imbalance may increase further in urban system of this province. The existing lack of residence in provincial urban hierarchical system within population groups (250-500 thousand people) and (500 thousands to 1 million people) has caused role of Maragheh and other medium-sized towns to become more downplayed in spatial balance and regular distribution of urban hierarchy at Eastern Azerbaijan Province. The economic models signify that Maragheh and other medium-sized towns of this province have basic conditions in Agricultural Sector. In sector of industry, all medium-sized towns have had non- basic status including Maragheh town. Among three economic sectors, economic growth in Servicing Sector is higher than the mean value of economic growth of town and province in Maragheh and the given province at this level. Eastern Azerbaijan province and Maragheh town are shared in terms of high growth at servicing sector and with respect to the susceptible backgrounds in this town in servicing and agricultural performances, in the case of improving of infrastructures, investment, and leading strategic plans in Maragheh town, this city may be purposed as a servicing and agricultural center for southern settlements in this province.


The study of citizen participation role on the reinforcement of the improvement-renovation plan with special reference to the empowerment approach (case study: shahid Garebaghi neighborhood-Tabriz-Iran)

Abstract— the main objective of this study was to evaluate the citizen participation role on the reinforcement of the improvement-renovation plan with special reference to the empowerment approach in Tabriz. Based on the purpose of the research and its application, the study is a descriptive-analytic one. The required data for the study has been gathered and analyzed through field study and questionnaire. The population of the study was region 4 of Tabriz. 330 sample with using Cochran formula has been selected. Pearson correlation has been used to test the hypotheses. The results of the study indicate a significant relationship between improvement-renovation projects performance and citizen participation, in contrast there is no significant relationship between improvement-renovation projects performance and empowerment approach. Finally recommendations are proposed.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 11 (Part I)


Effect of caffeine supplementation on Immunity response of male broilers chicks

Abstract: Caffeine added to drinks and food as a stimulator drug, and causes HCL secretion in stomach, hypertension and dilated blood vessels. In this experiment 200 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (5 pens/ treatment of 10 male broilers each) in a completely randomized design. First treat was a control and the next three dietary treatments were supplemented with caffeine: 2) 0.5%, 3) 1.00%, 4) 2.00%. Broiler starter, grower and finisher diets, based on corn and soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and fed ad libitum. To assess humeral immune response, evaluation of antibodies against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) on days 36 and 42 were used and to cellular immunity, Coetaneous Basophile Hypersensitivity (CBH) was used. All data were analyzed by the analysis of variance general linear models procedure of SAS/STAT software and when treatment means were significant (P < 0.05), Tukey’s multiple range tests was used to compare means. Before analysis, the univariate test was used to assess the normality of all data. Results show that caffeine supplementation significantly increased humeral immune response, and 0.5% caffeine induces maximum IgM in 42d. Although cell mediated immunity significantly decreased with inclusion level of caffeine in day 14, and maximum cellar immune response were shown with 0.5% caffeine supplementation. It was concluded that 0.5 caffeine supplementation cause maximum humeral and cell mediated immune response in 42 and 14d, respectively.


Determining the land suitability of two irrigated products of wheat and corn by parametric method (Storie and square root) and simple constraints in the region of Kamin, Saadat Shahr – Fars province

Abstract— In this study, the land suitability in the area of Kamin, Saadat Shahr in Fars Province was conducted in a parametric method (Storie and square root) and simple constraints for two irrigated products of wheat and corn in eight soil profiles and the results indicated relatively good classes and critical suitability.


The Effect of Different amounts of phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids on agricultural characteristics of corn(Zea mays L.)

Abstract— In order to determinate of the effects of different amounts of phenylalanine tryptophan amino acids on corn (Zea mays L.) was conducted and experiment as split plot-factorial in based on randomized complete block design with three replication. the treatments were consisted of two the foliar spray application times(4-6 and 8 leave stages),as the main factor and with of the phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids(0,50,100 and 150 ppm),as a second factor. The results indicated that phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids could showed significant effect on characters like grain yield, row number in ear, grain number in row and protein of each grain. The main comparisons indicated that the phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids with concentration of 100 ppm caused significant increasing on characters under examination in the 8 leave stage these amino acids could improved the row number in ear, grain number in row, grain yield and protein rate in each grain by 12%.


The Valuate of Different amounts of phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids on physiological characteristics of corn(Zea mays L.)

Abstract—In order to determinate of the effects of different amounts of phenylalanine tryptophan amino acids on corn (Zea mays L.) was conducted and experiment as split plot-factorial in based on randomized complete block design with three replication. the treatments were consisted of two the foliar spray application times(4-6 and 8 leave stages),as the main factor and with of the phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids(0,50,100 and 150 ppm),as a second factor. The results indicated that phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids could showed significant effect on characters like grain yield, row number in ear, grain number in row and protein of each grain. The main comparisons indicated that the phenylalanine and tryptophan amino acids with concentration of 100 ppm caused significant increasing on characters under examination in the 8 leave stage these amino acids could improved the row number in ear, grain number in row, grain yield and protein rate in each grain by 12%.


Applying the Knowledge of Operational Research in Agricultural Mechanization

Abstract—Applying any technologies that leads to increase productivity in the agricultural production is interpreted as mechanization. In another definition, the mechanization is the use of technology in agriculture in order to achieve stable development. If the latter definition is considered as the basis, it can be concluded that by using the scientific achievements which is considered as a type of technology and is accelerated the development of mechanical agriculture; steps have been taken to expand mechanization. One of these scientific achievements is the knowledge of Operational research. This knowledge which is one of the branches of applied mathematics is used to facilitate decision making based on scientific criteria and constraints. In the agricultural sector in which there are various restrictions such as weather conditions, economic and social issues; taking advantage of this knowledge can help to solve problems and make the right decision. This paper introduces knowledge of Operational research and its application context in agricultural mechanization.


The indiscriminate use of fertilizers containing of lead in soils of southern Kerman, Iran

Abstract__soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most serious environmental problems. in this study the lead metal concentrations were studied in soil southern Kerman province, Iran. For this aim, three samples soil were selected from study area, and from each region 10 soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm of depth. samples were mixed together, and then one sample was sent to the lab combined. After extraction, to measure lead concentration was used of atomic absorption spectrometer. The results show that the risk of lead contamination was more in the city of Jiroft that can be the soil characteristics.


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Supplementary Issue in Finance, Economics and Social Studies, Part II: Vol 6, Issues 13(S) - 15(S)


2014: Vol 6, Issue 15(S)


Assessing the performance of the MehrAstan high education institute based on CRM and EFQM combinational method

Abstract: Nowadays quality and customer-orientation  is one of the main competitiveness challenges, and creation and maintenance of customer as one of the main criteria of quality and continuous  improvement  is of great importance. In this respect, EFQM, one of the organizational excellence  models ,as one of the evaluative factors of organizational function, will compare the recent condition of the organization with the desired condition and provide solutions on improving the recent condition of the organization and approaching desired condition. On the other hand, since customer satisfaction has great effects on organization excellence , reaching it requires a separated  section , called CRM in organization. Therefore ,in this paper, by utilizing combinational  EFQM and CRM model , the degree of customer satisfaction on 100 of the students of the university of MehrAstan, located in Gilan province will be examined. The results indicate the average level of satisfaction about 52.8%, and the reasons will be investigated and finally suggestions will be provided to improve the condition of the above mentioned organization.


Brand and Economic Development

Abstract— Today, research on branding is one of the most important issues in the field of marketing research. The brand can be considered as an Organization ID for the customer and other stakeholder organizations. With a long-term qualified plan beneficiaries as possible, with the ID of a well known identifier introduced. Nowadays brands have found their way in many aspects of human life. Brands have an impact on the lifestyle and culture, and sometimes even are represented. They may influence the lives and the values of individuals, beliefs, policies, and even affect a person’s soul. [ 2 ] Brand name is the name of the phrase , term , sign , symbol , design or combination of them , intended to identify the goods and services to retailers or group of sellers and to differentiate them from goods companies competitors are using . [10] This article discusses the concept of the brand and scope of its main  specified. In continuing the success of hundreds of famous brand has been investigated. Finally internal branding, branding and employer branding organization and its relation with together were discussed.


Analyzing the various provinces of Iran's share of added value of agriculture and calculation of coefficient place index (with an emphasis on the role and significance of Semnan province)

Abstract— Agriculture as an important economic sectors of the country due to capital limitations in constraints, climate and technology in agriculture based on the relative advantage is more important, However this relative advantage will be sustained unless there is progress in technology and innovation dynamics hence, this study has tried to give that the share of value added in each of the provinces and the calculated index where agriculture comparative advantage in this sector are examined. Also according to the features and functionality of the provinces agricultural sector and role of the state in this respect, in order to achieve the goals of national development and reginald efforts using index analysis location coefficient LQ activities agricultural province in terms of basic is being analyzed. 


Non-technical Challenges to ISMS Implementation in Iranian Organizations and the Solutions

Abstracts--- Today, with the rapid development of information technology in all aspects, Information Security Management has gained considerable importance. In order to increase the security level, along with paying attention to the practical points, it is imperative to reconsider culturalization, education, policy making and take into account the human and social issues. Unfortunately, in some organizations, particularly in developing countries like Iran, neglect of some non-technical factors sets some barriers to implementation of the information security-related projects. In this paper, after introducing the information security management system (ISMS) and its benefits, the non-technical barriers to implementation of these types of projects in Iran are investigated and some solutions are presented. This study is of applied and descriptive type and the data were collected via library studies, interviews and searching in the internet. 


A developed model for technology acceptance in accordance with the circumstances of Iran

Abstract— In this paper, by integrating innovative Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory Of Planned Behavior and also considering the social, cultural, religious conditions and characterized by trust, we offer a comprehensive model for the adoption of technology in Iran. A large number of research has been done in this field in order to have the acceptance of certain technologies and the technologies purely economic aspects have been investigated and social and cultural issues are referred to the lesser, due to the importance of technology acceptance and how to properly integrate its delivery model considering the characteristics of the social, cultural and religious conditions in Iran is intended. In the proposed model the characterization of trust has also been used which has been noticed less.


Organisational and Professional Commitment on Dysfunctional Audit Behaviour

Abstract— To study this research ,statistic system has been selected 100people based on Kokaran formula and 80 official accountants from accountancy institutions of Esfahan province.Simple random method and also a questionnaire with 21 questions with two assumptions were used. The questionnaire also were estimated based on the Alfa of kronbakh %802 formula that it shows the value of questionnaire .The method of assembling the information and datas is as library and the tools of assembling the datas are quastionnair.For analyzing the data of questionnaire ,in two parts of the descriptive and  inferential the "SPSS"  software was used.The result of this research after checking the statistic data will be shown that the both,professional and organizational commitment,are opposite of odysfunctional behavior. With comparing two models of Regression that were studied  in the first and second assumption ,we can obviously notice that however both professional and organizational commitment have effect on dysfunctional behavior ,the influence of professional commitment is more than organizational commitment.


Investigation of important various aspects of human capital in SHRM

Abstract— Human resources constitute is an important part of any organization’s funds, and its accurate management can play a crucial role in the ultimate success of the organization. The overlooking in human resources has been developed with the evolution of management theories. Today, on the strategic planning horizon, human resource managers of any organization have effective role in setting goals and methods. Human capital has been recently emphasized as one of the most important topics in strategic human resource management. In this study, various aspects of human capital including human capital measurement in strategic human resource management, important concepts such as individual human capital versus social human capital, public vs. private, skills and motivation and its relationship to work as well as investment property are explored with considering the necessity of strategic human resource management.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 14(S)


The importance of intellectual capital in knowledge-based organizations for obtaining competitiveness superiority

Abstract—Today due to advances made in information technology and scientificazation of business, competing and economy, organizations in order for their survival have introduced knowledge as the most important capital substituting physical and financial capitals. Science as a competing advantage which gaining importance in business, competitiveness and economic strategies in organization, has triggered continual innovation and subsequently precipitating competitiveness transcendence A knowledge-based organization which knowledge and human resources are its best capital, generating and constructing values is done by intangible properties known as intellectual capital. Organizational knowledge is the foundation of any knowledge-based organization, so they play crucially strategic role. Intellectual capital of all staff, contains organizational knowledge and competences for generating values and makes the organization`s superiority happen in their competing field.Intellectual capital plays a key role in steps to manage strategic human resources in organizations and also is a key simulator for organizations competitiveness and its improvement. Since understanding and exploitation of vital intangible resources helps to preserve and to acquire competitive advantage in this appear we are to recognize intellectual capital as intangible asset of knowledge based organizations and by elaborating on elements and measurements of this asset we deal with competitiveness excellency of the organizations in competing world.


Comparative study of social climate of private and public junior high school in Sabzevar and its effect on the students` success rate

Abstract— The main purpose of this study is a comparative analysis of the social climate in public schools and private schools and its effect on the students’ success rate. In this paper, the author has chosen survey method and used questionnaires as tools. The population was all the students in Junior high schools in Sabzevar, in a sample size of 399 students in two public schools and two private schools. The achieved results show that the social atmosphere in private schools is more unrestricted and the students’ success rate is better than public schools. Also, considering the gender, girls’ school social climate is more open than boys’ school.                                                         


Investigate the effect Organizational Trust on Organizational Innovation In Ilam Petrochemical Company

Abstract—Today,the major challenge of organizations is innovation and facing the unstable and turbulent external environment, concepts like trust-given its key role in attracting and retaining talent and human capital that are rich in creativity and innovation in organizations- will find a more prominent role. This study aimed to find the effect of organizational trust on organizational innovation. The research population includes 140 technical- operational and semi-operational staffs in Ilam petrochemical company. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed and 103 people were chosen according to the Cochran formula. The research method was descriptive correlational. Measuring instruments in this study consisted of: organizational trust and organizational innovation questionnaires. Cronbach's alpha coefficients obtained from a sample of 30 questionnaires was respectively 0.98 for trust questionnaire and 0.879for organizational innovation. The results showed that organizational trust with the coefficient of 0.37 has a significant positive effect on organizational innovation.


Evaluation of the Relation between the Components of the Country of Origin on Consumer’s purchase intentions Home Appliances

Abstract - Considering the important role the country of origin is playing in the decision of buyers and against the retro ground of critic guard from the role of country of origin, the question is that what factor is effective in an intention for the purchase of consumers considering the information of country of origin. 

Responding this question which is the main goal of research we have studied the comparative effect of intellectual picture from the country of origin and intellectual picture from the brand from the viewpoint of potential competition (Orthogonality-Irradiation), intention for the purchase of consumers of brands of household appliances of Iran and South Korea and especially refrigerator (Snowa and Samsung) throughout Tehran. Considering that the results of this research having direct application on the behavior of consumers, therefore this is an applied research and from the viewpoint of method of collection of information is a descriptive research. 

Therefore, we have selected questionnaire on the basis of selected variables and using the method of proportion estimation of statistical society sample, 267 persons were considered. To analysis the information collected from questionnaire we have used the statistical, descriptive and inferential methods and the structural models and using PLS and SPSS software, the data were analyzed and all hypotheses were tested independently on the basis of two viewpoints in four difference scenarios for each country and hypotheses were confirmed.

The analysis of findings shows that about the brand of Iran, the intellectual picture from the country of origin makes effect on the intention for the purchase of consumer on indirect basis which this effect is adjusted by the intellectual picture of brand. Whereas about the brand of  South Korea this effect is on direct and indirect basis. These findings are compatible with radiancy viewpoint. 


MAiAB ECS: A case study of Mobile Agents in Auction-Bidder E-Commerce Systems

Abstract— E-commerce is a general concern of IT managers that is every day extends in many ways. One of main challenge in electronic transaction is availability of services. To achieve this non-functional requirement, infrastructure of E-commerce should be reliable and available. This paper suggest using mobile agents for E-commerce because of their capability of migration from any platform to another, they can increase availability of systems. This idea is implemented in JADE platform as an environment for agents based on java programming language. Results of implementation shows mobility of agents can help to keep system available by migration or cloning agents to other computer or processes. It’s hopeful that agents can increase performance of system by cloning their selves and divide their tasks to deposit them to other agents and conquer their goals by decreasing response time to improving performance.


Designing Rule-Based & Decision Tree Spam Detection

Abstract: Amongst the security threats against the e-mails are the spams. To detect spams, the key word databank is selected and the specified keywords are saved in the relevant data structure. When an e-mail is received, its contents and behavior are reviewed. Since it is presumed that the nature of the e-mail content is that of text, in order to decrease the disparateness and increase the efficiency, the text is summarized, the roots of the words are determined and set on a vector and then the rule-based scoring of the vectors is applied. In addition to common rules, new rules are also introduced into this expert system to enhance its efficiency. On the contrary to common systems which apply the Naïve Bayes classification, the decision tree is used to develop the expert system. In the assessment done afterwards by means of a standard dataset including 21 properties and 4601 samples, we concluded that the F-measure attained by decision-tree classification is larger than the one by Naïve Bayes classification and therefore it provides higher accuracy. The other conclusion was that the resultant FPR from decision tree classification is smaller than the one from Naïve Bayes classification which means it has fewer cases of wrong detection. The precision relevant to decision tree classification is also higher than the precision provided by Naïve Bayes classification which proves a higher degree of accuracy in its algorithm. Through a comparison made between the results of the decision tree classification and sample-based learning method, we came to similar conclusions. A review of the cost, TN and FP factors also revealed that besides the assistance it provides to the experts in exploitation of data, the decision tree classification is an optimal method compared to the common Naïve Bayes (simple) classification.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 13(S)


Measuring the effectiveness of IT outsourcing, a case study in ICT organization of Mashhad municipality

Abstract— In recent years, the widespread use of IT as one of the important and competitive factors for organizations has taken into consideration and the organizations’ tend to use IT outsourcing for responding effectively to the environment has increased dramatically. Despite numerous advantages of IT outsourcing, it is accompanied with risks. Lack of attention to risks leads to project failure. Thus, previous researches have focused on identifying and prioritizing risks, justifying or not justifying outsourcing and evaluating the outsourcing outcomes in areas other than IT. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to evaluate the performance of IT outsourcing projects that is considered as an important issue. For this purpose, by reviewing key articles, the effective factors in evaluating the performance of IT outsourcing were categorized into five groups: financial, customer, internal business processes, leadership and growth and technology/system until assessment not only be limited to the monetary variables. The mentioned factors were scored in two state of before and after outsourcing, in the form of a questionnaire. Also for determining the sequence of doing corrective actions, these factors were weighted via AHP method by using Expert Choice software. The proposed performance evaluation method in this study helps the organization to reach a comprehensive view of current situation of implementing outsourcing that leads to formulation or improvement of strategy and learning. Results showed that the organization has reached to its expected goal just in one dimension and the consequences of the other dimensions are not satisfactory.


Study of the possibility of establishing Requirements for Successor- training in the national company of oil products distribution and to present a desirable model (case study in national company staff of oil product distribution of Tehran)

Abstract- Modern organizations must plan effective at all levels in order to manage present and future talents and to be assured that suitable individuals are available for key jobs, at suitable places and times with sufficient skill for the purpose of meeting organizational needs or covering the gop due to probable loss of these resources and plan and perform successor- training plans. In this investigation the successor- training model of William G. Ruth from pensilvania university of America has been used as the most important theoretical foundations. The most important requirements in this model in two aspects consist of: the rate of readiness and the obligation of the organization and managers, successor- training system, policies and strategies of human sources for administering successor- training. The hypotheses of the study were analyzed using implicational parametric statistical techniques (mono- sample test) and nonparametric. The results of the hypothesis test confirmed all hypotheses (existence of requirements for establishing successor- training system in national oil company.   


Insurance Industry Market Management by GREEN Approach

Abstract— Competitive market and increasing environmental concerns, consisting governmental regulations and systems, and also increase of customers' knowledge lead the insurance companies to consider the physical, mental and environmental health of the customers as an important issue. Commercial insurance industry is a field of business that has a high effect on environmental and the other aspects of the community such as economy, society, culture and technology among the others. Green Marketing refers to a concept that considers customer health in addition to profit making and sale increase. Due to above description, new concepts of marketing such as Green Marketing, Environmental and Social Marketing are being developed in order to perform the social responsibility by a wide range of businesses. In this paper we try to study the importance and reasons of considering Green Marketing, levels of Green Marketing, development of the field at general and in insurance industry by a library collection approach. In addition, the interaction between Green Marketing and insurance industry is studied and some solutions and notes are presented.


Investigation and analysis of profit and loss of globalized economy

Abstract—The world has been entered into a new era by technological and political evolutions, which quick reduction in intervals and spatial distance, increasingly merging of economical, social and political systems of the world and also stunning growth in production and consumption have come to be considered for its outstanding characteristic. Production, distribution and consumption processes have been changed by these evolutions, and economical and political structures and social relations have been subjected to fundamental changes.  The most important aspects of globalization are expanding and deepening interdependence between countries and national economics, integration of national markets and increasing in trades, removing of trade supporting regulations and development of world trade organization. The world economic union's activities of international companies and international economic institutions and IMF form these aspects. Transmission of capitals and funds and certainly labor division in international level will be expanded by removing of many possible trading barriers and with the emerging of globalization of economy which in turn, leads to improved efficiency of international economy. In this paper, we are addressing questions such as, what is global economy? What parts are included? And effects of globalization.


Examine challenges in the field of e-commerce and provide solutions to combat sanctions

Abstract— Progress of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which has a particular worldview, is in conflict with the interests of the superpower nations, so enmity with such country cannot be a transient state. In these conditions, Iran that have Single-product economic, should take effective steps towards reducing dependence on oil and develop non-oil export. In this context, one of the most important factors that can have an important role in supporting domestic production is the expansion of electronic exchanges. This paper attempts to examine the challenges in the field of electronic exchanges and in continuing to provide solutions to combat sanctions. In this regard, we will examine the benefits and obstacles of ecommerce and by tests were performed, appropriate solutions'   present to achieve it. In this study, obstacles is classified into four categories  :1. Obstacles of technical infrastructure and hardware 2. Obstacles of legal and security infrastructure 3. Obstacles of internet infrastructure 4. Obstacles of human and educational infrastructure and by using descriptive test will examine the hypotheses. Based on the results, one of the main obstacles in the field is security and legal infrastructure obstacles to expand for electronic exchanges.


Investigating IP Exchange in the OTC Market of Iran

Abstract— Marketplaces for intellectual properties have been created with the aim of commercializing the ideas and protection of intellectual property rights of individuals and organizations with the technical knowledge. There is the possibility of trading discoveries, inventions, industrial designs and brand names in these markets and if applicable, the transfer of intellectual assets will be done with greater transparency and greater motivation will emerge to create ideas with commercialization capabilities. In this article, a report is presented on the launch of the market of intellectual properties or so-called stock exchange of ideas in the OTC (Over-the-counter) Market of Iran. It also introduces one of the most successful examples of intellectual properties markets in the United States of America named IPXI (Intellectual Property Exchange International) and goals and its various parts are briefly described. It has been trying by reviewing the necessities of setting up of intellectual properties market in Iran and forecasted process of implementation for the assignment of patents in stock exchange, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and provide recommendations for performance improvement in the future.


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Supplementary Issue in Finance, Economics and Social Studies, Part I: Vol 6, Issues 10(S) - 12(S)


2014: Vol 6, Issue 12(S)


Islamic accounting with emphasis on ethical evaluation criteria

Abstract — Financial and bank affairs development in the past 20 years ago in Muslim   countries all over the world, economic scandals and fraud led into more concentration of ethical measures on accounting. Thus, the need to Islamic accounting to meet the demands of the society was increasing. This is due to the inconsistency of traditional accounting principles with Islamic accounting. The present study attempted to present a comprehensive plan in accordance to Sharia, ethical evaluation measures (justice, fairness and Zakat  (to show how trading is launched and how accounting should be done. Also, it discussed the contrast of traditional and Islamic accounting, model, goals and features of Islamic accounting. The results of the study showed that ethical measures implementation can make the role of accounting more effective.


The impacts of operations capabilities and marketing on financial performance in the Iran retail sector

Abstract: This study grounds its main focus upon the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm and investigates the existing interconnectedness among operations capability, marketing capability, and financial performance. Applying archival data of 100 Iranian retail firms, it has been realized that marketing capability greatly influences the operations capability which in turn is noticeably and positively relevant to retail efficiency. The outcomes of the mentioned investigation also propose that operations capacity thoroughly mediates the relationship between financial performance and marketing capability. The findings of this carried out study offers in-depth insights for practicing managers to consider when they are supposed to improve functional capabilities in order to accomplish superior financial performance.


Measurement model and improvement of productivity by using factor-analysis techniques and PCDA

Abstract— This paper aims to improve productivity by sketching descriptive-analytic pattern  in order to identity level of productivity and ultimately to know how productivity improved.

This pattern is composed four independent parts.

The first part produce and describe productive indicator values. The second part ,using factor-analytic techniques to identify impalpable factors on the level of productivity .the third part using PDCA  to sketch improvement plan after analyzing level of productivity.

And finally, the fourth part provides practical steps for improvement and level of productivity.


A New Scheduling Model For Cross-Docking  With Regard to Uncertainty in Delivery Time and Goods Perish ability

Abstract— Simultaneous scheduling of goods cross-docking and transportation vehicles routing has been long under study. Thepresent paper tries to introduce a new configuration in this area by adding some assumptions _such asperishability principle and uncertainty in delivery time_ and limitations _such as due date and minimum service level_ to the literature. Consideration of these assumptions and limitations will lead to a mixed integer scheduling model, in solution of which genetic algorithm will be used. Results approve the use of the mentioned algorithm in solution of the proposed model.


The relationship between the characteristics of buyers and choice of color mobile phones in Rasht city

Abstract— In today's competitive market, that the main issue for marketers  is how to influence buying decisions  to get good response for their efforts of consumers , the color can be applied for attracting Concentration, arousal and desire since it is highly related to object identity  and important tool to shape the client’s feeling and his reaction and marketers should take in mind different aspects of characteristics of a consumer to understand his goals and plans. In this study the relation between  characteristics of consumer as an independent parameter and  how to decide  regarding selection of  color of cell phones in Rasht city as a dependent factor has been investigated using Pearson chi-square and finally with confirming the hypotheses of this study , findings showed that in decisions of buyers there is a significant relationship between buyers features including personality factors (assertiveness, self-regard, independence, reality testing, flexibility and optimism) , gender, marital status, age, income and education, with a choice of color mobile phones.


Economic sustainable development through entrepreneurship and social capital

Abstract— Social capital is one of important organizational capabilities and assets that can help organizations to create and develop the human capital. Experimental evidences in knowledge-based societies clearly reveal the importance of knowledge creation process in relation to social capital in organizations. Social capital is a new concept that is posed in economic reviews in modern societies.  In the absence of social capital, other capitals lose their effectiveness and make it difficult to pave cultural and economic development path. Introduce this approach on many economic issues is representative importance of structures role and social relations on economic variables. This approach in economic discussions shows the importance of structures and social relations on economic variables. 

Social capital is essentially a collection of networks, norms and cognitions (understanding) that facilitates cooperation within groups and between groups in order to achieve mutual interests. Social capital is primarily based on cultural and social factors and identifying it as an investment in macro management level in developing countries and companies and firms can create a new understanding of social-economic systems and help managers in better guidance of systems. In fact, addressing this matter as a potential can have an effective role in economic progress and development of a country. Therefore, we have tried to present concepts and issues of social capital and entrepreneurship and its functional role in economic development; then we state the relationship between social capital and entrepreneurship by offering a pooled model.


More Need of Professional Ethics in Accounting and Auditing

Abstract: Changing of the environmental, social and cultural conditions in a society has led to the changes in the needs of the human population and this change itself has resulted in developments and more need of higher technology and capitals which can’t be afforded by one individual. So for business and technology development we need more people to invest, and people will invest in such companies only if they are sufficiently assured about their investment. Thus the number of ownerships in the company will increase and this has led to a gap between ownership and management. In such circumstances, and given the diversity of investment, most of the individuals are attempting to invest and buy shares of companies that do not have any working or financial knowledge. In such conditions, the potential and actual investors rely more on the data prepared by accountants and auditors to make such decisions. Thus, accounting and auditing have become an increasingly important field in societies with developing economics. One of the distinguishing features of the accounting and auditing profession compared to most of the fields is the acceptance of responsibility for the public. Hence, the society (both government and people) have some expectations of this profession and to assess the stewardship of management task, one should be able to trust the data prepared by the accountants and reports from auditors. Therefore, accountants and auditors in order to maintain their position in society not only must have professional qualifications but must have genuine integrity, honesty and integrity. So, maintenance of confidence in the community is one of the most valuable assets of this profession. The present review aims to address the subject theoretically. 


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 11(S)


Study of information content of changes in benefit future profitability of dividend and its relationship with the companies accepted in Tehran stock exchange

Abstract— This Article discusses the Information Content of Dividend Changes and its relation with Future profitability of adopted companies in Tehran stock exchange during 1380-1390. 

In this regard, In order to assess the Information Content, dividend changes have been applied. Also in order to measuring the benefits, two change variables at Profit before extraordinary items and changes in asset returns are used. In this study, Patterns of correlation analysis are used, and regression for analyzing research hypotheses is applied. According to research results it can be said that dividend changes have Information Content, that substantially and significantly are related to future profitability, and changes in dividend have also positive and significant relationship with future profitability of company.


Study For Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Environmental Performance Indicators

Abstract__Due to the economic, social, cultural and political development of society and the establishment of coordination and alignment between these dimensions , the most basic elements of planning in achieving sustainable development. EPI (Environmental Performance Index) , executive functioning political systems in order to reduce environmental stress on human health and natural resources to enhance the dynamic environment and the management of risk estimates. In this study, the effect of macroeconomic variables on environmental performance indicators for 10 countries in the Middle East , including Iran, were studied . Data from the World Bank website and EPI, during the years 2010 - 2000 were collected. Estimated using panel data methods ( panel ) and STATA software were taken . The results showed that the higher per capita income countries , education ( literacy ) is greater than the index number closer to 100 would be . It is suggested to achieve high economic growth in addition to preservation of the environment , water resources , soil, natural resources and the capacity utilization of existing manpower as well .


Evaluate the relationship between service quality and customers satisfaction in the marketplace

Abstract—Tendency to service quality plays important function at service industries and companies, because service quality is necessary for achieving customers’ satisfaction and fallowing that for survival and profitability of an organization. Customer satisfaction of service quality has important strategic function at companies’ success and profitability. Due to the importance of this subject we have considered the effect of dimensions and index of service quality on the degree of customers’ satisfaction. The result indicates that mentioned parameters have significant relationship with customers’ satisfaction of services delivered by the company.


Human resources development with Design and Implementation Strategic Tool

 (Grounded Theory)

Abstract— Current research has been done with aiming of Plan designing of individual development as strategic tool at human resources development and optimization. According this matter, for accessing of exact and scientific plan, we have used the strategy of data-based theory. At the time of research, we have used the plan of personal development of five superior organizations as richest present resources for Plan designing of individual development. First according to strategy approach of data-based theory at the first stage it means open coding, the plan of individual development of a pioneering organizations of world (insist on five superior organizations) and their contents were coding, next stage with using of main coding process after determining of main and partial sections of plans, the draft of the plan of individual development has been written. The coded axis’s including development goals, self-development needs, functional needs and mechanisms and self-development activities. As the plan of individual development is agreed document between managers and personnel’s, information and period of apprenticeship and needed sources of these periods are also coded axes.  Finally, the principles of designed plan was compared and modified with guidance of plan of personal development of organizations such as aviation organization of NASA, American Defense ministry, Stanford University, Minnesota University. At last, integrated and comprehensive plan of individual development has been designed and presented for using at optimization and development process of human resources.


The young environmental accounting starting fresh…

Abstract:The most significant step in the field of environment accounting is to pave the way for it to be performed properly. Accounting has been created to face the society's needs and has grown larger in accordance to the social taste changes. Nowadays' social needs to sustain the natural environment with its limited and vulnerable resources have made the accounting studies to step forward even further. Greater attention has been paid to the natural environment as time passes by, thus it has made a suitable background for environmental accounting to develop. This article will discuss the importance of having a coherent and unified way for each and every person and groups, and the high rank people in charge of different organizations. And we will be able to maintain a well-protected natural environment through the environmental accounting as an effective tool as long as we are united to gain this aim.


Intellectual capital and the economic performance of the firms

Abstract— In the knowledge economy, knowledge is considered as the most important factor of production. Intellectual Capital is considered as the main source of value creation in the new economy. Thus, considering the role of intellectual capital in the creation of value, the research has tried to investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and firms' economic performance. Using Multiple Regression model, the research was performed on the firms accepted in the stock exchange of Iran during the years between 2005 and 2009. Using firms' data, it was specified that there is a significant and positive relationship between value added intellectual coefficient and firms' economic performance.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 10(S)


The Effect of Individual Factors and Characteristics on the Organizational Structure of Cinema as a Medium

Abstract—Human beings are considered as the key and most sensitive elements of an organization. Most of the new organizational and management theories refer to such a sensitive factor. But it is certain that the humans are different innately. The individual differences in an organization and among the staff at different ranks of professional environments are the issue that has attracted the attention of the researchers of behavioral sciences. Although the staff and directors of organizations have similarities, they are different from each other from several points of view and these differences make management of human beings more difficult. The more the awareness of the directors of the variety of such differences and their principles is, the higher the possibility for them to be able to coordinate better the endeavors of the individuals under their supervision to achieve organizational goals and increase individual and occupational productivity will be. Therefore, considering the significance and position of individual differences and characteristics of the staff in organizations, this study tries to not only express the concepts of individual and characteristic differences and the origin of individual and characteristic differences of the staff and its effect on their organizational behavior, but also some of the specific characteristics that affect the organizational behavior. In this direction, by using questionnaires as instruments and paying attention to the individual characteristics of the staff, we studied in which organizational structures the employees are inclined to be active. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by using the ideas of the qualified scholars and the questionnaire's reliability was examined through using Cronbach's Alpha test standing at 0.759 level. The statistical sample was prepared by determining Cochran sample volume formula for 346 people. The results of the research over the statistical sample and use of the t-test showed that the employees prefer the organic structure of the organization to the mechanical and middle structures and that they find efficiency, incentive, enthusiasm and cooperation and more importantly satisfaction in organic structures higher than mechanical and middle structures. 


Expression of Resistive economy Factors and its fundamental Elements

Abstract: The culture of using foreign goods and need of manufacturing enterprises to components, spare parts, machineries and importing raw materials and non-protection of above enterprises and relying on the oil revenues and in other word the fragile structure of state economy caused the enemies to benefit from a lever in the name of oil and economic embargos for threatening our country and use the above factor for leading the country towards critical conditions and economic recession. The only solution for releasing from the above status is expressing and executing the resistive economy policy and economic campaign (jihad). The structure of state economy may be strengthened against the foreign invasion (adopted embargos) using expression of the said policy by the leader of Islamic Republic of Iran and analysis of key elements mentioned by him. Promoting the culture of domestic production and modifying the economic structures through payment of low-interest loans for renovation and expansion of production lines, downsizing the economic activities of government upon proper enforcement of principle 44 of constitutional law for strengthening and economic prosperity particularly protection of above companies after assignment, taking effort for correct and complete execution of five-year development plans of Islamic Republic of Iran for increasing the productivity, employment and changing the economic structures, attraction of dispersed and confused investments in production sector through modifying the interest of banking deposits and capital market (stock exchange), as well as attraction of foreign investments upon guaranteeing the return and productivity of investments made through holding the relative conferences and prevention of irregular import of consumables may provide the requirements for retrofitting the state economy.     


Evaluation Performance of the Banks in Attracting and Retaining Customers

Abstract: Increasingly need of people of banking services has caused that initiative plans and projects and fresh approaches are taken into consideration due to different reasons such as development of cities, unsafety of money transfer, acceleration in work procedure, necessity for balance control and payments on the one hand and necessity for realization of people’s expectations, customer loyalty and attraction of new customers.   Knowing and innovative, perseverant and updated administration is a necessity of administration structure of any bank. It seems that similarity in publicity by banks in television and radio media, the press, billboards across the city, media and granting awards do not create the required motivation among customers. Meanwhile, some of managers of banks assume that bank marketing administration has the duty of publicity and advertising. However, duty of marketing administration goes beyond what is assumed by the managers. Herein this paper, in order to survey the case, a hypothesis has been developed (Material motivation, compared to other intra-organizational elements plays the prominent role in qualitative and quantitative promotion of performance of bank personnel). In order to examine the case, a questionnaire has been used for this purpose. The statistical population includes nine state banks accordingly. 


AUDITING TRANSFORMATIONS IN IRAN, OBSTACLES, STRATEGIES AND OPPORTUNITIES

ABSTRACT: Auditing profession has an important role in the world economic system. Auditors' impart credibility to the enterprises performance report and financial position with a reliable basis for decision making by stakeholders. Auditors critical role in the economic system, made the audit profession distinct from other professions and made it vulnerable and affected by numerous and complex economic events. Auditing profession in the world, already several times experienced the mistrust crisis and forced to pay substantial restructuring and finally, each time has been able to regain lost trust. In Iran,the auditing profession establishment is young and leaves early years of its life. Iran's economy is dominated by the state and private sectors and competing that is elements of a free economy and a major driver of economic transactions and decision making, doesn’t have share of striking. However, auditing profession has facing various challenges in Iran. In this paper ,we describe the auditing developments in Iran, challenges, current solutions for the problems and also the facing opportunities to this profession.  


GOVERNMENTAL ACCOUNTING DEVELOPMENTS IN IRAN OBSTACLES, SOLUTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES

ABSTRACT: The present study aims to assess the existing governmental accounting system in Iran and analyze its weaknesses. It also shows how accrual accounting can facilitate government policies. Recently, some evidence of increased awareness among government officials about the need for more fiscal discipline (economic discipline) can be noticed in the management of government agencies. Furthermore, it is generally accepted that the structure of public resources management and management procedures, including accounting systems used in the public sector, are not appropriate to implement the government plans with the more sufficient application of public resources. Compared with the public management sector in developed countries, accounting procedures, budgeting, financial reporting and auditing has had slight alterations in Iran during the last century. In the current study, first, we investigate the structure of governmental accounting in Iran and then, the existing obstacles are analyzed and some solutions are proposed.


The role of information technology in accounting

Abstract—Information is one of the general principles of shareholders and managers decisions in economic unites.Increasing the accuracy and speed in decision-making is possible to have accurate and timely information. With quick and easy access to computers and information technology, no society can run its economy without an electronic infrastructure. Accounting as the language of business, , ought to coordinate with the new technologies in order to serve the financial needs of consumers. This study was designed to examine the role of information technology in accounting. To achieve this goal, at first we look at the importance of information and informational systems in accounting and then in detail we study the topics on information technology and its impact on accounting features. The method used in this study is the kind of study in a survey and case study and given the existing constraints; previous research in this area has been used.  Research findings suggest that in the present era information technology is improving the quality of accounting information.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 10 (Part I)


Investigation the plant population and irrigation cycle base on growth characteristics on red beans in Arak climate condition (markazi province)

Abstract—:A study was carried out to evaluate plant population and irrigation cycle on growth characteristics of two red bean cultivars, in  Khomein National Research Station(markazi province ) in 2008-2009. The experiments were carried out with factorial design with three replications. Treatments were included irrigation cycle in two level( irrigation after 5mm and 100mm evaporation from pan ) as main factor and three population levels, respectively(30,40 and 50 plants per square meter with the  4, 5 and 6/6 cm space among the rows) and two red bean cultivars (Goli and Azna)  were considered as sub factors.

The results of variance analysis showed that drought stress  on the  characteristics such, plant height level occurred in probability level of (p<0.01) and in the rest of the characteristics were not statistically significant, also plant height and stem diameter the number of nodes on the main stem  and the number of sub branches in probability level(p<0.01) has been affected by cultivar, stem diameter and number of sub branches  in probability level (p<0/01) and the number of nodes on the main stem at the level of probability(p<0.05). However,the interaction effects of stresson various bean cultivars in this study has been set in.the  probability level (p<0.01), as well as all interactions between cultivars and population on the number of sub branches were  significant (p<0.01).  In this study theinteractive effects ofthree factorson the numberof branchesat the probability level (p<0.05) were been effective. 


Studying effect of physiological indexes of growth on irrigation management and planting pattern in two cultivars of red bean under Khomein climate conditions

Abstract—To evaluate the effects of planting density and irrigation management on the physiological characteristics of two cultivars of red beans (Goli and Ezna), an experiment was conducted in 2007-2008 crop year in Bean National Research Station in Khomein city. Experiment was conducted assplit –factorier plot design on  randomized complete blocks design with 3 replications. Treatments consisted of two levels of irrigations (irrigation after 50 and 100 mm evaporation from class A pan) as main factor and three density levels, respectively (30 , 40 and 50 plants per square meter with spacing 4 , 5 and 6/6 cm on row) and two cultivars of red beans were considered as sub factors. The results showed that drought stress of leaf area index parameters (LAI) has reduced crop growth rate (CGR), in the index of relative growth rate (RGR), firstly drought increased RGR and then receiving higher GDDs, decreased relative growth rate (RGR). Density increase from 30 to 50 plants per square meter increased leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and relative growth rate (RGR).


Qualitative and quantitative characterization of municipal solid waste in Ilam

Abstract— Solid waste due to rapid population growth and urbanization in many cities over the past has raised concerns for officials. Disposal of Municipal waste in each area according to the type and quality of waste is different from other regions and usage of disposal method without any assessment of waste and local adjustment factors are outstanding action.  In order to characterize the quantity and quality of solid waste in Ilam, statistics and existing documents of municipal were used. To collect and complete this information and determine the physical and chemical analysis, per capita production and determination of physical components of waste was documented to standard library documentation.

The findings indicate that the average waste generated in the city is about 130 tons per day. The same amount increases 1.2 fold in summer in such a way that 77.2 percent are of the organic and degradable waste and about 4.8 of the total waste are paper and paperboard and 18% are recyclable materials such as plastics, metals, glass and etc. Also, all parameters of chemical waste in Ilam as compared with Iranian standard to produce compost have been standard.

Ilam produces about 130 tons of waste pre days, which make up more than 77 percent of the organic waste. At the present, it does not have compost production plant and any official or municipal organization does not try to recycle. Given that paddlers sporadically try to collect dry recycled waste unsystematically therefore it is necessary to provide necessary facilities for construction of the compost plant while organizing recycle situation.


Application of NIR spectroscopic analysis in detecting mechanical damage of agricultural products

Abstract— Mechanical damages in agricultural products appear due to impacts and compressions produced during harvesting, transport, and manipulation processes. These damages have a direct effect on loss of quality and reduce sale prices. Until now, the objective has been to describe the mechanism of damages and their prediction from widely used tests such as puncture tests or compression tests. Although these techniques give high quality information about damages, but they are destructive methods. So recently investigations have focused on the use of new technologies that are nondestructive and minimal time consumers. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the these technologies that will help the food industry to provide better products for the consumer and reduce potential economic losses.


Estimation of engineering rock properties using ultrasound pulse velocity

The paper has been removed due to authors request.


Source Time Function and Focal Mechanism determination in Saravan Earthquake (Mw=7.7) 

Abstract— Saravan earthquake of 16 April 2013 (Mw=7.7) in Sistan Baluchestan province was firstly referred to as one of the faults in South East of Iran. In additional studies it is referred to as Makran subduction zone. Tsunami occurrence, probability of Taftan and Bazman volcanism reactivation due to active tectonics, also Bushehr power plant location, where is respectively near the studied area encourage the authors to determine the focal mechanism, source time function and sub events’ features which can guide us to reliable judges.


Effect of clay minerals in modern dust control equipment and public Health

Abstract—fundamental changes in the outdated equipment and technologies are one of the reduction methods of dust crisis problems. The solutions of air filtering which have two main conditions of the lowest cost and highest efficiency without the interference of development of the previous techniques in the scale of air pollution in large cities are impossible. The identification of clay dust particles, nature and structure which are the agent of regional dust storms, has a special importance. The main objective of this paper based on soil engineering methods like clay-particles classifications, was to identify minerals components, natural air pollution structure and to examine the influence of modern tools on increasing of dust settling and its effect on the human health.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 9


The effect of iron nanoparticles and feeding time on weight and pH of broiler breast muscle

Abstract—‎160 Ross broilers were assigned randomly to 4 groups. First and second groups were fed with ‎basal diet twice: first, immediately after delivery to rearing farm, and second, 18 hours ‎post hatch; third and fourth group were fed twice with a diet containing 0.002g/Kg. iron ‎nanoparticles, first immediately after delivery  to rearing farm, and second, 18 hours post hatch. ‎We found that in both feeding times chickens fed with diet containing iron nanoparticles had ‎significantly higher weight compared to chickens fed with basal diet. No significant difference ‎was also found between chicken breast pH in all diet groups.‎


Analysis the effect of trees and fruit plants as urban green walls, on increasing sustainable natural resources

Abstract- According to increasing development and challenges of city lives, conserving the environment is essential more than before. Hence, sustainability and sustainable development arise to save urban habitats from industry and technology and to save and develop natural resources as a factor in planning agenda. Considering city parks, land occupation to greeneries and so on are considered in this approach. Although there are tensions here: green and open spaces do not lead to direct benefits so, there is a little financial support behind them. But there is strong willing to find new solutions about urban greeneries development in developed countries because of commitments over agreements and ecologic charters and also, public force. There for, one of the predicted solutions is taking benefit from urban green walls and roofs. Using these walls as modern urban development strategy to conserve city environment, decrease pollution and energy consumption optimizing is discussed. Besides having environmental benefits, they lead to sustainable aestheticy in urban landscape. This thesis, besides studying concepts like sustainability, sustainable development and green wall, analyze the role of urban green roofs and walls in city stabilization by analytic-descriptive method and library studies. In last, necessity of survey becomes clear and suggestions are presented. In general, studies show that paying attention to urban green walls, specially ignored spaces, has a significant effect on urban ecology and pollution decrease. Plants as natural filters, increase livability rate of cities.


Assessment of site and damage incurred in natural and planted stands of Haloxylon persicum in Abbas Abad region, Miami County (Semnan province)

Abstract— Haloxylon plants are leafless shrubs with an articulated stem that were planted to stabilize moving sands as well as to green desert but they became gradually wilted and declined. Few studies have been done on damage incurred and resistance of natural and planted stands of Haloxylon. The aims of this study are to identify pests of Haloxylon shrub and their effects on this species as well as to compare natural and planted stands of Haloxylon in Abbas-Abad region of Miami County. In each stand a 1ha plot was selected randomly and parameters including density, number of main branches, individual height, collar diameter, canopy area, seeding rate, regenerations, seed conditions, vitality, and amount of damage incurred by pests were measured and evaluated. To identify pests, regular visits were made throughout the year and live traps, dead traps and mesh-fabric traps were used to capture pests. Results showed that in natural stand density (307 individual per hectare) and canopy area (2965.27 m2 ha-1) were higher than planted stand. In planted stand, amount of seed production (79% of individuals), number of regenerations (1239 individual per hectare), percentage of healthy seeds (72.75%), and vitality (61%) were higher than natural stand. In natural stand 52% of individuals were completely infected by pest but for planted stand this value was 88% representing higher resistance of natural stand to pest compared to planted one. Pests Caillardia azurea Log., Acanthococcus abaii Danzig., Eriophyes sp, and Allactaya elater Lich., were identified, and the highest damage in both stands had caused by pest Caillardia azurea Log. 


The Identification of the Red Grape Bunch Using Image Processing and Neural Networking

Abstract— In this study a system of automatic processing based on color and color components is explained. About three hundred images have been taken from Urmia’s grape fields from early morning to evening in sunny and cloudy weathers.  Multilayer perceptron neural network with an after-error-publication learning algorithm was used as one of the tools of artificial intelligence for recognizing and separating different image classes. The input of the network was the average of the color components (R, G, and B) of the pixels of the images and the outputs of the network were [1] as the red grape bunch and [0] as a non-grape objects (i.e. leaves, sky, branches and trunk) which, finally, after trying and testing of the learning algorithm the number of neurons of the neural network was determined; using 13 neurons in the hidden layer and one hidden layer the learning algorithm of Trainlm with sigmoid function was able to recognize and separate picture classes with 98% precision. The results of the analysis of the pictures show a high precision in the separation and classification of classes of pictures. 


Strategies for urban green path sustainable development with the emphasize on conservation and enhancement of urban habitat

Abstract-Sustainable development is established to improve quality of life of citizens, habitat management and reaching to a better future. Planning for urban green path as public space is an effective strategy to gain sustainability. It meets basic human needs in urban spaces and is a combination of framework, spirit, aesthetic y and nature. It also helps improvement of urban identity. One aspect of sustainable green path is landscape as a set of natural and artificial factors which is important for designers because of being real, objective and the result of citizens perception of the city. This thesis is decided to ascertain green path development with the emphasize on urban landscape and sustainable public spaces. Since it has a basic role in joining natural and artificial environment, it is essential to come to strategies and principles as urban designing guide lines. Thesis at firs explains sustainable development and its relation with environmental designing, then determines landscape role in urban green path improvement by descriptive-analytic method library studies.  At last, strategies are suggested to reach spatial desirability, environmental aesthetic y and increasing ecological power of urban spaces. 


Study of drought stress effects on germination of barley cultivar (Abyt-w-2-18) seeds in the germinator

Abstract— In order to evaluation of drought stress effects on germination and growth parameters, barley seeds (Hordeum  vulgare) cv (Abyt-w-2-18) imposed to polyethylene glycol 6000 as potential osmotic supplier. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications and osmotic potential was at 4 levels including control (without polyethylene glycol), -0.4, -0.8 and -1.2 bar. The results showed that drought stresses compared to control were not affect to germination and growth parameters of these barely cultivar. This may be due to these cultivar of barley were adapted to drought stress considerably.


Requirements of protein and lipid forreared Pike perch (Sander lucioperca) fingerling inculture centers

Abstract _ Pike perch (Sander lucioperca)isafish eater species especially at the begging of life in thefirst summerwhen their lengthto became100-50mm ganged their behavior. Pike perch even whenfeeds on small fishare continues feedingonbivalveup toage 2,especiallyincases where thenumbersoffish islowandinvertebratesishigh.Pike perchdietlargelydepends onfoodavailability. Especiallysmallerminnowfish and Ruffe (Gymnocephaluscernua) arepart ofthe dietof these fish.In Azovseapike perchfeeds species such as ClupeonellaandRutilus.Pike perchInthe Caspian Sea addition totheitems mentioned, willeatKolme (Rutilusrutiluscaspicus)and Swordfish. Pike perch mainly hasfeedscarp fish and less than consumed benthicand Nektobenthos. Thisfishisa major consumer ofCaspian Clupeonella inthe CaspianSea.Thisarticle investigatedpike perch foodneedssuch asproteins,lipids and carbohydratesforculturelarval and fingerlingsperchforfarmsand culture centers.


The role and function of Astaxanthin pigments in fish and shellfish

Abstract_Among themany valuablecompoundsinfish, isa pigment calledAstaxanthin. Thispigmentisa subset ofXanthophylpigmentthathaspink to red paint causedthe aquaticmarketing. Thered color ofcookedcrustaceansisdue to the presenceAstaxanthinwhilethat happensto bedenaturedCarotenoproteins withheatfromcookingandcomein red.Pinkishredinwildsalmonfillets(Oncorhynchusnerka)andrainbow trout(Oncorhynchusmykiss)isa signpresence of Astaxanthinthatprotecttissues andcellsagainstoxidation.Thereforecan be said toexistAstaxanthinmay is ahealthysign tofreshness offish. Thispaperstudiesthe roleand function ofpigmentAstaxanthininaquaculture.


The role and importance of themajororgans on osmoregulation in fish 

Abstract_Among the most important settings that fish must be apply in the specific environments, is salt and water balance. There are a few species that their internal salt concentration is close to their surroundings. Cells to survive in an environment need the specific concentrations of certain substances, such as dissolved ions in the water. Indoor fish's body must have needed a set of ionized salts, alkalinity and dissolved organic compounds, while the external environment has a set of several of these factors. Thus the possibility of balance concentration of ions in the blood and keep it in a certain concentration, is need to transfer one side of membrane to another side with control mechanisms. Until provide unification concentration of ions in the blood with fish living environment water.Lose of ion and vital molecule such as water or inter certain ion in blood and tissue of fish or increased their concentration in blood can to be threat for continue of fish life. This paper is discussed the performance of various organs involved in osmoregulation of fish.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 8


Half-Century Air Temperature Trends in Iran

Abstract—Global warming and climate change will have a significant impact on the sustainability of water supplies in the coming decades. Impacts of these changes can be observed in hydrologic time series. In this study annual mean air temperature of 30 synoptic stations of Iran in the period of 1961 to 2010 used to investigate possible trends. Spearman and Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend tests which are known as appropriate tools in detecting linear trends of a hydrological time series are adapted in this study. Results showed that there was no significant difference between Mann-Kendall and Spearman tests and Spearman test employed to trend analysis of all synoptic stations. This analysis indicated that 46.7 and 10 percents of stations detected significantly positive trend at 1 and 5% levels respectively. Almost 6.7% of stations exhibited downward trend at 1% significant level and 36.6% of stations remained without any significant trend. It is concluded that increasing air temperature in most stations of Iran could be as the effect of global warming and climate changes in most parts of Iran.


A Comparative study to evaluate the effect of iron and silver nanoparticles against Yersinia ruckeri isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Abstract— In this study, the effect of iron and silver nanoparticles against Yersinia ruckeri was examined in vitro. Some of the common bacteria pathogens in the aquaculture due to produce a range of enzymes have resistance to various antimicrobial agents, for this reason alternative materials should be used to reduce this group of bacteria. In the present study, the possible application of these technology have been evaluate to control one of the most common bacteria in aquaculture and it seem the use of metallic nanoparticles is effective in reducing microbial outbreaks. Doses used in this study was (%0.1 , %0.2 and %0.3) of nonoparticles (with three replicates of bacteria concentrations) and was done in 3 times; 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after inoculation of nanoparticles. In this study it can be concluded that the doses of the %0.3was the best dose and there were significantly different with the other doses of nanoparticles, also bacteria concentrations were significantly different at different doses. Silver nanoparticles had the good antibacterial effects against this bacterium while iron nanoparticles had been weaker effect than silver nanoparticles and this bacterium are less sensitive to it. Results of this study showed, following the use of iron nanoparticles by increasing of concentrations to %0.3 the antimicrobial effect against Y. ruckeri was increasing and the number of bacteria in prolong incubation significantly reduced.


Composition and abundance of phytoplankton community structure in warm and cold seasons in the waters around Hormuz Island (Eastern part of the Persian Gulf)

Abstract— Changes in the phytoplankton community in the waters around Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf were studied in both warm and cold periods from November 2009 to July 2010. Water samples were collected at depths of 0.5 m using Ruttner bottle and the composition and abundance of the phytoplankton genera was determined. Temperature, salinity, pH and nitrates+ nitrites levels were measured. Totally 43 genera belonging to three groups of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae, 27 genera), dinoflagellates  (Dinophyceae, 15 genera) and cyanobacteria (Cyanophyceae, 1 genus) were detected; maximum and minimum number of phytoplanktonic genera were recorded in spring (35 G) and winter seasons (22 G), respectively. Diatoms contributed maximum percentage (83%) followed by dinoflagellates (9%) and cyanobacteria (8%). All three groups showed significant changes during the transition from cold to warm periods. The highest abundance were observed in the warm period and the highest correlations were observed for temperature.


Selecting the Best Normalization Function for Annual Precipitation in Iran

Abstract—For hydrologic time series analysis, it is assumed that time series are normally distributed. Since most hydrological time series do not follow normal distribution and need to transform through normalization functions. In this study six common transition functions have been used to transform annual precipitation of 140 synoptic stations in Iran. Then according to the skewness coefficients, the best transformation functions to normal selected. Results indicated that logarithmic, Gamma and Power functions have been selected as the best normalization functions for the number of 75, 22 and 17 synoptic stations respectively. The logarithmic function for almost all stations accepted via skewness test and can be suggested for normalization annual precipitation of synoptic stations in Iran.


Studying the role of Mycorrhizaas a biofertilizer in agricultural in agriculture

Abstract:Following the huge growth of world Population in recent years; The Production of agricultural crops in unavoidabl one of the strategies of high Production of agricultural crop is to increase the yield in area unit for mid-term or Long- term by using chemical and biological fertilizers. among the different fertilizers; The chemical fertilizers are more used because of Their suitable effectiveness and their more comfortable use, ignoring That their excess use leads to environmental Pollution and this problem is one of concerns of today huma To solve this problem; it seems necessary that suitable strategies are offerd to decrease the application of all kinds of chemical fertilizers; and consequently the envirnmental pollution the researchers believe thatby a good and correct management and by using bioligic fertilize and microorganism; we can Provide better nutritional conditions to Plants. Some of soil miccroorganisms are able to form a symbiotic relation to host through occupation of a part of plan,s roots. Among these; the fungus symbiosism to plant is one of the most importas phenomena in natural and agricultural ecosystems. mycorrhizafungs is able to form a symbiosysm to the roots of terristrial Plants. Then both of the can benefit and help each others life. The most of identified plants on earth plant can form the symbiotic relation. But It is variable depending on the root of host plant and morphologic proparties of symbiont fungus. The most intersting propert of mycorrhiza fungus is to increase the growth of host plant; and this symbiosis causes the quick exchange of nutritional elements between host plant and fungus. Then biofertilizer ofmycorrhiza can help us reach Sustainable agicul.


The role of biological control in sustainable agriculture

Abstract:Nowadays, in order to supply the food needs a growing population, increasing the performance of crops per unit area has been an impressive increase in performance to look for excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can be fitted, unaware of the possible consequences of the large intake of these chemicals to the environment and human looking, based on this in this article were it to try one of the methods of biological pest control, namely compilation control (bio-containment) evaluates. Biological control method with useful live agents against decisions harmful organism (pest) can be fitted in. By applying this method to control harmful organism, topically, or because it populations will be removed to a size-reduced its economic damage was not the nutritional and other pest is not considered.

The use of natural enemies of pests can be effective step in reducing environmental pollution, but it should be noted that this type of control will not be alone in destroy all pests. To get more effective results consolidated control that it is better to apply several methods used to control rather than a method.


A 3D finite element study on effect of soil elastic modulus of different soil types in single pile and pile group behavior

Abstract: Behavior of pile groups in different situations is one of main issues for geotechnical engineers. Effects of piles on each other in pile groups is very complicated and important and it becomes even more complicated when the effect of soil on pile’s behavior interferes, so finding out the effects of soil properties on pile groups behavior before design is necessary. In this paper the effect of soil elastic modulus on load bearing capacity and group efficiency of pile groups is studied using finite element method on four different soil types. Pile groups with Linear and square shape arrangements and single piles are used and their load bearing capacity and group efficiencies are compared.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 7


Taking Pattern of the Ability of Human Education in Greenhouse 

Abstract— The need of human to food is more nowadays, so the cultivation of agricultural produce in intelligent greenhouses has converted to the economy activity. it seems that among the investigation sand studies ,which are done by researchers about intelligent greenhouses, the focus is in automatic control of the greenhouse situations , so that they can control the intelligent greenhouse various ways. 

Being intelligence should be in such special way that the intelligent system has some of the capabilities of human intelligent. 

Since the humans is an intelligent creature, if we are able to design and implement such a greenhouse which has human learning in intelligent greenhouse.

 in this article lead we can call it intelligent greenhouse we use the capability of human learning in intelligent green house in this artic lead we can control the future situation of green house with higher quality, lack of architectures in the past and makes the new way of intelligence in intelligent greenhouses. 


Application of Nano-Iron Chelate on Greenhouse roses In Recirculation Hydroponic System

Abstract— Experiment conducted using three Rosa hybrida L. cultivars (‘Fiesta’, ‘Sorbitavalanch’ and ‘Shiraz’). They were grown in a polyethylene greenhouse with a close hydroponics system. Four different levels of supplementary nano-iron chalete (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1) applied at 4 leaves´ growth stage of flowering stem. Morphological and biochemical Parameters such as were investigated. Results indicated that, nano-iron chalete treatments positively affected the flowering stem and flower head fresh and dry weight, length, and diameter in all cultivars. Furthermore, leaf chlorophyll content as an important factor to evaluate quality and quality index in all cultivars of roses that significantly increased in 1.0 and 1.5 g l-1 treatment of nano-iron chalet. Result showed antioxidant enzymes, such catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) affected by nano-iron chelate treatment significantly in all rose cultivars studied. Based on the results obtained, nano-iron chelate had a stronger effect on CAT and chlorophyll content than other variables. Further studies are needed to clarify more the effect of nano-iron chelate on other enzymes and variables in different plant species.  


Assessment of Knowledge, attitude and Practice of Kermanshahi households about status of solid waste recycling 

Abstract— This cross - sectional study has been performed to assessment of knowledge attitude and practice of people in Kermanshah city, with aim to identify needs and provide appropriate solutions for applying proper management of solid waste recycling in 2014. From different areas of Kermanshah (6 districts), 400 persons were questioned using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software (version 16). Results indicated that most people tend to separate waste at home, but due to lack of knowledge recycling is carried improper recovery.


The role of modern technologies in improvement of increasing the greenhouse-farmscrops products

Abstract—one of the most important goals of scientificresearch communities is utilizationof modern technologies in order to achievehigh industrial systems and applicationsin human daily life. The growth rate of the human populationand the food crisis areprimarily causing global growthin using hightechnologies in the food industries and agricultural productions.

Therefore, optimizingthe cultivation conditions,managingandfightingwith gardenpestare very important.This may be accomplished withusing high tech air ionizationsupplies in the greenhouses or big gardens/farms. Injection of negative ions into the air can be improved the quality and quantity of agricultural products by this equipment i.e., NGI (Negative Ion Generator). In this paper,it is shown thatbased on corona discharge air ionization in the greenhouses or around the trees in the gardenscan be fixedsome of the agricultural problemsby using this method.


Probability Distribution of Annual Precipitation in Iran in the period of 1991-2010

Abstract— Probability distributions are used widely in understanding the rainfall pattern. A comprehensive understanding of precipitation and its distribution pattern in both space and time is essential to the proper design of many structures. This study uses data from the annual rainfall of 140 synoptic stations in the period of 1990 to 2010. Sixty five statistical distribution functions were fitted to the studied time series. The best fit probability distribution was identified based on the minimum deviation between actual and estimated values. The Wakeby distribution was found as the best fit probability distribution for the 47% of synoptic stations. While in about 18% of stations Johnson SB distribution function selected as the best fit and other functions accepted for less than 10% of stations.


Recognition of Red Grape Bunches Using Image-Processing for Application in Designing Grape-Harvester Robots

Abstract—Considering the increase in the extent of the grape fields and expenses of work force, mechanizing the harvesting process has become one of the important issues in the recent years. In this study, an algorithm has been designed to enable harvester robots to spot the location of the red grape bunches on the grape tree. In order to design this algorithm, first, five hundred pictures of red grape bunches in their natural status on the grape tree were provided. Then, color data for each element of the picture including the grape bunch and background (leaves, branches, and sky) were extracted and analyzed. Finally, for the recognition of the red grape bunches RGB color environment was used. Results indicate that the algorithm can extract 98% of a red grape shape in a picture.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 6 [Part II]


Design of intelligent mechatronic greenhouse with portability by spacecraft for the plans of future of Space

Abstract— Today, modern technology has caused many human dreams become a reality. In recent years many organizations and spatial institutions have been focused on the possibility of cultivation of agricultural crops on other planets and asteroid. In this article, some basic parameters for setting up such farms as itinerant greenhouses has been reviewed. The results of designs and investigates showed that by the use of new energy systems, intelligent systems and nanotechnology, base of the construction and operation of these greenhouses will be provided.


Intelligent control of condensation generators, construction ground to create artificial rain Based on Fuzzy Systems

Abstract— One method of artificial fertilization using generators condensation clouds and rain making the ground. These generators are usually installed in areas prone. The main challenges of this equipment control system that should be Tools for fertilization when appropriate, respond to the environment. In this paper, a comprehensive control system based on fuzzy control has been proposed. According to the features and benefits of this control system, it can be used for intelligent control of land for construction condensation generators.


Evaluation of Different Planting Dates on Some Quantitative Traits of Cotton Cultivars in Dezful

Abstract— Optimum planting time is one of the important factors that influence the cotton yield appreciably. In order to harvest the maximum possible performance of a variety it is necessary to having information about the proper planting time for each variety in each region. In this regard this study was carried out in split plot in randomized complete block design with four replications at Dezful research station-safiabad (Khuzestan province, Dezful) . The factor of sowing dates were used as the main factor which has four levels include 20th March, 5th April, 20th April and 5th May and, three cotton cultivars Cyland (V1), Termez 14 (V2) and Dr.Omomi (V3). Analysis of variance showed that the effect of sowing date and its interaction with cultivars on number of green bolls are not significant but there were significant differences in the level of 1% among cultivars studied. Mean comparison of planting date and cultivars interaction on total bolls production show that this interaction is affected by flowering potential of varieties. due to the more flowering, The best planting date for crops in Dezful region and areas with similar climate conditions was the second planting date and among the cultivars the Cyland cultivar had the best conditions. The early and late planting dates can significant reduction in yield. In aggregate Planting at inappropriate time may cause drastic reduction in cotton yield.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 6


Facies and sedimentary environment of cretaceous units at north west of Dihuk – Tabas region(Shotori mountain range)

Abstract—An investigation was made on the facies and sedimentary environment of upper cretaceous rocks at north west of Shotori mountain range at Dihuk – Tabas region. This study has also covered carving lime sediments mainly being micritic and sparits with fossil(bioclast) markings, such as: Echinoderm, alga, lamelibransch, brachiopodo and berizoa. Field and microscopic studies led to recognition and separation of 10 carbonate and carving facies as follow: Group of open marine facies that include 1- Bioclastic mudstone, 2- Bioclastic wackstone, 3- Bioclastic packstone; Group of barrier facies that include 4- Bioclastic grainstone, 5- Grainstone packstone; Group of lagoon facies that include 6- Bioclastic packstone, 7- Peloid wackstone; Group of continental facies that include 8- Litharenite, 9- Sub-litharenite and 10- Gerywacki. By interpretation and analysis of these microfacies and their related environment we shall be able to recognize the old geographical(palaeobiogeographic) condition in this region which has proven to have been a ramp type carbonate platform with a nearly uniform slope(homodinal ramp).


The effect of postharvest treatments and storage methods on leafy vegetable decay

Abstract— Vegetables are living parts of plant and contain 65 to 95 percent water. Horticultural crops have high level of postharvest decay and loss due to lack of proper packaging methods and storage condition. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of postharvest treatments and storage conditions. Five leafy vegetables including garden cress, parsley, coriander, peppermint and chives were used. Healthy and free from defect vegetables treated with washing or un-washing treatments and stored as covered and uncovered with polyethylene (PE) at 4 o C. The results showed that the weight loss and decay were different in 5 species and cress and Mint had highest and lowest decay respectively. Treatments affected weight loss and deceased yellowing and decay percent. Combination of washing and covered Treatments caused less weight loss and is recommended as easy and straight methods in developing country.


The effect of fructose on regeneration and proliferation of grape cultivars

Abstract—Carbohydrates are an essential part of in vitro medium culture and have effects on grape shoot regeneration and shoot formation. In current study two explants (node and shoot tip) of two grape cultivars ('Khoshnave' and 'Farkhi') in medium contains different fructose concentration (15, 20, 30 and 40 gL-1) was study. Some parameters such as main shoot length, leave numbers of adventitious shoot were evaluated. The highest and lowest shoot lengths were observed in 30 and 15 gL-1 of fructose respectively. Although the highest leaf number was observed in 40 gL-1 of fructose but this concentration induced high levels sample verification. Shoot tip explants produced longer shoot than node explants but the number of adventitious shoot was higher in node explants. 


A survey on how to planning Risk Control Cost (RCC) for Civil Projects construction

Abstract: This paper presents an alternative to established methods of cost control. Using the methodology presented project managers will be able to anticipate the potential cost concerns, the projected costs to completion and proactively prevent the cost differences. It is done with qualitative risk assessments, simulation, and earned value techniques. This new methodology is applied from the planning phase through the implementation phase until a project is completed. The emphasis is on identifying risks, assessing the acceptability, monitoring, policy analysis and control.


Optimizing the fuzzy model for land suitability evaluation by GA approach and choosing the kind of membership function 

Abstract— The land suitability analysis can be the first prerequisite in sustainable agriculture. A model was designed to determine the soil index based on fuzzy approach. The study area was parts of Abyek and Nazarabad towns in Qazvin and Alborz province of Iran, respectively. The used fuzzy inference system was Mamdani type. In this fuzzy model, the eight number of soil characteristics were selected to assess the land suitability for winter wheat production. The output of the model was the soil index as a number between zero and 100. Fuzzy rules were written using knowledge of some experts. GA approach was used as a complementation of fuzzy approach to optimize fuzzy rules of the model. The results showed that the value of determination coefficient for model after optimization was 0.952 and significant at the 1% level. The results showed the accuracy of fuzzy-GA model and the power of fuzzy method in the modeling. In the other hand, choosing the kind of membership function had a significant effect on result. So to find the best combination of membership function, a total of 24 different combinations of membership functions were tested for fuzzy sets of inputs. The best combination of membership function was triangular for the medial fuzzy sets and trapezoidal shape for the side fuzzy sets, respectively. Classification maps for soil units well prepared in the fuzzy-GA method.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 5 (Part II)


Impact of Green Building Construction on the Environment

Abstract— This study investigated the impact of construction of green buildings on the environment. In different parts of the study, incentives for construction of green buildings, green building goals, plans for creation of these buildings, comfort indoor quality of green buildings, method of using renewable energy in them to protect the environment were investigated. Finally, it was concluded that in the present world, construction of green buildings and the use of renewable energy seems necessary due to increasing environmental pollution and increasing population growth and scarcity of fossil energy sources.


A Study of the Existence of Various Biotypes of Corn Common Smut Agent, Ustilago Maydis, in Lorestan Province of Iran

Abstract: In order to study the existence of the biotypes of corn common smut in Lorestan province of Iran, the isolates that had the highest percentages of germination were selected from among the isolates collected from each township; then, these isolates were inoculated to selected corn lines after appearance of maize clusters. The results of the present study revealed that the percentage and the severity of infection of isolates were different in various lines. According to these results, it can be argued that K17/2-3 and TV926 lines had the lowest and the highest resistance to used isolates, respectively. The highest and the lowest percentages of pathogenicity belonged to isolate number 1 with %95/3, and isolates number 8 and 43 with 50%, respectively. Isolates were divided in two groups for biotypes identification based on percentage and infection density so isolates 6, 7, 8, 9 were placed is same group.


Airborne Fungi and their Effect on Plant Pathogen

Abstract: In order to identify the airborne fungi in the state of Lorestan, Islamic Republic of Iran, circular trays were used for sampling purposes in five different cities (namely Kouhdasht, Khorramabad, Azna, Boroujerd, and Poldokhtar) during sand-dust storm a number of eight times with one-month intervals. Soil suspension was then isolated from the samples and cultured in a PDA containing 323mg/L Streptomycin sulfate to isolate fungi. The analysis of the data identified fungi of the following type: Alternaria alternate- Penicilium italicum- Aspergillus niger- Clostridium cladosporides- Fusarium 


Influence of Agar Concentration and Liquid Medium on In vitro Propagation of Stevia

 (Stevia rebaudiana L.)

Abstract: Stevia is an important and economical herb that contains natural and non-caloric sweetener. This substance can be alternative to artificial sweeteners such as Aspartame and Sodium Saccharin used in the food and drug industries. The most important characteristic of this plant is their suitableness to use for people with diabetes. However, at the first step low viability and low seed germination, limit their extensive cultivation. One of the effective methods to produce this plant is in vitro technology that solves the problem of large scale production of this plant. The purpose of this investigation is the study of effect of different concentration of agar on the in vitro micro propagation of Stevia plant. For this purpose‚ MS culture medium with different concentration of agar (0.0‚ 2.0‚ 4.0‚ 6.0‚ 8.0‚ 10.0 and 12 g/l) with two explants (Shoot tip and Node) were used. After 4 weeks shoot length‚ number of leaf‚ number of root and root length were evaluated. The analysis of collected data statically (ANOVA) showed that there is significant difference between studied parameters and different concentration agar. The obtained results demonstrated that shoot length, number of leaf, numbere of root and root length in shoot tip explants have increased above 2.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 5.0 folds responding  at the Liquid medium (without agar).


Multiple Shoot Induction by High Concentration of Sucrose in Stevia Micropropagation 

Abstract: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a medicinal plants and commercially use as non-caloric and natural sweetener in drug and food industries. It is belongs to Asteraceae family and can be used as substitute of artificial sweeteners for diabetic patients. The effectiveness substance of this plant is called steviosid and can be used as natural sweetener instead of artificial sweeteners because of natural and non-caloric properties. However, at the first step low viability and low seed germination, limit their extensive cultivation. One of the effective methods to produce this plant is In vitro technology that solves the problem of large scale production of this plant. Sucrose is a very important component in in vitro culture media, serving as a source of carbon and energy. In this paper, effect of different concentrations of sucrose was investigated on micropropagation of stevia. For this purpose‚ MS culture medium with different concentration of sucrose (0.0‚ 10.0‚ 20.0‚ 30.0‚ 40.0‚ 50.0‚ 60.0‚ 70.0‚ 80.0‚ 90.0 and 100 g/l) with two explants (Shoot tip and Node) were used. After 4 weeks shoot length‚ multiple shoot rate and number of root were evaluated. The analysis of collected data statically (ANOVA) showed that there is significant difference between studied parameters and different concentration of sucrose. Highest shoot length was obtained at 20-40 g/l sucrose (13.5 cm) from shoot tip explants. The maximum of multiple shooting rate was obtained in 60- 80 g/l sucrose (12 shoots per shoot cultured) from shoot tip explants. Also, highest number of root was observed at 70 g/l sucrose (12.3 roots per shoot cultured) from both explants.


A Study of the Application of the Parasitoid Wasp, Trichogramma Embryophagum, in Controlling the Carob Moth in Zirtang District of Kunani Town of Iran

Abstract: The carob moth, Ectomyelois Ceratoniae, is the most important pest of pomegranate fruit in Iran and on average, renders 30-40 percent of pomegranate crops useless and spoiled when still on the tree or in the warehouse. In the process of implementing the integrated controlof carob moth program, the significant activity of parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma Embryophagum, was considered in Zirtang district of Kouhdash city of Iran. In order to increase the degree of parasitism, in autumn 2012, the eggs containing the parasite were collected and delivered to laboratory of Agriculture Jihad. The wasp species of the region was identified and reproduced, thenthey were used in the form of tricho cards. In the garden under experiment with the area of 7000 sq. m. which had 400 trees, the releasing was carried out and its results was examined in comparison to the control plot. Since June 22, 100 tricho cards containing 2100 eggs with parasite of Ephestia were installed on every other tree every 10 days. Totally, there were 10 releasing and the control was implemented from June 22 till Nov. 21, 2012 through three tests. By examination of population changes of carob moth, examination of changes in eggs with parasites, and examination of the number of the contaminated and wormy fruits in a T test plan, the difference of the crops amount of the plot in which releasing was carried out and control plot on Nov. 21 were compared and calculated. And the difference was significant and the contamination of the fruits decreased 55% as a result of releasing. 


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 5 (Part I)


Breeding species of Waterbirds in Nakhilo Island in 2006 to 2008

Abstract: This study was conducted on Nakhiloo Island in the Persian Gulf, part of Bushehr Province, in south of Iran, from March 2006 to September 2008. The maximum number of breeding pairs (16124) of Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis in 2006 reduce to 15650 in 2008 and breeding population of Swift Tern Sterna bergii  increased from 254 to 1294since 2006- 2008. However, Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus breeding population reached 29,461 in 2008, its total population always being higher than the other tern species throughout the study period. Bridled and Lesser Crested Terns were the dominant breeding species in the island ,but White-checked Tern had small colony. The Nakhiloo Island is Sensitive and brittle habitat for breeding Terns species .It should more protect from human activity. 


Study of the impacts of common utilization on the management of countryside rangelands of Torbat-e-jam Abdul Abad

Abstract- In utilization systems of the rangelands, studying the historical roots, paying attention to the convention, habits, traditions and using required legal leverages and tools for implementing and combining the scientific and technical viewpoints with the realities prevailing in the society in which we live is of special importance. The study area includes 5 conventional systems, which the number of its beneficiaries is over 109 individuals. In order to compare the average crown cover percentage, production utilization, capacity and the condition of vegetation in the ranges of audit and non-audit conventional systems of the one-way variance analysis test and LSD method, was used. According to the information obtained, it was specified that the ranges of all systems have surplus livestock of their range capacity and this is due to the conversion of downstream ranges  of the region to the dry arable lands and also pastoral operation units being inadequate for livestock grazing in these fields.


Governance of ecosystem services for sustainable development

Abstract— For sustainable use of ecosystem services (the benefits that nature provides to people) we need to identify services at different temporal and spatial scale. Then, good governance is required for personal and social behavior proportional to each service. The formation of the governance concept has been caused to many efforts have been made for implementing the governance of ecosystem services. Different modes include free market modes, private modes, public modes, and institutional environment is taken into consideration. Although each of them has the ability to carry part of the governance of ecosystem services but the integration of all the modes can govern the ecosystem services.


Wintering place and Breeding Population of The Crab Plover Dromas Ardeola In Persian Gulf And Oman Sea in 2010 

Abstract: Crab Plover Dromas ardeola wintered in 25 sites and bred in 3 sites on Persian Gulf coasts and islands in 2010. It is fairly common on the coasts of Persian Gulf region, with up to 5551 pairs in breeding season and is known to hold more than 6038 individuals in winter but none of the other islands in Oman Sea are known to support large populations in 2010. In Persian Gulf region the sensitive habitats for breeding population are Khaber Nakhoda (2310 pairs), Nakhilo (1025 pairs) and Um-Al-Gorm (2216 pairs)  islands in 2010. Important wintering sites were Khor Namaki (maximum 363 individuals), Khor Khaghoshi(maximum 356 individuals) Mangrove wetlands Hara Protected Area (Maximum 2242 individuals), Heleh protected Area (maximum 290) Busheher Bay (maximum 386 individuals) and coast of Gheshm island (Maximum 1337 individuals) in 2010.


The Effects of Planting Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Component of Rice

‘7-Line’ Cultivar 

Abstract— In the study was effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels and plant spacing on the grain yield and yield component of Rice ‘7-Line’ Cultivar, A factorial experiment was laid out to determine an effective planting density and nitrogen rate for rice cultivar, ‘7-Line’ in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at the Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Rasht. The two factors that were considered for this factorial experiment were nitrogen fertilizer with four levels and three planting densities. Three levels of nitrogen (200, 250 kg.N/ha) and three spacing's (15cm×30cm, 20cm×20cm, 25cm×25cm) were included as treatment variables. Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer management on grain yield was not significant. Planting spacing on grain yield was significant at the one percent level. Interaction of nitrogen fertilizer and planting spacing on yield was significant at the 5% probability level. Grain yield with 6300.1 kg/ha were observed in planting density for 25cm×25cm and nitrogen fertilizer levels 250 kg/ha. Maximum of nitrogen fertilizer on panicle length was in nitrogen fertilizer levels 200 kg/ha with 24.7cm.


Underground Dam, an Approach to Harvest Rainwater in Arid and Semiarid Areas

Abstract- According to the recent researches, in forthcoming years, earth will be encountered to available water supply issues, hence, increasingly, greater attention is being placed on how to manage water resources and adopt new harvesting procedures. To harvest rainwater, serves as an action in case of succeeding, improves water storage, meets increasing trend of water demand, alleviating drought impacts. The present study aims to deal with and introduce underground dam as new construction technique to exploit groundwater.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 4


Comparing models of artificial neural network and the model ARIMA for predicting price of veal in Iran

Abstract: In this study we investigated model of artificial neural network compared to the model ARIMA for predicting price of wholesale of veal. Then data needed for period March, 2002 to July 2013 were gathered from department of animal and agricultural organization support of Iran. The study results indicate that model of artificial neutral network can predict price of wholesale of veal with an error less than the model ARIMA and it has higher level of accuracy.


Determination of copper in ration and blood serum of dairy cows in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province in comparison with standard levels.

Abstract:The purpose of this study is determination of the ration ´s copper level and blood serum of dairy cows in industry farm of chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province. A total of 260 blood and 40 ration samples were randomly collected from four regions of Chaharmahal VA Bakhtiari Province including Farsan, Boroujen, Lordegan, Shahrekord and Zagros dairy farm. According to the results, the averages concentrations of copper in ration samples of Fars an, Boroujen, Lordegan, Shahrekord and Zagros dairy farm were 15.4, 20.11, 16.12, 21.13 and 28.54 mg/kg, respectively that, comparing with last studies, there are not any copper deficiency . Also the Average milk production was measured.


Entrepreneurship and Rural Tourism

Abstract-Entrepreneurship is the engine of development. Three important causes of attention draw to entrepreneurship is wealth creation, technology development and productivejob creation.  In this regard, tourism is one of economic sectors which because of necessity of relation between tourist as explorer man, ventureand nature highlydepend on the degree of entrepreneurship participation. Importance of entrepreneurship on wealth creation and tourism as potential instrument for distribution and redistribution of wealth in all society levels, looks as incorporative entrepreneurship in tourism sector can help as effective factor on development and empowering the local society. In this paper by attention to concepts and features of entrepreneurship and tourism, study the entrepreneurship development necessity and recommendations for entrepreneurship level incorporation with tourism industry. The research methodology of the study is review study by official and academic references domestic as well as international databases has been used.


Applications of inulin in food industries: A Review

Abstract—Dietetic foods are the most demanding food groups these days, to repel the obesity. Fat reduction or elimination will detoriate the food acceptability as taste and texture. Fat replacers such as inulin, which produces a stable gel and creamy texture, are being used, frequently. Inulin has three forms according to its polymerization degree as native, short and long chain. Each type has different applications in food industries.


Estimation Retention Curve From The Minimum Soil Texture Data

Abstract— Determining soil water retention curve and the method of time-consuming, costly and less accurate.  It is trying an approach that can be used to solve these problems. One of these methods of aggregation curves methodology is owned and logistics method, density soil is apparent. In this method, a parameter called α (scale factor) used linear and logistic method, and it’s obtained or that is constant. It should be noted that a variety of methods such as soil gradation curve and Fredlund et al Skaggs method is estimated. In this study, 15 soil samples from the soil database UNSODA have been used. Also, the soil gradation curve of the model and a method for determining the scale factor was used Skaggs et al. Showed that the results for texture, using the linear method  and Yazdi and Ghahreman medium texture, linear and logistic method, and a heavy texture, the best way methodology, is owned and logistics.


Modeling potential distribution of Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) in central Iran

Abstract—The distribution and abundance of herbivores as an integral part of territorial ecosystems, have been affected by anthropogenic activities over the last century. The present research is aimed to quantify the relationships between chinkara in Isfahan and Yazd provinces and a set of related environmental variables using maximum entropy modeling. According to the results, chinkara is widely distributed at boundary interface of two provinces compared to other parts. AUC for model average running was estimated to be about 0.92, which, denotes on high model efficiency. Given to jackknife test and relative contribution percent of variables, the best predictors of chinkara distribute on were participation at the coldest month of year, distance from railway and slope percent.



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2014: Vol 6, Issue 3


The laboratory Study of cubic roughnesses effect on the hydraulic jump length in each dimensions of roughness with classic jump in horizontal Stilling basin

Abstract: from 5.03-12/7 were performed. Selected roughnesses with three heights and five widths were studied. Also comparison of  obtained results with data obtained from hydraulic jump on the flat bed showed that hydraulic jump length in the rough bed rather the flat bed decreases significantly. Finally relationships were presented to obtain the secondary depth to first depth according to the Fraud number of the incoming supercritical flow for jumps created over rough beds.


Effects of Animal Manures and Harvesting Time on Dried Flowers Yield and Essence Yield of Calendula Officinalis.L

Abstract—To evaluate the effect of animals manure (including Chicken, Ostrich, and Cow manure) and harvesting time on dried flowers yield and essence yield of Calendula Officinalis.L, an experiment was carried out through the 2012-2013 season at the Agricultural Research Institute related to Zabol University (Chahnime) Zabol, Iran. A split plot in based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications was followed in the study. Results represented that dried flowers yield and essence yield of Calendula Officinalis.L, were significantly affected by different fertilizer treatments and harvesting time. Chicken manure increased 450% on dried flowers weight in compare with control in late flowering stage. Maximum of amount of essence was obtained by cow manure in early and mid flowering stage.


Investigating the Impact of Groundwater Electrical Conductivity Changes on Desertification Trend Using GIS (Case Study: Mehran Plain)

Abstract— Desertification has been considered as one of the most destructive phenomena in nature and over the past few decades. There have been many international efforts to prevent and balance this phenomenon. Understanding the processes of desertification and factors involved in it and also awareness of the varying degrees of intensity of these processes and factors are important and necessary matters which have to be assessed and evaluated. Over-exploitation of groundwater degrades water quality. Using low quality water is one of the contributing factors in soil salinity and desertification increase. To evaluate the impact of electrical conductivity in desertification trend in the study area, 9 wells located in the Mehran plain were investigated over three time periods (2004-2008, 2001-2005, and 2009-2012). Iranian model (IMDPA) and ArcGIS9.3 software are utilized firstly to give weights to the information layers, then every layer’s value is interfered in the specified indicator and its effect on desertification was evaluated. Then, each layer was granted a weight between 1 and 4 according to the study area conditions. Finally, for each parameter and according to weights allocated, a map was prepared. The results showed that the intensity of desertification increased from the beginning to the end of the study period, so that, at the beginning of the period 8.95% of the area was classified at severe desertification class, while, this class increased to 14.47% at the end of study period.


Some physical and mechanical properties of Mozafati date fruit and nut

Abstract— The various physical and mechanical properties of date fruit (Mozafati variety) and its nut were evaluated. Date samples mean values of length, width, thickness, projected area perpendicular to length, width and thickness were measured as, 34.60mm, 22.73mm, 18.15mm, 411.32mm2, 710.78mm2, 732.21mm2 respectively. Arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, porosity, mass, volume, bulk density and true density were also measured as: 25.16mm, 24.21mm, 70%, 1840.80 mm2, 48.67%, 13.10kg, 11.23 cm3, 0.63gr cm-3, 1.17gr cm-3. In mass modeling, results showed that date volume has the highest correlation (0.88) with mass, and then the arithmetic mean diameter has the highest correlation of (0.82). Date thickness correlation index was very low with mass (0.22). With comparison between friction coefficients on different surface for date. ,Totally concluded that the rotation coefficient of friction was more than static coefficient of friction and static coefficient of friction was more than dynamic coefficient of friction. Highest coefficient of friction was on the rubber surface and lowest  on the galvanized steel surface. The maximum and minimum deformation force for date samples was found perpendicular to length and thickness direction by average values of 11.52N and 8.02N. Deformation force showed decline procedure with its pressure in direction of length, width and thickness.


The effect of season on the selected plant species by Camel

Abstract— Effective management of grazing animals requires sufficient knowledge on the influence of animals on pastureland and environment and also influence of pastureland and environment on the animals. Camel is one of the animals that live in harsh conditions in arid and semi-arid areas and is very important in various aspects of socio-economic conditions. However, different studies have been done to improve the situation of this animal are very limited. In this study tried to investigate season changes on the orientation of camel grazing. Knowledge of seasonal changes in eating patterns of camels, increase our understanding as a guide to better management of animals and their habitats. This study was designed to investigate the effect of season on forage selection by camels; sampling was done in spring, summer and autumn. To this end, the study area and selected plants was studied in each season by five camels and the method (chronometer). In this study the changes in the orientation of camel grazing are examined. Knowledge of seasonal changes can be a guide to better manage of camels and increases our understanding of these animals and their habitats. This study was designed to investigate the effect of season on forage selection by camel, samples were taken in the spring, summer and autumn. In this research, each animal followed for 30 minutes, twice in the morning and evening grazing during its feeding. To analyze the data from this study, statistical software SPSS15 was used. Results were expressed that the number of selected species by livestock during the spring, summer and autumn, were 8, 5 and 5 respectively. Also among plant species, consumption of Tamarix ramosissima and Seidlitzia rosmarinus greatly influenced by the seasons, so that the consumption of Tamarix species significantly increased in autumn and consumption of Se.rosmarinus species in spring and summer seasons was higher of autumn season. The results also showed that the effect of season on consumption of other species has also been low.


Expansion of Ecotourism, New Approach To Sustainable Development of Tourism Industry

(Case study: Khabr conserved area, Baft province, Kerman, Iran)

Abstract— Ecotourism known as one of the most important activities in different areas of the world provides visitors with opportunities to experience nature. Among types of tourism, ecotourism and sustainable development are more consistently related. Sustainable ecotourism is ecologically sustainable tourism, i.e. the tourism that responds to current needs of tourists and maintains and develops ecotourism opportunities for the future. In this paper, capabilities of ecotourism in the region "Khabr and Roochoon" located in Kerman, Iran were investigated using a descriptive-analytic approach and beside evaluation of characteristics of ecotourism, problems and opportunities of the region were described, and strategies were suggested to develop tourism.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 2


Analysis of factors affecting on the development of the entrepreneurial spirit of farmers (A case study of rural farmers of Dehgolan) - Iran

Abstract— Descriptive- survey research aimed to analyze the factors affecting on the development of the entrepreneurial spirit of farmers among rural farmers of Dehgolan (5 villages) was performed. With using Bartlett table 205 randomly was selected as the sample. The research instrument was a researcher made questionnaire that based on literature studies, library issue was designed. Validity and content of the survey instrument was obtained with using a panel of experts ( faculty members of Agricultural Extension and Education and MA degree). Cronbach, s alpha value of 0/87 was obtained by showing that represents the reliability of the survey instrument. The results showed that the entrepreneurial spirit of farmers was moderate. Four factors of previous experience and communication skills, field- infrastructure, property psychological and technical capacity 61/223% of the total variance was explained. Formation entrepreneurial training classes, inviting leading entrepreneurs, inviting investors and private companies and providing opportunities to gain experience by farmers are advised. 


Assessment of energy efficiency in agro-forestry systems of date palm and Barely (case study)

Abstract— The systems of Agro-Forestry lead to the increase of the resistance and efficiency of the resources use in agricultural production systems with the rise in biodiversity. Assessment of the energy efficiency of these systems has contributed to the energy challenges in the sector of the production of agricultural products and improves the energy productivity in these types of production systems. Hence 100 gardens of date which have the date and barley agroforestry selected randomly in the region of Sistan and Baluchestan and the data related to the input and barley pertinent to the agricultural year of 2011-2012 were obtained from the farmers in the form of the questionnaires. The results demonstrated that in the systems of agricultural forests of forage date and barely, the total energy inputs and outputs are respectively 34401.94 and 104671.28 MJ ha. Accordingly, the energy use efficiency was calculated 3.04 in this system that was about 0.9 units lower in comparison to the date monoculture system. This is due to the use of chemical fertilizers in the production of forage barley and the barley’s failure to reach to the stage of seed production. The results also revealed that in forage date and barley agroforestry, a cycle between human, livestock and plant is created while the rise in biodiversity and the farmers’ income. In addition to provide part of the required forage, it reduces the waste.


Fuzzy logic in intelligent agriculture 

Abstract— Fuzzy logic is an extension of Boolean logic dealing with the concept of partial truth. Whereas classical logic holds that everything can be expressed in binary terms (0 or 1, yes or no, black or white), fuzzy logic replaces Boolean truth-values with degrees of them. Fuzzy logic permits the use of linguistic values of variables and imprecise relationships for modeling system behavior and it is a powerful concept for handling non-linear, time-varying and adaptive systems. Due to need to improving agricultural systems and increasing the farmer's income, this paper presents an overview of fuzzy logic literature, modeling techniques, applications to agricultural systems; an example expresses the steps of constructing a fuzzy logic model and discusses the strategies for improving of agricultural systems.  


Assessment of forest roads construction standards in Arasbaran region, Iran 

Abstract—Sustainable management of forest roads depends on regular and timely forest road maintenance. Road inventory is the first step in forest road management. The purpose of this study was to assess existing roads standards by road inventory and using the results to schedule maintenance operation. To do this a part of the road network from Kaleibarchay watershed in Arasbaran forest was inventoried, and cross sectional components and existing culverts were measured and compared to standard ones. Road components were analyzed in ArcGIS9.3 software. The results showed that there were significant differences between existing parameters and standard ones and the exceptions were side ditch depth and roadbed. Road segment only had one culvert. Cross-slope has the highest consistency with standard values. This research can be used in maintenance operation for the studied roads and also as a model to roads monitoring in the study region. 


Effect of different levels of salinity and nitrogen fertilizer on MDA accumulation and RWC content of two wheat cultivars at anthesis stage

Abstract — In order to study the effect of different levels of salinity (N) and nitrogen on some biochemical reactions of two wheat genotypes at anthesis stage, an experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School of Karaj‎‎ in 2011.‎ Treatments were five levels of salt stress ‎‎(0, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dS/m), two nitrogen levels (50 and 150 Kg N/ha) and two wheat cultivars, Bam (resistant) and Tajan (susceptible to salt stress) arranged in randomized complete block design with three replication. Results indicated that under salinity stress condition, N application (150 kg N/ha) increased the RWC and also decreased the MDA content of both ‎genotypes. The positive effect of high nitrogen level on salt-tolerant genotype was more obvious than sensitive genotype. In conclusion genotypic differences between two cultivars, from viewpoint of tolerance to salinity stress and also fertilizer permeability between two genotypes caused that effect of augmentation of fertilizer utilization on Bam cultivar be more obvious than Tajan cultivar. These results demonstrate that nitrogen could be as a physiological solution to improve wheat tolerance against salinity harmful damages at anthesis stage.


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2014: Vol 6, Issue 1


The effect of fallplanting on phenological and morphological characteristics of advanced lentil genotypes

Abstract—To evaluate the effect of planting date on phenological and morphological characteristics as fall planting winter crops, an experiment was conducted in 2012-2013. This experiment was a split-plot in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in an area of Kuhdasht and during it, 20 advanced genotypes of lentil underirrigated and drought stressconditions were cultured on 30 December. The typeand developmental stage varieties (Standing, Half-lying, Asleep) was determined, firstly.Phenological characteristics (the number of days from planting to emergence, emergence to flowering and flowering to maturity) at the period of the growing season and morphological characteristics(Plant height, number of branches per plant and the total length of branches per plant)were al so measured at the end of the growing season. FLIP 2005-4L with 7.50 leaves had the most advanced of developmental stage. In terms of growth type, 15 varieties were standing, four varieties were half-lying and 1 variety was recumbent. Among this Varietie; FLIP 2005-4L, FLIP 2006-2L and GACHSARAN had the lowest number of days from planting to emergence whit 44, 45 and 45 days, respectively. In the period of growth, FLIP 2006-6L and FLIP 2006-37L with an average of 72.38 and 72.66dayshadthe highest number of days from emergence to flowering. In height; thevarieties FLIP 2003-29L with27.54cm had the greatest height. FLIP 2003-29L with9.27 branches per plant was also better than the others. FLIP 2003-5L with 157cm total length ofbranches per plant was better than the others.


Examination the generalheritability of traitslentils under conditions of stress and non-stress

Abstract—To study the general heritability of important traits in lentil crops anexperiment wasconducted under condition of irrigated (water) and drought stress in 2012-2013. Theexperiment was a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications in an area of Kuhdasht. During this experiment 20 advanced genotypes of lentil were cultured under water (irrigated) and drought stress conditions. The results of the analysis of varianceshowed the diversity which exist betweenthem in apectall of the traits. The results of general heritability showed that in both water and drought conditions, the highest  heritability of traits were related to:Root dry weight 98.26%, True leaves which is fullyopend in the stage of flowering 50 percent 91.73%, The total of root length 90.90%, The weight of 100 seeds 88.18%, The total of branches length 88.11%, The efficiency of precipitation 85.18%, The degree of fertility 84.69% and number of pods with 2 seeds 84.85%, The lowest of general heritability was related to: Leaf dry weight 5.19% and leaf weight in the flowering 50% stage 25%, respectively.


The study of phenological and morphological characteristics which are effecting on theyield and yield components in advanced genotypes of lentil through path analysis

Abstract-To study the phenological and morphological characteristics which are effecting on the yield and yield components in lentil genotypes developed through path analysis, an experiment was conducted in 2012-2013. This experiment was a split plot in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in an was area of Kuhdasht and during it, 20 advancedgenotypes of were cultured under conditions of water (irrigated) and drought stressin 30thDecember. The results of variance analysisshowedthe diversity of thegenotypes in aspect all of the traits. Also,the meanComparison of traitsshowed thatthe genotypes 19 and 8 had the highest grain yield. The results of the correlation coefficients for grain yield, with biological yield (r=0.66**) and for harvest index(HI)(r=0.48*) with the total length of the branches(r=0.05*) werepositive and significant.As a result of, the stepwise regression model for three traits into the path analysis showed that the traits such as biological yield,harvest index (HI) and 100-seed weight are themost important of effectivecomponents an the grain yielda positive anddirect effect; 0.87, 0.72 and 0.09,respectively.The resultof this experiment indicate that the traits such as; yield, HI and biological yield are the indices for the selection that improve the grain yield of lentil.


Surveying satisfactory exploitation of watershed management projects (Case Study: Watershed area of Kelestan, Fars Province, Iran)

Abstract—The main goal of research is to Reviews satisfactory of watershed management projects at Watershed of Kelestan, Fars Province. . Statistical population of Watershed was 382 exploiting families in Kelestan village, out of which 97 families were chosen by stratified random sampling in 2013. In this study, using customer satisfaction(CSM) With Using Software spss Satisfaction exploiters. Impact of various aspects of watershed management projects were reviewed. The results show Satisfaction levels privates of Watershed projects In terms of environmental indicators at higher levels than any other functional aspects are considered. However, the Social performance indicators allocated to the lowest level of satisfaction of its members.


The Effect of Irrigation Cut off and Nitrogen Levels on the Quality and Quantity of Fall Sugar Beet

Abstract: This research has been undergone to study the effects Of Irrigation cut-off and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Fall sugar beet.The experiment was conducted in Factorial arrangement using Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications in  Torbat –E-Heydariyeh , Iran in 2011. The field is located at geographical lat. 34° 58'N, longitude 59°37' and altitude 1140m above sea level. Treatments including: cutting off irrigation 10days, 20 days and 30 days before harvest and nitrogen fertilizer in three levels, 150,200, 250 kg/ha. Result showed that root yield decreased when irrigation cut off stress varied from 10 to 30 days before harvesting. With increase in the time of Irrigation cut off from 10 to 30 days before harvesting, significant increase was observed in gross sugar yield, net sugar yield and sugar harvesting coefficient .Maximum percent of net sugar was observed in the case of 200 kg/ha nitrog, .The highest level of sugar content (7.85ton/h) was seen in the irrigation discontinuation level of 10 days before harvest with 200Kg of Nitrogen fertilizer.


2014: Vol 5, Issue 24


The Dynamic Analysis of Guaranteed Purchase Policy on Agricultural Prices Case Study(Potatoes, Onions, Wheat, Rice)

Abstract-The Supporting the agricultural sectordue toitscritical roleinensuringthe country'sfoodfocuspolicymakersin all countries, including developed anddevelopinghas been.Generallysparseand non-supportive policies in our countryhave beentargeted.Amongthese policies, procurement policies, and the guarantee offundamental problemsfaced muchsupport toolin a waydifferent fromthatinother countries,theeconomicdefinitionof workhas been taken.Amongagricultural products, wheat, potatoes, rice, onions, given that mostconsumershave, areofgreat importanceinthe household. Due toshortcomingsinthe policyguaranteed purchasethis product andpurchasingpolicyofthegranted,Therefore,thisstudyanalyzes thedynamiceffects ofagriculturalpolicieswithguaranteed purchaseon pricetheBVARmethodswe have discussed.Inthisstudy,according tothe statistics forthirty yearsinrelation tomeasures ofproduction, acreage, priceguarantee, production costsrelated to thefourstrategic productonions,potatoes, wheat and rice andthe inflation ratemechanisms ofthe effectsguaranteetheprice ofpurchasing policyagriculturalproductsandtoidentify the impactofshort-termand long-termpolicy ofguaranteed purchasepricesfor farm productshavestudied. The resultsshow thatthe short-term and long-term policy ofguaranteed purchasepriceswill affectthe study.


Investigation of phytotoxicity and stability of residuals of Nicosulfuron and Rimsulfuron on beetroot grown on two soil types

Abstract: This research was carried out as a greenhouse experiment in the form of a Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRD) in three-run sequences. The research aimed at investigating the impacts of Nicosulfuron (Cruz) and Rimsulfuron (Titus) residues on the growth of autumn beetroot in two soil types which differed in their levels of organic compounds and salinity.  Treatment of the experiment included six different doses of 0, 2, 4, 8, 40, 60 gr per hectare of rimsulfuran and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2, 3 liter per hectare of nicosulfuran. As per the results of the survey, an increase in the concentration of the herbicides caused a meaningful decline in the measured characteristics of the plant including the length and the wet and dry weight of the shoot and the root (P<0.01). According to I50 in other words a 50% inhibition of growth indicator, the length of shoot showed the highest sensitivity to rimsulfuron in the soil coded A (0.03) and to nicosulfuron in soil B (11.44).


Effect of drought stress in germination indices and peroxidase activity of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench seeds

Abstract— For investigation of effects of drought stress on germination indices and peroxidase activity at E. purpurea (L.) Moench, experiment based on completely randomized design at three replicates were performed. For drought stress polyethylene glycol 6000 at 0, -6 and -12 bar was used. Results of variance analysis showed that drought stress has significant effect (P<0.01) on germination percentage, germination rate, seed vigor, mean time germination, seedling length, seedling dry weight and activity of peroxidase. Results indicated that with increasing of drought stress germination percentage, germination rate, seed vigor, seedling length and seedling dry weight were decreased. At -12 bar drought stress seeds were not germinated. Also, with increasing of drought stress mean time germination and peroxidase activity were increased.  


Enhancement of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench seed germination indices by priming with pyridoxine and kinetin

Abstract— For investigation of priming on seed germination of E. purpurea (L.) Moench, factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with two factor including different concentrations of kinetin (0, 10 and 20 ppm) and different concentrations of pyridoxine (0, 0.02% and 0.04%) at three replicates was conducted. Variance analysis results showed that different concentrations of pyridoxine significantly affected all indices at P<0.01 but different concentrations of kinetin significantly affected all indices at P<0.01 except germination percentage. Interaction between kinetin and pyridoxine significantly affected seedling length at P<0.01 and seedling dry weight at P<0.05 but did not affected germination percentage, seed vigor and mean time germination. Priming with 20 ppm kinetin and 0.04% pyridoxine has highest amount of all measured indices.


The study of tolerance to drought indices of developed lentil genotypes (Lens culinarisMedik)

Abstract—In order to study about tolerance to drought indices, an experiment was a split-plot in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications in two irrigated and drought stress conditions for 20 genotypes of  lentil crop year 2012-2013 was conducted in an area of Kuhdasht.Based on water yield (YP) and Drought stress (YS), quantitative indices of drought tolerance in cluding;Mean efficiency (MP), Tolerance index (TOL), Geometric mean ofefficiency (GMP), Harmonic mean (HM) , Stress susceptibility index (SSI) and Stress tolerance index (STI) were calculated.Significant differencesbetween theindicesandyield under stressand non-stress existed. Thehighest yieldunderdrought stress andnon-stress conditionsgenotypesnumber 19andthehighest yield andthe highestGMP, STI, TOL, HMandMPbelonging tothegenotype number10.Correlationanalysis ofyield underdrought stress andnon-stress and drought tolerance indicesshowed thatGMP, STI, HM, MPare themost suitable index forthe screeningoflentil genotypes.Considering thesefourindicesand higher yieldsunder drought stressandnon-stress the bestvarietiesof drought tolerancegenotypes10, 13, 14were diagnosed.Chartmultivariatebiplotshowed thatvarieties of14.13and10inthe vicinity ofthevectorsofdrought tolerance indicesGMP, STI, HM, MPlocated.Thedistributionoflinesin the biplotindicatedgenotypesfor drought tolerance.


Correlations between traits and path analysis for seed yield of lentil

Abstract-In order to study and describe the relationships between path analysis of yield components of lentil yield trials were conducted in the 2012-2013 crop year. This experiment was a split plot in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in an was area of Kuhdasht and during it, 20 advancedgenotypes of were cultured under conditions of water (irrigated) and drought stress in 30thDecember. The results of variance analysisshowed the diversity of thegenotypes in aspect all of the traits. Also, the meanComparison of traitsshowed that the genotypes 19 and 8 had the highest grain yield. The results of the analysis of variance of diversity in terms of all studied genotypes showed. Average comparison also showed traits under study varieties No. 19, 8 and 9 were the highest grain yield. The results of the correlation coefficients for grain yield, harvest index (r=0.48*) and biological yield (r=0.66**) was positive and significant. Path analysis showed that biological yield and harvest index, respectively, with a positive direct effect 0.85 and 0.75 are the most important components affecting yield.The resultof this experiment indicate that the traits such as; yield, HI and biological yield are the indices for the selection that improve the grain yield of lentil.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 23


Experimental Evaluation of Effect of Changes in Convergence Angle of the Spillway’s Sidewalls on Cavitation Index in Ogee Spillway with an Arc in the Plan

Abstract—Cavitation is one of the most complex and common damages on spillway structure. There are various methods, including cavitation index, in order to study cavitation. In the present study, changes in cavitation index caused by changes in convergence angle of ogee spillway’s sidewalls with an arc in the plan were examined. For this reason, the spillway was constructed in 1:50 scale. Then, it was tested in four different convergence angles, including 0, 60.90, and 120 degrees relative to the spillway’s sidewalls in 6 different flow rates per unit width from 6.74 to 48.42 litre per second in meter.The least cavitation index was reported as 1.54 in 2.42 (X/Hd) station at 0-degree angle in 40.52 ((L/s)/m) flow rate per unit width. 


Effect of seed priming with Pyridoxine on germination of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Miench under drought stress

Abstract— For investigation of the effect of seed priming with pyridoxine on Echinacea purpurea (L.) Miench germination under drought stress, factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with two factors including different concentrations of pyridoxine (0, 0.02%, 0.04%) and different levels of drought stress (0, -6 and -12 bar) was carried out in three replicates. The results showed that, drought stress and pyridoxine concentrations have significant (P<0.01) effect on germination Percentage, germination rate, seed vigor, mean time germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight. According to the results, the -12 bar drought stress gave the minimum germination indices and the maximum germination indices were obtained in pyridoxine at 0.04%. Therefore, seed priming is important strategies for drought stress tolerance. 


Seed priming with kinetin improves Echinacea purpurea (L.) Miench seed germination and seedling growth under drought stress conditions

Abstract— In order to study the effects of seed priming of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench with Kinetin on germination indices under drought stress, factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with two factors including different concentrations of Kinetin (0, 10 and 20 ppm) and different levels of drought (0, -6 and -12 bar) at three replicate was conducted. The variance analysis showed that drought stress significant (p<0.01) effect on the all indices and kinetin has significant effect on seed vigor, mean time generation, seedling length and the seedling dry weight at P<0.01 and on germination percentage at P<0.05. The interaction between kinetin and drought stress levels has significant effect on mean time germination and seedling length at P<0.01 and on germination rate and seed vigor at P<0.05 but has not significant effect on germination percentage and seedling dry weight. According to result, kinetin at 20 ppm has been shown to improve germination indices at drought stress conditions.


Assessment of genetic diversity in Aegilopstauschii using specific markers related to bread quality

Abstract—Aegilopswild species, as the donor of D genome in to modern hexaploid wheat, is a rich source of genes for resistance to various stresses and other valuable crop traits such as bread quality. Bread quality is affected by genetic factors encoding seed endosperm proteins, particularly glutenin subunits. According to this, in this research  allelic diversity of glutenin subunits in 19 genotypes of Aegilopstauschii, was investigated by 9 specific markers for Dy10, Dx5, Dx2, Dy12 subunits. 2% agarose gel was used for theseparation of amplified PCR products and subsequently, the bands were scored. Totally, the results of this research showed that the alleles encoding glutenin proteins have good variation in the examined genotypes.Maximum PIC value was for Glu3D3 (0.623). Therefore, it's possible to improve the quality of hexaploid bread wheat via crosses and transfer of useful genes from Aegilopsspecies.


Considering the effect of targeting the energy carrier subside on urban families’ food expenses in Kerman

Abstract— Targeting energy subside means removing subside on energy carrier price, which can both increase economic efficiency (optimized balance between supply and demand, increase in consumption efficiency and changing its pattern) and fair income distribution. For this, first, the consumption patterns of urban families in Kerman were considered, by using the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and families’ income-expense data between “2002-2007” by income deciles. Then the income and price elasticity were examined. The mentioned groups includes: food, energy, clothes, transportation, communication and other goods. For all income deciles, as it was expected, the price elasticity is less than zero and the income elasticity is more than zero. Then the food support boundary of consumers was defined in 2007 and the effect of targeting energy subside on food support boundary was measured. The results showed that by increasing energy carriers’ price and cash payment of subside to consumers, the food support boundary of each citizen decrease from 211699 Rial to 165229 Rial. This project, generally, shows that before the implementation of subside targeting policy the first, second and third deciles and after the implementation of this policy the first and second deciles were enjoyed from food support.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 22


Using Topography Position Index for Landform classification in Zagros Mountain (case study: Shahoo Mountain)

Abstract—Landform elements include land such as hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, valleys, seascape and oceanic water body interface features such as bays, peninsulas, seas and so forth, including sub-aqueous terrain features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins. The main objective of this study is to landform classification in Shahoo Mountain where located in Zagros mountain, Iran. In order to landform classification used Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with 30 m resolution. In this study used Topography Position Index (TPI) classes for landform classification for the case study. TPI values are between – 320 to 363. The result show that there are ten landform that consist of consist of canyons/deeply incised streams, midslope drainages/shallow valleys, upland drainages/headwaters, u-shaped valleys, plains small, open slopes, upper slopes/mesas, local ridges/hills in valleys, mid slope ridges/small hills in plains, mountain tops/high ridges. Low and high the areas are 1570.31, and 1.04 for canyons/deeply incised streams and plains small classes respectively.


Landform classification using Topography Position Index for Zagros Mountain (case study: Lordegan Mountain)

Abstract— A landform in the earth sciences comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape. Landform elements include land such as hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, valleys, seascape and oceanic water body interface features such as bays, peninsulas, seas and so forth, including sub-aqueous terrain features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins. The main objective of this study is to landform classification in Lordegan Mountain where located in Zagros mountain, Iran. In order to landform classification used Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with 30 m resolution. In this study used Topography Position Index (TPI) classes for landform classification for the case study. TPI values are between – 169.24 to186.48. By using TPI, the study area was classified into landform category. The result show that there are three landform that consist of canyons / deeply incised streams, open slopes, and mountain tops / high ridges and the areas are 1071.02, 293.92, and 1028.11 for each of the classes respectively.


Determination of some biophysical properties of Domsiyah Rice

Abstract— Rice grain, which is a vital economical commodity, has many nutritional and medicinal properties. Therefore knowledge of its physical and engineering properties in the design of post – harvest mechanisms is essential. Information about dimensions, volume, coefficient of static friction, and repose angle in agricultural products on various surfacesis among mechanical properties, which are required in the design of silos, agricultural warehouse, transportation equipment including conveyer belts and spiral conveyers, and also in the design and determination of the efficiency of the post – harvest processing equipment. This study investigated the dimensional, frictional (the coefficient of static friction repose angle on a surface of galvanized iron), geometrical and gravitational (apparent and bulk densities) properties of domsiyah rice grain. The results determined the mean geometric and arithmetic diametersand the sphericity as 4.3, 3.074, and 33.37 respectively. The sample surface area, the large and small curvature radii were determined to be 29.67, 6.51, and 1.69 respectively. The coefficient of static friction and the release repose angle were evaluated as 0.45 and 26.87 respectively. The volume and the apparent and bulk densities were determined as 8.06cm3, 1.46gcm-3, and 750kgm-3 respectively. All of these features can greatly influence the processing of food and agricultural produce. Therefore better recognition of these features and their influence on agricultural produce and food processing can aid the improvement of the quality and better processing of agricultural products.


Distribution of nitrogen forms in calcareous soils province and their relationship with soil characteristics

Abstract— Nitrogen  is  The most important element influencing plant growth , and the most important fertilizer element. Some forms of nitrogen distribution in soils examined with surface soil samples from different agricultural areas in the province. In The chemical test conducted on samples, Total nitrogen(STN)  was measured from 490 to 2750 (mg / kg) of soil , And the greatest amount of nitrogen in the soil, With a mean corresponding to the BOX-NB 99/56 (mg / kg) of soil, and the lowest amount of nitrogen NPHEN, with an average of 43/10 (mg / kg) of soil, respectively. The overall abundance of nitrogen in the soil was determined as follows:

BOX-NB> NHOX-NH> NHSULN> NAOHNB> NKCL> NNH4> NPHEN

The highest correlation coefficient between the STN and forms of nitrogen in soils is the BOX-NB by a factor of 872/0, And the lowest a factor of 038/0 of NNH4, respectively. Equations obtained between total nitrogen and soil organic matter OM, and OM with BOX-NB was a high correlation coefficient. 


Finding the Best Location for Building a Dike: A Case Study of Bardsir Watershed

Abstract— The choice of a suitable place for building a dam in watersheds is a recurring subject in any dam-building project. The current study focuses on selecting the best possible place for building a dike in Bardsir watershed. Topography and the map of waterways were made ready and drainages, secondary drainages, waterways and other graphical data were shown in the map using Auto cad software. Two locations are considered for building the dike out of which one is chosen based on height-area and height-volume diagrams. In this project, features of watershed are identified and the choice of location is made based on whether or not behind-the-dike lake has the least area and the most volume. The height also mattered in this case.


Per Capita Consumption of Urban Water Using an Experimental Model (Case Study: Rooydar City)

Abstract— One of the factors resulting in an increase in world population and a decrease in death rate is access to fresh and clean water. Besides human life, the lives of all living things and advances in agriculture and industry which results in a better life for people, is dependent on water. Therefore, it is necessary to consider ways for supplying water to the increasing population in cities. It is also recommended to choose places for new cities and towns, having in mind their need for fresh water. The need for water is an important factor in designing Water Utilities. In the current paper, using an experimental model, we try to calculate the per capita water consumption in Hormozgan, Iran.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 21


An Investigation into the Impacts of FDI on Rural Poverty in Iran

Abstract- The increased economic growth of agriculture sector, as one of the basic targets embedded in Iran’s economic plans has made it inevitable to highlight the topic of investment in this sector in the process of compiling policies of this field. Emphesizing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), this study was conducted to analyze the influential factors on rural poverty as well as economic growth of agriculture sector. The relationship between FDI and economic growth of the sector and absolute rural poverty was studied using 1971-2010 time series data as well as Seemingly Unrelated Regression Estimation (SURE). According to the results, FDI has not been developed in Iran to an extent that it could considerably affect the economic growth of agriculture sector and rural poverty reduction with apparent outcomes in other economic sectors i.e. industry and service. 


Validation and calibration of mathematical model HEC-HMS in Jarreh Salt River Basin

Abstract— Water serves as an essential and most important component of the natural resources needed for human survival, development and improvement as well. At the same time it also plays an important role in incurring damages on human and its equipment. So to estimate runoff from precipitation and calculate losses in the basin seems to be essential. In the present study, the precipitation - runoff model using capabilities of GIS (GIS) and SCS, as well as hydrological model HEC-HMS for Jarreh Salt River Basin is presented. First drainage network and sub-basin boundaries were determined using HEC-GEOHMS , Digital Elevation Model DEM (in GIS) software (ArcGIS)  and geographical model  in Salt River Basin Jarreh. The SCS and Muskingum methods were applied to model flood events and processing occurred in river respectively. Geographical model was transferred from GIS environment to HEC-HMS software to determine hydrological model within entire basin. Through applying three precipitation parameters and real flood hydrographs, some parameters of hydrological models in basin were evaluated using search algorithm of Nelder and Mead and some other parameters such as curve number, initial interception of Muskingum K and X were calibrated. The model was undertaken to be assessed and evaluated for another event. The results of research on predicted flood hydrograph was promising and flood peak estimation error was estimated to 15.95 percent, in an acceptable range.


Analysis of Yr10 resistance gene to wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici)

Abstract: Present study has been performed to bioinformatic analysis of the gene locus Yr10 resistance to wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici). This gene is a gene encoding a protein.  Evatuation of nucleotides combination of Yr10 gene showedthat its gene sequence contains 58.73% AT and 41.27% GC.  The designation of its specific primers indicated thatthe same primers can be used fot both PCR and qPCR techniques. Sequence analysis of Yr10 protein showed that the sequence Constituted with 824 amino acids, so that, 13/2 % of the total sequence is formed from leu that makes up more than other amino acids existed inthe sequence length. Molecular weight and isoelectric point of the protein Yr10 are 932190 and 7.24, respectively.  Instability index of 39.97 showedthat the protein is grouped as a stable protein. Enzymatic digestion of protein sequence using Tripsin enzymecreated 104 slices.  Inner membrane results using TMHMM tool showed that the amino acid of 0-350 and 650-824 are located in the inner membrane area.  Protein domain of Yr10 was found uing CD search in NCBI database.


Design, Construction and Evaluation of Robot of Vegetables Seed planting for the trays of Greenhouse Planting

Abstract— Creating an appropriate platform and manual planting of small vegetables seeds in planting trays is a time-consuming process and requires more workforces. Therefore this limits the capacity of production of vegetables in greenhouses. Usually in Iranian situation, farmers' do not use foreign high capacity seeds, because of theirs higher price. Thus the aim objective of this study was simulating and constructing an exact seed planting robot for planting tray by using native and standard materials and components available in the market. Based on designed parameters in lab, a primary sample of prototype planting seeds was simulated by Solid Works software and was analyzed for planting of tomato seed. This seed planting Robot can create a furrow in a row of cells of tray and put a seed in a short delay. The seed plant Robot, in suction pressure of 3.89 and 3.42 (bar) and the diameter of hole of 0.47 and 0.49 mm was investigated. Depending on the tray capacity, the planting capacity of seed planting Robot was between 17,000 to 35,000 cells per hour. In order to evaluate the system, 10 trays of plants in three repetitions were planted by the Robot and at each step; the correct number of seeds planted in each tray was counted. The accuracy of the designed system was 88% and its cultivation capacity was 170 trays per hour. 


Training farmers and sustainable development

Case Study on Kordkandi village in Bostanabad

Abstract : Promoting agricultural education is considered as a special education system that aims to help rural people, so that through individual and collective efforts improve their social and economic situation in addition to environment preservation. Promoting agriculture aims to positive changes in information, skills, insights and attitudes of farmers towards protecting the environment. Obviously, in this process, farmers and especially rural will be considered as main audiences for promotional programs. This applied research has been done to explore the role of agricultural promotion in increasing participation of rural in the sustainable development by descriptive- survey at the KordKendy Village of Bostanabad.

The statistical population of 7000 and the sample size was determined  people based on Morgan table. Sampling method was random that was proportional to size. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire that its validity was confirmed by obtaining Ministry of Agriculture experts’ opinions. Reliability coefficient of questionnaire was obtained using SPSS software and Excel programs for different sectors, indicating the suitability of the research tool. Results have shown that Farmers among training methods of promotion, have benefited from contacting with agricultural promoters, most villagers have expressed that promotional magazine content is consistent with their needs  and promotional and educational materials in the classroom have been understandable for them. Results of correlation tests showed that there is significant relationship with  percent confidence between rural farmers’ incentives to participate in sustainable rural development and education variables, participate in educational promoting activities, barriers to participation, family dimension and attend training classes of promotion.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 20


Effect of different isolates of Trichoderma harzianum fungus on Lettuce (Lacttuca sativa) seedling growth traits in soilless culture

Abstract— In this study, the effects of five isolates of Trichoderma harzianum fungal species on Lettuce plant growth rate under greenhouse conditions and soilless culture were evaluated in the CRD in four replications. To conduct the research‬, only the 10% concentration of the extract per total amount of irrigation (water + chemicals) of each pot was used. Wet and dry weights of shoot and root were used as growth indices in this experiment. The test results showed that the isolates had different effects on the lettuce plant growth indices, and indicated a significant statistical difference at 1% level using the LSD test. Among the isolates, the TBi isolate‬ showed the strongest growth effect with the following features: 66.66% increase in fresh shoot weight, 45.21% increase in dry shoot weight, 87.81% increase in fresh root weight, and 51.12% increase in dry root weight. The possible use of isolated strains as plant growth promoting factors is discussed in this paper.


Study of anthocyanin content and Anthocyanin distribution location using ArcGIS software in natural habitat's violets (Viola odorata) in Iran 

Abstract  Ever Green sweet violet (Viola odorata) has been cultivated for cosmetics and medicine in Europe since antiquitythroughout most parts of the world. To measure the anthocyanin content of the flowers of violets, sampling with flowers was done in April 2013 of natural habitats Violets in forests of northern Iran. Samples at the locations sampled, were frozen in liquid nitrogen Then samples were transferred to Tarbiat Modares university and  flowers frozen were placed in the freezer for subsequent experiments.Anthocyanin extraction was used Chiriboga and Francis's method. Anthocyanin data were entered Excell software. Then maps of the distribution of anthocyanin flower's violets in habitat areas, respectively Obtained using ArcGIS software. The results of total anthocyanin showed that lowest anthocyanin content were observed in the white flowers with 0.33 mg/l and the highest anthocyanin content were observed  in the violet flowers with 66.12 mg/l.Also anthocyanin in the flowers of each group were statistically significant. 


The effect of different levels of salinity on seed germination of Kochia prostrata

Abstract— In this study, the effect of salinity on seed germination of Kochia prostrata was studied. Factorial experiment in a completely randomized design levels (zero, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mM sodium sulfate salt was studied in triplicate with seven of salinity. The results of variance analysis showed that there is no significant difference in the level of 5%  of different levels of salinity on seed germination. Comparison of germination percentage mean showed that the germination of seed germination is reduced with increasing salinity. So that the lowest percentage of germination was 1600 mM Na2so4 and the highest germination percentage of the control. We were observed Substantially reduced from 800 mM to 1600 mM Na2so4 (zero percent).


Predicting surface runoff using a moisture- related runoff coefficient in the spatially distributed hydrological model, wetspa

Abstract— This paper explains how the WetSpa models calculate surface runoff. Since this method does the computation of runoff in an interesting rantional way, therefore the paper tries to give a detail explanation about it. A spatially distributed hydrologic model (WetSpa) is used to estimate daily/hourly runoff and river water discharge for each grid cell in the erea basin. The model combines topography, landuse and soil maps, and observed daily/ hourly meteorological time series to predict discharge hydrographs and the spatial distribution of hydrological parameters in the catchment. The discharge hydrograph at the outlet is composed of three components, i.e. surface runoff, interflow and groundwater flow. The model was applied on the Dinvar watershed in the Karkheh river basin of Kermanshah, with 72 months of meteo-hydrological measurements. In this study, a moisture-related runoff coefficient method is propose for calculating surface runoff in each grid cell, which allows the actual runoff coefficient to vary in time, and in function of rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and cell characteristics, giving an approximation to the surface runoff volume at each time step. The simulation results show that the model predicts the daily hydrographs with a good accuracy, 66% according to the Nash-Sutcliffe and the simulated total runoff volume is 48.01 that composed of surface runoff (2.4%), groundwater flow (21.28%), and Interflow (25.7%) and finally amount simulated total runoff(48.01) correspond measured total runoff  (48.07).   


Review of diffusiveness and role of fungal factors in black crown and root rot of strawberry

Abstract— In order to diagnose pathogenic factors and determine diffusiveness level as well as it's infection level in the main regions which strawberry produces, sampling was taken place from fields of Golestan, Mazandaran, Kordestan and greenhouses of Alborz province during 1388-89. The resultant isolates were identified and pathogenic test conducted under greenhouse conditions. The results of review showed diseases diffusion in all given fields and greenhouses. In the present research, the number of 390 fungous isolates was determined which of most important ones in Iran included R. fragariae, M. phaseolina, F. oxysporum, F. solani, P. ultimum, F. proliferatum and V. dahlia respectively. 


Study of water management in Iran

Abstract- This study examines water management in Iran. Water is the source of life and growth and human development. With increasing population, increasing need for water becomes even greater. 97% of Earth's water is brackish and the ocean holds the remaining 3% is a percentage of water on earth, fresh water and can be used in humans. Water is a scarce element; many of the battles are created for water. Many countries are facing water shortages Iran is a country that is facing a water shortage. Each year due to climate change and global warming will be more droughts. So any water source should be used to optimize and manage it. Rainfall in the winter season in most parts of the country occurs, Due to the serious need water, we need water management by saving the rain and system design with pond and water absorbent polymers. Because rainwater-harvesting methods are much every way suited to the topography, distribution of rainfall, soil depth, and economic and social conditions in each region can be selected.


Environmental factors affecting on the cover of some medicinal species in the rural south rangelands of Golestan

Abstract— The distribution of each species within a certain range is possible because each species has specific environmental requirements And given that ambient environmental conditions and compliance is established the main objective of this study vegetation relationships with environmental factors such as soil factors and physiographic factors on pastures of Chaharbagh. In order to investigate vegetation relationship and soil the area was typing method fyzyonomic. Then he key area of each vegetation type was certain And vegetation and soil sampling was carried out in these areas. Then, to investigate the correlation of vegetation, soil and physiographic factors Canoco4.5 software was used. Initial analysis software, using DCA (unbiased conventional analysis) was done because the gradient was less than the number 3 Principal component analysis method (PCA) was used. Results showed that species Cichorium intybus and Gallium verum have positive correlation with the amount of sand and clay and high organic carbon And species of Euphorbia rigida has positive correlation with the amount of silt, lime and PH. Asteragalus. gossypinus has negative correlation with the amount of silt, PH and lime.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 19


Flood Estimation and Simulation in Urban Drainage Systems

Abstract — Rapid population growth, urban development and advanced technology of societies are increased problems resulted from flooded towns, because they have undesirable impacts on hydrology of drain basin and intensify floods (mass and maximum water yield), increase population of coastal areas, reduce basic flows, etc. Through a correct design and supply of sufficient capacity of collection networks and surface water discharge,the said harmful consequences are typically decreased. Although considering multiplicity and complexity of factors affected on the determination of flood extent, uncertainty in estimations, the necessity of reviewing effects of rapid changes and revolutions of drain basins and evaluating and controlling results, it needs simulation and mathematical models to be used. In this paper, flood estimation and simulation of one of sub-basin of Shiraz has been displayed with model SWMM. This model has presented by Environmental Protection Agency for quantitative and qualitative simulation of urban basins surface runoff and can determine surface runoff for an urban network by different components of channel, pipe, reservoir, manhole, regulator, etc. It is to noted that this model is calculated flood with kinematic wave model and composition of surface and canalized currents elements and dynamics in channels, Channel routing carried out with dynamic wave model. Final results are shown insufficiency of a system existed in parts of network and an amendatory approach is also presented. 


Uncertainty Analysis of Peak Flow in Urban Drainage Collection Networks

Abstract— In this paper, uncertainty analysis for the Peak  flow variables of urban basins in the main drainageage of collection network and surface water discharge has been presented for Shahid Beheshti township basin in Shiraz at a certain probability surface. In this basin the main drainageage is an open channel.For uncertainty analysis, Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) has been used by Latin Hypercubic Sampling (LHS) in SIMLAB software environment. In this regard, after the identification of effective input variables including hydrologic, hydraulic, and implementation, 1200 stochastic values produced of each sample; then by 120 times sampling, implementation scenario have been adjusted for this number. 

To estimate flood in urban basins and hydraulic dynamics in drainageages, SWMM model has been used. This model has been presented by America Environmental Protection Agency for qualitative and quantitative simulation of urban basins surface runoff which is able to adjust the rate (level) of an urban network with different components of channel, pipe, reservoir, manhole, regulator, etc. Flood is calculated with kinematic wave and composition of surface and canalized currents elements and dynamics carried out in channels by dynamic wave model. Through Statistical analysis, the model output in various scenario shows that there is 22% uncertainty for the determination of maximum flow of urban basins in average and the maximum amount is 26%.  


Study of cytochrome p450 (CYP81Q) genes expression in two different varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Abstract— Sesame, due to the high content and good quality of oil is one of the most important nutritional sources of the human food chain. The aim of this research is to shed light on the roles of the CYP81Q genes expression in two different varieties of sesame, the early Palestinian and the Giroft. The expression of these genes produce some enzymes that catalyzes pinoresinol to piperitol and then to sesamin. Sesamin, a class of lignin, is a secondary metabolite that is found abundantly in sesame and because of its important properties, it is used to cure cancer. In the present study it is used to draw a phylogeny tree to compare the protein sequences in four different species of Sesamum, i.e. S. schinzianum, S. alatum, S. sesamum and S. indicum. For this comparison, sources such as informational banks, some bioinformatics soft wares are used. Comparing the genes expression in these numbers shown with the phylogenetic and Clustalw, showed that three of the Genes have high homology and the amount of CYP81Q1 expression at its highest figure is more than the two other CYP81Q2, CYP81Q3 genes.


Risk taking Analysis of the traditional architecture buildings against earthquake

Abstract— Earth quake is a dangerous event that kills lots of humans and leaves horrible economical & financial damages every year. The seat of Iran on world earth quake hazard zone, clarify the sensitivity of security issue confront these unpredictable disaster. Most of the desert cities of Iran have traditional texture that involved historical buildings so access to open safe area is too important for scrapping and guarding. Therefore this issue attempted to investigate of harm resistance of special structure of traditional houses against earth quake, by ARABS set of buildings in Yazd as a case study. As regards access to open safe area during of crisis specially earth quake disaster, and supply services either in limited time is so survival. Therefore less accessibility problems and its ruination probability make a serious hazard. This paper with propose of catching the pattern for resent residential units, investigated briefly to adequate of open area of traditional residential units (equal of neighborhoods in new definition) and approachability to these open safe areas tile crisis. In this issue also consider about its complex relationship among the spaces & rooms because of specific centralistic structure, accentuate on safety and security foundation with analyzing data that based on gathering with statistical and experimental methods, by SOWT methodology and verifying spaces with adaptation information. In conclusion, as result of this issue spatial arrangement of this traditional house, consideration of its coordination and dimensions, intrinsically reduce damages financially and physically of earthquake in crisis time and increase the escape time and improving the quality of humans life.


The analysis of energy efficiency in agriculture Case study of Qazvin Plain

Abstract—Due to the scarcity of energy resources and adverse effects arising from the improper use of different energy sources on human health and environment, the need to analyze energy efficiency in agriculture is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the energy efficiency of various crops cultivated in Qazvin plain in the crop year 2011-2012. Results showed that the energy efficiency of sugar beet, maize and Canolacrops is more suitable than crops such as wheat, barley, and especially tomatoes. Therefore, the revision of the cropping pattern and input usage in the region is essential.


Evaluation effects of different plantessence on longevity of Gerbera

( Jamesoniicv. Sorbet Cut flowers)

Abstract—Effect of different plant essence containing Thymus vulgaris, Cuminumcyminum, Eucalyptusand Rosemarinusofficinalis (50, 75 and 200 mg/L) with sucrose 3% as continuous treatmentand distillate water as a control on Gerbera cut flower were studied. Vases containing cut flowers kept in room with environment condition include: average temperature 24◦ C relative humidity 70% and photoperiod 14 hr light supplemented with light intensity about 15 to 20 µmol/m2/sec with fluorescent lamps. Treats such as longevity, solutionuptake, stem bending,anthocyanine content of petals and activity of superoxide dismutase enzymes in petal at certain days were evaluated and statistically analyzed.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 18


Investigating the effect of foliar application of Bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon) aqueous extract on germination, antioxidant enzymes activity, alpha amylase and destruction of cellular membrane in cocklebur seedling (Xanthium strumarium)

Abstract—This study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic effect of Bermudagrass aqueous extract on germination percentage, activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase, alpha amylase and malondialdehyde compound and fatty acids in cocklebur seedling tissue. The study was designed in a completely random design with four repetitions and four treatments performed at Islamic Azad University of Shushtar in 1391. Experimental treatments were 0, 10, 20 and 30 percent extracts of Bermudagrass. Results showed that increasing Bermudagrass extract concentration leads to a significant reduction in alpha amylase enzyme activity and germination rate and a significant increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the controls. Also highest aqueous extract of Bermudagrass caused a 0.480 nmol/g wet tissue increase in concentrations of malondialdehyde and 36.00 percent increase in fatty acids in the target plant tissues. 


Investigating the Destructive Effects of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry on Biosphere

(A Case Study of Garmi Town)

Abstract: Today, due to the importance of economic justification and necessity of maintaining the sustainability and environmental protection together with development, evaluation studies on ecological power plays important role, particularly in the developed nations. In this case therefore, this study aims to make the consequences of non-normative, intensive and illogical agriculture and animal husbandry clear in the regions unsusceptible to agriculture and range management, but considering the ignorance of authorities, it has been non-normatively operated resulting in the devastation of the environment.  The fundamentals of these studies including limitations and criteria comprising from topography, slop, geology, landslide potential, erosion potential, water sources, land capability, land use, all investigated by this study.


Effects of nitric oxide and irrigation cycle on qualitative and quantitative Characteristics of Gladiolus grandiflora L.

Abstract— Gladiuols as a popular cut flower with the long vase life was used in wedding and mourning.  It’s a sensitive flower then water stress. In the present study evaluation effects of irrigation intervals and nitric oxide (NO) as a molecule involved to growth and defences system in plants on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of gladiuols. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a nitric oxide donor was used at 0, 100, 150 and 200 µm, with irrigation terms 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. This experiment has been performed in factorial Design with complete randomized design with 4 replications. LSD test was used for compartment of means in %05. Results of variance analyses are showed the Sodium nitroprusside and irrigation terms are significant effects on quantitative characteristic of cut flower of gladiuols (p< 0.01). But interaction of nitric oxide and irrigation terms just effective on flowering stem length, spike length and ratio of stem length to spike length. Results of compartment of means are showed the significant effects of interaction of irrigation terms and nitric oxide on qualitative characteristics such as chlorophyll content, relative water content, sugar and starch content.   


Molecular evaluation of wheat rust resistance gene, Lr34, in the number of Iranian wheat cultivars

Abstract— The Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38 gene is a globally important genetic resource for wheat resistance breeding against leaf rust and stripe rust. Comparative analysis of different wheat genotypes resistant and susceptible alleles, have been identified and characterized two, resistant & susceptible, haplotypes for this gene. Accordingly, several STS markers have been designed around sequence variations in this gene. One of  them is cssfr5 marker. This marker  amplified two bands of contrasting size which can easily be resolved in a 1.5% agarose gel: a 751 bp fragment specific for the +Lr34 allele  and  a 523 bp fragment specific for the -Lr34 allele. 

Finally, of A collection of 100  wheat commercial cultivars and advanced wheat lines from Iran has been examined, the Lr34(+) allele has been  revealed in 26 genotypes.


The evaluation of the factors affecting the agricultural extension

 Case study: Central Marhamat Abad Rural district, Miandoab county

Abstract— Existence and survival of the village depends on the prosperity and stability of its all development components that long been associated with agriculture. Therefore, attention to issues around agriculture and consequently sustainable agriculture in order to achieve the development is the current need of the present age. Achieving sustainable agricultural development puts considerations front of us. The term Agricultural extension considered as a useful strategy to achieve sustainable agriculture and have realized minds to it. However, it has been faced with many problems in various stages of implementation so far.

Hence the present article with the descriptive and analytical methods, examines the factors affecting agricultural extension.

For this reason 125 households are selected by modified formula Cochran and Simple Random Sampling from the villagers of Central Marhamat Abad Rural district and the data were collected from questionnaires and interviews. Finally for data analysis T-test and regression test were used. The results indicate that all economic, social, political, ecological, infrastructural and institutional factors influence the agricultural extension that social factor has the greatest impact and infrastructural factor has least impact. In this way, to solve the existing problems of agricultural extension in villages, using appropriate strategies given by rural residents with priority would be beneficial.



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2014: Vol 5, Issue 17


Intra Industry Trade Study of the Agricultural Sector in Iran

Abstract—The aim of present study was to estimate and evaluate the Intra Industry Trade (IIT) of the agricultural sector in Iran. For this purpose, the IIT amount of agricultural products of Iran was estimated by Grubel-Lloyd index for the period 1358-1390. This study was an applicable and descriptive survey. Based on results the coefficients of independent variables in the model, the agricultural value added growth and inflation in the country, were very low and their amount were 0.0048 and 0.00067, respectively. These results also reveals, these two variables have had no significant effect on the dependent variable (GL) which shows low IIT amount in this group of products. Since the marketing of agricultural products includes all agricultural inputs so, agricultural products marketing and utilization of potential capacities of this sector are recommended. Also, it is suggested to implement the export development strategy in order to move toward economic development.


Examining Effects of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) on their Activities in Non-chemical Pests Management of Apple and Pear crops in East Azarbaijan Province 

Abstract— Pest control by chemical toxins is considered an old eradication technique and because of its many problems , has motivated actors to invent new safe methods since new methods are not only economical but environment friendly .In this regard one of the best methods to upgrade knowledge of users in combined pest management is farmers Field school (FFS). This research is done with the aim of examining effects of farmers’ school on their activities in non-chemical management quantitatively. FFS researches in East Azarbaijan during 3 last years have influenced farmers activities regarding non-chemical pest control and motivated farmers to prefer non-chemical methods to chemical ones which is the result of upgrading knowledge of farmers in this field.


Landform Classification by Slope Position classes

Abstract— The main objective of this study is to landform classification in Oshtorankooh Mountain where located in Zagros mountain, Iran. In order to landform classification used Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with 90 m resolution. In this study used slope position classes for landform classification for the Oshtorankooh Mountain where located in Zagros Mountain, Iran.  By using slope position index, the study area was classified into landform category. The result show that there are variety of landform (valley, lower slope, flat slope, middle slope, upper slope and ridge) that valley class and flat slope have maximum and minimum percentage respectively in the study area.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 16


The effect of Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) on chemical change of white shrimp during refrigeration storage

Abstract— Shrimp a member of the aquatic crustacean species can be found in most parts of the world both in freshwater and saltwater form. It is like most types of seafood full of calcium, iodine, and unsaturated acid protein. The meat of the aquatic creatures as a raw substance comprises a protein system that during fishing, transportation, preparation, and processing is exposed to a collection of internal changes and interactions resulting in its putrescence. Because of the nutritional and economic value of shrimp, this study investigated the effect of the different doses of green tea (200, 400, and 600 ppm) on the moisture content, pH value, peroxide value and the total volatile nitrogen and compared the results from various doses. The results indicated that the 600ppm dose had the most influence on the fall in the moisture content and the pH value while all doses of green tea significantly affected the other putrescent parameters (total volatile nitrogen and peroxide value, P<0.05). The results generally showed that different doses of green tea result in the increase in the qualitative parameters of shrimp during refrigeration.


Numerical Study of the Effect of the Chimney Position on Emitted Pollution around Buildings by Using Computational Fluid Dynamic

Abstract—Among the achievements of the world's industrial development, air pollution problem that the day on which the intensity is increased. Meanwhile, emissions from industrial chimneys, one of the major sources of air emissions to the environment are considered. Spread of pollutants in the air due to the complexity of air movement in the atmosphere and affecting factors is a complex issue. In this paper a numerical study of the position of the chimney emissions in and around buildings using computational fluid dynamics are addressed.


Modeling the rate of heat loss from the stack of a natural gas pressure reducing station heater

Abstract—In Natural gas pressure reduction stations, gas with a temperature of 15 °C enters to the station from transmission line, according to the Gas equation of state in constant volume as the gas pressure drops, the temperature drops too and this can cause condensation or frosting of gas compounds, resulting block in flow path. To avoid this phenomenon, the station inlet gas should be pre-heated before going to the regulators and pressure reduction process, using heaters installed in the station; the required energy for heaters supplied by station outlet gas, much of the heat from the burning gas is transferred to the environment through body and specially the stack. In this article it’s been tried to calculate the amount of wasted energy using the experimental results of field research and data collection from a sample heater of gas pressure reducing station in the city of Mashhad, by numerical modeling of the stack with Ansys software. The modeling and analyzing the results obtained from solving the model was determined daily 3.46Kwh energy as heat from the body and 55.2Kwh energy output from the stack to the environment is wasted, considering the heater’s functions on the year and many of these heaters in the whole country, considerable energy source can be retrieved.


Effect of hill on beds profiles rivers floods plain 

Abstract—Rivers are discussed as a dynamic and systematic, and yet with complicated relations, the correct operation of such dynamics, depends on understanding of the relationship it. In this study with the using a laboratory method and using of Permeable hill with a trapezoidal cross-section and a crest width of 20 cm, bottom width of 50 cm height of 5 cm effect of permeable gravel on riverbeds flood plain profiles was investigated. Experiments with four rates of discharge 4, 6, 8 and 10 liters per second and with channel bed slope 2 and 3 percent was performed. The results showed that with increasing discharge and slope of the channel bed, sedimentation rate is increase.


Comparison  effects of organic based compost teas  and chemical fertilizers on growth and  fruit quality in organic and conventional culture of  Pepino (Solanum muricatum)

Abstract— To evaluate and compare the effects of organic based compost teas  and chemical fertilizer on vegetative, reproductive growth and fruit quality of pepino, randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted. The results showed  that the  vegetative growth of Pepino chemical fertilizer provides nutrients for growing as organic based compost teas but in  reproductive growth organic based compost teas  was more effective  and chemical fertilizer treatment had a reducing  effect on fruit quality.


Restructuring of the electricity market of Iran according to outlook the twenty years

Abstract— Problems arising from the former structure of the electricity industry led Policy makers and decision makers in the industry to revise the basic view of the industry and how to manage it. We have tried in this paper to describe different aspects of Restructuring of the electricity market of Iran according to outlook the twenty years. The result of this research implies that, the success of the Iranian electricity market restructuring programs based on the vision of the affected various factors including proper implementation of restructuring plans in accordance with the plans and visions and strengthens implementation of the program with the appropriate organs of the country.


Problems & Solutions for Modifying Consumption Patterns

Abstract—this study mainly aims to investigate the problems and solutions for modifying  the consumption patterns. Consumption patterns modification requires sustainable culture making and this needs solutions and alternatives by which all people of the society feel the necessity of consumption modification behaviors and gradually this modification will be institutionalized and turns to a sustainable behavior and finally to a culture in whole consumption fields. In this paper, by a descriptive method, and using documentations and reviewing the findings of other studies and papers, we will investigate and determine the problems and solutions for modifying the consumption patterns.


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2014: Vol 5, Issue 15


Comparing and assessment of TRMMdata and ground based measurements data for drought monitoring  

Abstract—Providing a spatial and temporal drought monitoring and precipitation patterns for dry periods is very essential for different applications specially for drought adaptation plans.  Due to short period of measured data and inappropriate distribution of weather stations, the study of water resources / climate in some regions of the province is carried out with difficulty. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize other reliable climatic data resources. Accordingly, in this research data from 10 synoptic stations and monthly data of TRMM satellite was used to monitor drought in Khorasan Razavi province. Standardized precipitation index (SPI) of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were calculated for 13 years period (1998-2010) and compared with those of satellite based data for the same period. The evaluation was measured using CSI (Critical Success Index) and R2 (Coefficient of Determination). The results showed that there was a very good consistency between earth borne and satellite borne SPIs for 6 and 12 months’ SPIs. Moreover, monthly data from TRMM portraits the 2000 and 2008 droughts in the province more accurately. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the TRMM satellite data has the capability of drought monitoring over the province.

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Investigating the affecting factors on the fate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Jajrood River of Southern Tehran

Abstract— this study surveyed the critical factors in having an impact on the fate of the hydrocarbons in Jajrood River. The river originates from Alborz Mountains and after passing through Varamin city, flows into Salt Lake and is a major source of water in South of Tehran province. Aromatic hydrocarbons of natural and unnatural sources such as combustion of fossil fuel discharge to the river and cause negative impacts on the agricultural crops in the area. Five stations were selected along the river and four series of samples had been taken. The concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), all of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, was analyzed by GC-FID. The results of modeling with AQUATOX model indicate increase concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in spring. It has been appeared that the fate of PAHs depends on factors like water flows out of segment, degradation of hydrocarbons into lighter compounds or adsorption to sediment particles. Also, the results show that Benzo[a]pyrene, which is a carcinogen and a hazardous compound has the highest concentration among PAHs.

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Nitrogen utilization efficiency and the productivity of wheat in crop rotation under different rates of nitrogen

Abstract— This research was carried out under the temperate climate condition of Ilam province, Iran, during 2011-2013 growing seasons to determine the suitable crop rotation for enhancing nitrogen (N) uptake, utilization, and use efficiency of wheat. Treatments were arranged in a split plot based on RCBD with four replications. The main plots were 6 pre-sowing plant treatments (control, Perko PVH, Buko, Clover, Oilseed radish and combination of three plants Ramtil, Phasilia, clover), and sub-plots were allocated to four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (Zero, fertilizer recommendation, 50% lower and 50% higher than the recommended fertilizer). Results showed that nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE), nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) and Nitrogen efficiency ratio(NER) in wheat were significantly affected by crop rotation and nitrogen fertilizer and their interaction. The lowest and highest NUE were in oilseed radish- wheat and fallow- wheat rotation, respectively. The highest and lowest NUtE were observed in oilseed radish-wheat and fallow- wheat rotation, respectively. Perko-Wheat rotation with the consumption of nitrogen based on fertilizer recommendation for wheat due to economic performance and high nitrogen uptake and use efficiency, were evaluated better than any other rotation. 

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Study of calving age affection  on  lactation persistency optimal function of first parity Holstein cows 

Abstract—Study of calving age affection  on  lactation persistency optimal function of first parity Holstein cows,148 herds of Holstein cattle of Iran during 1996 to 2008 were used and also the effect of environmental factors on the optimal Index duration of test day records from 119,693 cows in first lactation milk production. Statistical analysis using nonlinear (NLIN) and GLM Procedures in SAS 9.1 software was performed. Since the criteria for measuring the lactation has been used by various researchers. In between these methods 280-60 test scale and 280 production peak scale  are selected. These methods were predicted by mathematical model of Wood ,between the two methods used to measure the persistency criterion, the 280-60 scale was selected as optimum durability  because it shows the average production function  in per cow. The effect of herd, milk yields, calving age on optimal index durability was significant (P<0.05).Heifers offered the opportunity to be grown up enough to be given to a good condition order to prolong the optimal With the correct management approach to determine the age at first calving herds in the 18 to 26 months of age range. Most of the continuation of milk production have better continuity between the ages of 18 to 26 months calving cows .

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Evaluation of Forage Moisture Content Measurement  using Capacitance Sensor

Abstract— Moisture is one of the most important factors during and after the harvest in forage crops. Hay moisture content has a considerable impact on  different stages of harvest and post harvest such as baling, transportation, storage, etc. and therefore its role is very evident in production processes. The conventional method of moisture measurement in forage is based on weighting method that is time-consuming and costly and the product sample will lose its original properties. In this study a capacitive sensor for real-time and continuous measurement of hay moisture content was designed, fabricated and evaluated. Alfalfa samples used in laboratory evaluation were obtained from alfalfa fields of the College of Agriculture research farm at Shiraz University, at three levels of moisture content, three levels of density and five levels of capacitor plates spacing. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between moisture content and capacitance sensor’s output. Also temperature has a significant effect on the sensor’s outputs.

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Role of Tourism in Sustainable Development

Abstract—this study mainly aims to investigate the role of tourism in sustainable development. Today, industrial tourism industry is developing day-t-day and is a high-income job and will be turned to a greatest part of international trading in near future. Tourism development and management, while is environmental friendly with no damage to it, is a main factor for obtaining sustainable development. In this paper by a descriptive method, and using documentations and reviewing the findings of other studies  and papers, we will investigate and determine the role of tourism in sustainable development.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 14


Modeling  Heat and Mass Transfer During deep-fat frying: A Review

Abstract—Deep-fat frying is one of the most common food processing methods used for preparing of human kind foods worldwide. However, a serial of complex reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis, isomerization, and polymerization take place during the deep-fat frying course and influence quality attributes of the final product such as flavor, texture, shelf life and nutrient composition. Deep fat frying is a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Heat is transferred from the oil to the food, water is evaporated from the food and oil is absorbed in it. Studying the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in deep fat frying food is necessary and important.

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Sowing Dates Effects, on Yield and Yield Components of Three Cotton Cultivars in North of khuzestan Province

Abstract— Sowing time is one of the most important factor for maximizing the yield Especially in those areas where temperature, day length, rainfall and humidity vary throughout the year The present studies were conducted to determine optimum planting date on three cotton varieties at agriculture research station-safiabad, Dezful, Khuzestan. The experiments were conducted in a randomized completely block design as split- plot with four replications cultivars. In all the treatments, cotton yield, fibers yield, seed yield and the percentage of lint were measured during the experiment. Analysis of variance for yield and yield components of cotton showed that the effect of planting date and cultivar on cotton yield and seed yield was significant but those interactions with each other were not significant. There was no significant difference among various planting dates in terms of lint percentage but the highest lint percentage in all three varieties was related to the second planting date with a mean of 33.9% while the first planting date had the minimum average with 31.7%. Among three cultivars studied the cyland cultivar had maximum yield loss with a decrease of 47 kg.ha-1cotton yield, 15.7 kg.ha-1 fibers yield and 31.2 kg.ha-1 seed yield. Termes 14 and cyland cultivars with 0.13% and 0.06% had the highest and lowest losses in lint percentage with 24-hour delay of the optimum time of sowing. According to all the result can be stated that early and late planting dates could lead to a decline in cotton yield and in aggregate the date of 5th April is the best planting date for all cultivars studied.

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The study of moth fauna in the Bamu National Park (protected area), Iran

Abstract :The importance of environmental issues, the study of the species that exist in the ecosystem and ecology of them are important in the qualitative and quantitative balance in the ecosystem. The aim of present study was to identify moths of Bamu National Park that some of them are considered pests in forests and pastureland. For this purpose, research area divided to five stations and was sampled manual and using light traps using light traps and cyanide jars. Insects are collected and transferred to the laboratory and were isolated the moths of them. Then they were formed and identified according to taxonomic keys and morphologic characters. A total of 154 specimens belong to 6 families (Noctuidae,  Sphingidae,Notodontidae,Arctiidae,lymantridae,Geometrida) were identified and confirmed by authoritative. The obtain results showed that this protected area has a high diversity of insects such as moths. Identify this group of insects that many of them are agricultural pests at larval period, will help to preserve the ecosystem. 

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Comparing the efficiency of protein and maltodextrin on spray drying of honey: physical and functional properties, powder production yield

Abstract— In this study, the efficiency of Sodium caseinate (as a dairy model protein) and Maltodextrin was assessed on spray drying process of honey. The obtained results revealed that no powder will be produced in drying process of honey without using supplements, while using protein in spray drying process (as low as 10%), will increase the efficiency up to 50%. Comparing to that, reaching a similar efficiency will need large amount of Maltodextrin (up to 100% w/w based on dry weight of honey). The mechanism of action of proteins has been proven by other scientists using physical property tests, powder production efficiency and glass transition temperature (Tg). Recent study showed that preferential migration of protein to the surface of droplets/particles, which reduces adhesive behavior (stickiness) between particles and dryer wall by the increase in the surface protein coverage of the particles. The mechanism of Maltodextrin to decrease the stickiness is due to the increase in the overall Tg of the honey powders.

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Effect of using growth-promoting bacteria on yield and growth parameters of Progress Cultivar Sunflower in Arak weather conditions

Abstract—InApplication of biologic fertilizers especially plant growth-promoting bacteria in combined form using chemical fertilizers is important strategy of plant fusion feed for the sustainable management of ecologically sustainable agricultural system with sufficient input. In order to investigate the influence of bacterial inoculants application of AzotobacterCrococum, Azospirillumlipoferumand Pseudomonas on application and application of sunflower components (Progress Cultivar) an experiment was performed at the Agricultural Research Station in Arak Azad University in 2009. Seed inoculation with pairwise mixed bacteria or a combination of three bacteria and non-inoculation bacterial seed (control) the chemical at the presence of 350 kg urea fertilizer per hectare and the absence of urea fertilizer as treatments were considered. Grain function features, total dry weight, leaf area index and crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate were measured. The results showed that all of the studied features were affected by experimental treatments, so that the interaction of urea fertilizer and combination of three bacteria of Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Azospirillum for grain function was significant at level 1%. The results showed that grain function of treatments that consumed three bacteria of Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Azospirillum was 3.96 96/3 tons per ha.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 13


Evaluating the effect of some individual features of farmers on energy use efficiency and energy productivity in two irrigated crops of wheat and barley in Sistan and Blauchestan Province

Abstract—Different factors are considered in terms of energy from which we can point to most important factors including energy use efficiency and energy productivity. The available statistics show that these two variables in agriculture are not in a good condition and solutions for increasing them should be obtained through recognizing effective factors affecting these two variables. One of the effective factors that affect these factors is the individual factors of the farmers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of some individual effects of the farmers on energy use efficiency of two crops namely, irrigated wheat and barley in Sistan and Baluchestan. survey method, a questionnaire, and simple random sampling was used in This study and 159 farmers participated in that. The findings show that there is no significant difference in terms of energy use efficiency and energy productivity between men and women, and between farmers of different towns. A significant effect was observed between education level of the farmers variable with energy use efficiency variable at 5 percent level, but there was no significant relationship between the same variable and energy productivity variable.

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Investigating rural Entrepreneurial Potentials in Kerman province, Iran.

Abstract— Trying to establish, maintain and promote innovative human resource development indexes to rural development depends on education and skill learned in starting a new business. Since the majority of the population in the developing countries, are resident in rural areas, thus addressing the importance of entrepreneurship in the rural development process is essential. The main porpose of study was investigating of rural entrepreneurial potentials in Kerman province. The statistical population of this study consisted rural population of the age activity in Kerman province. Based on Cochran's formula, 210 people were selected as sample. To collect data, a structured questionnaire was used. Validity of questionnaire (Face validity) was obtained by a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha was computed to measure reliability study instrument were 0.82. The results have shown creativity and innovation, and internal control characteristics among respondents in high spirits seeking moderate success and morale risk and their independence was low. It also compares the entrepreneurial spirit among people with education levels including  primary, secondary and higher levels showed that there is significant difference between the percentage of primary secondary and higher level.

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Effects of Cow Manure and Cadmium on the Biomass and Plant Height of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Abstract—Heavy metals are one of the most important environmental contaminants which enter the soil from various sources. Among heavy metals, cadmium is one of the most hazardous heavy metals due to its high mobility and the small concentration at which its effects on plants begin to show. In order to study effects of cow manure and cadmium on the biomass and plant height of green bean an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. The treatments included five cadmium levels (0, 2, 5, 10, 20 mg cadmium per kg soil) and four cow manure levels (0, 15, 30, 60 Mg ha-1) based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that with increase of Cd concentration in soil significantly plant growth is reduced. The interaction of cow manure at high concentrations of cadmium also was caused a significant reduction in plant height, root and shoot dry weight.

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Calibration and validation results of the spatially distributed hydrological model, WetSpa, in the Dinvar Watershed, Karkheh, Iran

Abstract—The WetSpa model, working on a daily basis, is applied to simulate flow hydrograph for the Dinvar watershed. The Dinvar basin is located in Kermanshah, and the river is a tributary of the Karkheh River. The 6 years (2006-2012) measured daily precipitation, temperature, PET, and discharge data are used for model calibration and validation. The first 3 years (2006-2008) of the 6 year period is chosen for model calibration and the second 3 years (2008-2012) for model validation. The calibration process is performed manually for the global model parameters only, whereas the spatial model parameters are kept as they are. And For model validation, the calibrated global parameters are used to simulate the daily stream flow for the second part of the data. The results of a graphical comparison between observed and simulated daily flow at Dinvar , and evaluation criteria for the calibration and validation period show that the model performance is satisfactory for both calibration and validation periods. The model predicts the daily hydrographs with a good accuracy, between 60 to 65 % according to the Nash-Sutcliffe criteria.

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Estimation of soil erosion and sediment production in Catchment area of Tel Sibaki, Eghlid city Using PSIAC model

Abstract— Nowadays, soil erosion, as a serious problem for human welfare and and even his life is considered and not only leads to creating poor soils, deserted fields and pastures but also caused a lot of damages by depositing of materials in waterways and reservoirs. The field research was conducted in the area of Tel Sibaki ,Eghlid city, that the aim of research is to estimate the amount deposition of and erosion in the catchment. In order to estimate the amount of erosion and sediment production of several methods used which this study, erosion and sedimentation using MPSIAC method has been evaluated. In this way, the influence and role of important factors affecting soil erosion and sediment yield 9 (surface geology, soil, climate, runoff, topography, land cover, land use, erosion at the watershed basin level, river erosion and sediment transport in) watershed was assessed. And using presented Table, Class erosion, MPSIAC model of erosion classes and intensity of sedimentation were separated into five classes, too high, high, medium, low, very low or partially. Among the factors affecting corrosion, erosion, with a score of 4/11 in the first priority and the soil with the lowest score of the 4/4 was in the last range. The total amount of sedimentation in the catchment area of Tel Sibaki, MPSIAC model was about 3486.35 hectares per year, respectively. Eventually, in order to reduce erosion solutions were suggested.

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Iranian Gazelles

Abstract: According to the conducted studies, three are species of gazelle in Iran, including Persian gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), Jabir gazelle (Gazella bennetti) and Mountain Gazelle (Gazella gazelle). Persian gazelle or the goitered gazelle is the most abundant gazelle species in Iran; unfortunately, in 2008, it was added to the list of vulnerable and endangered animal species of IUCN. The species lives in 15 protected areas in Iran, among which Mouteh Wildlife Refuge is one of the largest populations of Persian gazelle depending on natural ecosystems. Examining the cytochrome b region in a number of conserved areas of the species showed that all of them belong to a pure population of Persian gazelle; however, the gazelles living in different habitats are significantly different from each other. Biometric studies on the skull indicated that the gazelles living in the Eastern and Western Zagros Mountains of Iran are distinct from each other. Persian gazelle mostly feeds on plants with high protein content. Indian or Jebeer gazelle is another species of gazelle living in Iran, which is considered as protected and endangered species in the country. Unfortunately, their species status has been so far controversial; thus, it has been not put on the IUCN list. However, there are strong morphological and molecular evidence suggesting that the animal belongs to the Gazella bennetti species. This species is very similar to the Persian gazelle, but smaller in body size. It should be noted that three subspecies of Jebeer gazelle have been identified in Iran. The Mountain gazelle is another species of Iran's gazelles, which shows more specification in the body color than other species. The only habitat of this species is in the Faroor Island in the Persian Gulf. The scientific name of the Iranian subspecies Mountain gazelle is G. gazelle dareshurii. In general, the three valuable species of Iran's gazelles are currently in need of need serious protection and support in order to prevent the extinction of such valuable biological resources and preserve them for future generations.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 12


Probiotic products according to cereals

Abstract—In recent year’s tendency toward functional (healthy) foods, like probiotic products have been increased because of their remedy properties. Consuming probiotic bacteria is an effective way for reconstructing the balance of intestine’s microflour. In this article besides considering some of the probiotic products according to cereals like: Tarhana, Boza, Ogi, Yosa, Kishk, Misso, San Francisco bread, bio bread (Iranian functional bread), we have discussed volatile combinations and their amount in cereal based cultures.

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R for agronomist and natural resources professionals

Abstract— R is extremely powerful and versatile data analysis software that is freely available for download off the worldwide web. It is omni-platform and nearly the most popular language. By now, R has 5361 packages, 452 bloggers, 21 Special Interest Group, and something like 156 books and other publications devoted to it. It has some noticeable books in ecology and natural resources sciences. Some important packages in ecology, hydrology and climatology, GIS and RS, time series, Bayesian and spatial statistic review in this paper.

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Rethinking the tools measuring species diversity: Application of multi-scale plots

Abstract— the measurement of biodiversity is essential for conservation, monitoring and management of vegetation. Given the importance of rapid assessment of species diversity, there is a necessity to use appropriate methods. However, current sampling methods may be complicated and confusing when the aim is rapid and accurate assessment of plant diversity, thus, using appropriate methods can lead us to the management objectives which are simplicity and speed, at the same the efficiency and accuracy. This paper reviews the sampling methods for measuring species diversity, especially multi-scale plots designed, and then, the necessity of application of suitable plots in order to measure species diversity. Moreover, it compares three multi scale plots including Modified Whitaker plot, Intensive Modified Whitaker plot, and C plot. As a result, to measure and evaluate species diversity due to increase in precision and accuracy, the application of smaller multi-scale plots in more repetitions would be preferred than large multi scale plots. Moreover, the C plot compared with the Intensive Modified Whitaker plot is preferred. It also draws a species-area curve by which can be compared different vegetation types. Finally, it is suggested that if the field application of other multi-scale plots could be applied, their advantages and disadvantages would be more carefully assessed.

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Review of anastomosis groups, the pathogenic factor of Rhizoctonia root rot of strawberry

Abstract—The black root rot is one of the main diseases of strawberry. In the present research, the pathogenesis and anastomosis groups of both species R. fragariae and R. solani was reviewed in the provinces of Golestan, Mazandaran, Kordestan and Alborz.

The pathogenesis results on plant show the  pathogenesis of total reviewed isolates. The isolates belonged to R. fragariae examined with isolates of both A and G groups and R. solani tested with group 6. The results indicate that the highest level of isolates in any of both species, belong to the anastomosis groups but groups different from  groups A, G and 6.

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Estimating Evaporation from Bare Saline Soils

Abstract—Iran is an arid country, its average rainfall is one third of world’s rainfall while it evaporates 3 times more than the world average. Evaporation takes place from vegetation cover, from bare soil, or from water bodies. In the absence of a vegetation cover, soil surface is exposed to atmosphere which increases the rate of evaporation. Evaporation of soil moisture will not only lead to water losses even it will also increase the risk of soil salinity. The risk is increased under low annual rainfall, saline irrigation water, and deep water table. Soil and water salinity is common in arid and semiarid regions where using saline water is common under insufficient fresh water resources. This research was conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. PVC pipes with a diameter of 110 mm, and an effective height of 1 m filled with loamy sand soil was used in this study as lysimeter for calculating evaporation rate. The results showed that salinity decreased evaporation and there was a chance for better prediction of evaporation at stages I and II.

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Numerical Simulation of Underground Water Resources in Leilakh Plain of Kurdistan Province within the Low-Rain Years

Abstract— Kurdistan province is one of the major agricultural regions in the country in which Leilakh Plain is one of the active agricultural areas in the western part of country. In recent years, decrease in water rain and increasing growth of population within civil and rural regions, industrial workshop, spread-up of agricultural farms and discovery and exploitation of mines have led to increase in usage of underground water and huge decrease in static level of Leilakh plain. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, the future survival of rural and civil population is highly dependent on efficient method of underground water resources management in the plain. Therefore, development of a mathematical model of underground water resource management is the initial and most important action in efficient management of underground water resources. The objective of present survey is to develop a mathematical model of underground water currents in Leilakh plain of Kurdistan province. In order to attain this aim, through using Modflow computer code, a stable and non-stable numerical model of underground water currents was developed for Leilakh plain. Static-level data within observational shafts in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 was used for evaluation and test of suggested models. In the follow-up, by using sensitivity analysis procedure, the effects of hydrodynamic features of underground water beds on prediction precision of mathematical models were examined. In fact, within the present study, the results of suggested models had a high match with observational data, so the suggested numerical model can be used as an effective tool for management of underground water resources in Leilakh plain.

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Study the biological status of two species of  endangered turtles of Iran: Euphrates softshell turtle (Refetus euphraticus) and Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

Abstract: In general, there are 10 species of turtles in Iran five species of which are terrestrial turtles (non-marine turtles), and the other five species are considered sea turtles. The Euphrates soft shell turtle with the scientific name of Refetus euphraticus is the only soft-shell turtle in Iran. The back shell of these turtles is covered with a thick, soft and oval shape skin. It has a long and flexible neck with a roughly board head. The animal is distributed in Tigris and Euphrates (southern Turkey), northeastern Syria and Iraq. In Iran, these turtles are only seen in Khuzestan province in the basin of Karun River and Jarrahi River. According to the distribution of this species in hot and humid areas of Iran, and since the temperature in winter is not associated with a sharp decline in such areas, the turtles in province do not show the hibernation behavior. It is an omnivorous animal. Unfortunately, the Euphrates turtle is a critically endangered species facing extinction. In overall, habitat degradation, release of various pollutants into the habitat and fishing and hunting altogether have approached the species to extinction. The other species studied in this paper is the hawksbill sea turtle with scientific name of Eretmochelys imbricata, which is considered as a sea turtle. The animal is omnivorous in its early years of life, but after this period, it only feeds on sponges (only a few species of them). These animals are used to immigrate, and in some cases, the distance between their feeding areas and the location of their nesting accounts for hundreds, and sometimes thousands of kilometers. The hawksbill sea turtles nesting habitats in Iran include the coasts of the southern provinces of Bushehr, Hormozgan and Sistan & Baluchistan. In a study, the genetic diversity of this animal was examined in Persian Gulf islands using mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial D-loop region), and the results showed that the diversity of hawksbill sea turtles in Qeshm island is more than Kish island. In general, the haplotype diversity was calculated as 0.69, representing the low genetic diversity in this area. Therefore, the animal life-threatening factors by human interference are considered as the major factors for such a reduced genetic diversity. The results also showed that the Persian Gulf turtles have migrated to the region from Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Oman having a high genetic affinity with each other. Also, the hawksbill sea turtles hatching in the Persian Gulf weighted average and have a shorter length than the global average. They lay fewer eggs as well. The species, not only in Iran but throughout the world, is exposed to extinction, and thus, it has been registered in the Red List of International Organization for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Therefore, protection of these two species in order to prevent their extinction is as fundamental issues to be considered in our country, Iran.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 11


The role of land use, lithological units and the slope of the gully erosion

Abstract_ Gully erosion is one of the geomorphological phenomenon  that causes numerous losses to farmland , rangeland , roads and  increased rate. Recognition of the causes gully erosion has an  important role in watershed management , which aids in preventing the destruction of lands in sustainable development . In this regard, Ghohrod watershed one of  the sub watershed Telvar Chay Sefid Rood in the province Hamadan was chosen. In this  research , gully erosion map was prepared with the use of airphotos at a scale of 1:40000 . IRS satellite  images , and a field survey  with use of GPS. The results of the investigation showed that marl , shil , gongilomera  and new alluvial fan  (95.73%)  are effected by gully erosion.In the investigated area, this study  showed that the majority of gully erosion influenced:1)land  that had a slope of 0-15 % (Which consisted of  approximately 82.1% of the entire land area);ii)poorly coverd range land  and irrigation land farming Poor Range  and irrigated land and orchards due to the loss of tree cover in the most developed areas affected by gully areas are studied.

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The Role of Water Market in Determining the Economic Value of Agricultural Water

(Case study: Qarveh-Dehgolan plain)

Abstract—in this study, positive mathematical programming method and the maximum entropy are used in order to estimate water demand of Qarveh-Dehgolan plain and the amount of water supply have been calculated with regard to the sum of different sources of water, such as wells, rivers and canals. Therefore from the confluence of the function of water supply and demand, equilibrium price of input water has been estimated. Results demonstrate that there is a negative relation between demand value and water price and tension of water demand is calculated, that is about -0.16. Furthermore, equilibrium price of input water per every cubic meter is 970 rails.

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NLP phytotoxin, a selective - biological herbicide of dicot weeds

Abstract— NLPs (Necrosis and ethylene inducing proteins) as microbial phytotoxins have been found in extensive range of microorganisms with different necrotic ability that cause hypersensitive immune response in dicotyledones weeds which result in extensive necrosis and death. This protein is not recognized by the immune system of monocot plants. NLPs have been used on dicot plants with various method like spraying, injection, hanging drop method and transferring its corresponding gene by Agrobacterium bacteria to the plant. Also a lot of auxiliary factors have been done such as the use of detergents, fungal or bacterial cell mid NLPs in order to increasing its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is review of the target plants or host range of NLP, the range of microorganisms having this phytotoxine, how it works, ways to effectively use it as well as factors affecting its functionality as a biological herbicide.

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The effect of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol and urea on polyphenolic compounds and in vitro gas production of pomegranate seed and peel

Abstract— The objective of this study was to determine the effect treating pomegranate seed (PS) and peel (PP) whit polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and urea on their nutritive value, phenolic compounds and digestion coefficients. The PP and PS samples were sprayed with PEG, PVP and urea solutions and kept in airtight plastic containers for 3 days at room temperature. Samples were analysed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ether extract (EE), ash, mineral content, total polyphenolic compounds (TP), total tannins (TT), condensed tannins (CT) and hydrolysable tannins (HT). The in vitro gas production method was used to estimate the DM fermentation parameters. The results showed treating PS and PP with urea led to a significant (P<0.05) reduction  TP, TT and HT contents. Treating of PS and PP with 10% PEG was probably associated with reduction (P<0.05) in TP and HT contents of PS and reduction (P<0.05) in CT content of PP sample. Inclusion of 10% PVP had no effect on TP and HT contents of PS and PP samples. Treating of PP with PEG and PVP at a level of 10% or treating with urea led to a significant (P<0.05) increasment in gas production compared to the control sample. The results suggest that urea solution was more effective in reduction of tannins in PP and PS samples, in comparison with PEG and PVP application. Spraying PP sample with urea or PEG and PVP reduced the tannin concentration, increased accumulative gas produced and improved organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and in vitro DM disappearance for PP sample. However more research are needed for better understanding the nutritional value of these by-products specially under in vivo conditions. 

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Calculation of Agricultural Insurance Premium of Dry- Farming Wheat Product by Using Rain Index (Case Study: Dargaz City)

Abstract- Clearly, supporting agricultural sector against compulsory and natural risk factors which are out of control of producer is necessary. Agricultural insurance, is one of the supportive strategies of this sector. Among agricultural products, wheat is one the important product, especially in terms of Economy and application. To do so, to improve efficiency of agricultural products insurance policy, different tools and innovations are used based on statistic indices that one of the most effective of them can be weather index-based agricultural products insurance. This research emphasizes one of the most pervasive risks of producing dry-farming wheat, drought, thus examined rain and wheat yield variable during statistic period from 1994-95 to 2010 -11 in Dargaz city, khorasane-Razavi province, the process of product yield change was examined during this statistic period and the effect of rain on wheat yield was analyzed by using common statistic software. To predict wheat yield, regression models were used by SPSS software, among selected regression models, only weighted regression model had enough accuracy, in which correlation between wheat yield and rain reached 98percent, while in other models, it was 73percent. Lower yield with decreased rain was calculated in this model and then, rain index was calculated in order to use in dry-farming wheat product insurance and insurance premium.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 10


Exploring The Effective Compounds In Functional Food And Their Salutary Impacts 

Abstract—The functional foods can be defined as the foods which include significant biological active compounds; which present the profits of salutary health more than normal nutrition. The functional foods include the foods which naturally include bioactive compounds, fortified by bioactive materials and or fortified by synthetic components;these compounds may improve the general health, reduce the risk of some disease and also can be used for treating some disease. The present study tries to explore and study the functional compounds and their positive impacts.

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Designing, fabricating and evaluating of device determines of the equilibrium moisture content of food material

Abstract— The equilibrium moisture content is the most important factor in determining the thermodynamic properties of food materials. In order to optimize the drying and storage processes of foods, it is necessary to know the equilibrium moisture content at different air equilibrium relative humidities and temperatures. There are many methods to determine the equilibrium moisture content of foods. In the present work, all the disadvantages of previous approaches such as being costly, time-consuming and wasting energy at long period of time and requiring a lot of labor force are removed. After designing and fabricating this device at the Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, this device was evaluated to determine the equilibrium moisture content of lemon. According to the curves obtained, types of curves are S-shape. The results showed that at a constant relative humidity, the equilibrium moisture content decreases with increasing temperature.

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Analysis of agricultural insurance premiums and compensation payments based on weather index insurance in Iran (Case Study:province of Khorasan Razavi)

Abstract- Due to the traditional insurance schemes for agricultural products such as high administrative costs and adverse selection and moral hazard, providing a suitable insurance pattern is the most important issues in the field of risk management and agricultural products insurance. In this research, comparative study of weather index insurance in selected developed countries and Analysis of weather index insurance have covered the Province of KhorasanRazavi. Product performance data were gathered during the years 1373-1390 from the Institute of Dry Farm Agricultural Research and rainfall index data were gathered from weather stations. Given the dependence structure between weather indexes and Product performance, with using rainfall index because of a high correlation with performancewas chosen as risk variable. How analyzing the amount of the premium and the amount of compensation payments has explained by the Rainfall Index Insurance.The resultsconfirmed thatweatherindexinsurance has been a vehicle totransferrisk toagricultural productionsinlow-income countriesand it has been a major need and effective factor and mechanisms for transfer the risk of natural events andits cause the increase of farmers' income andit is reduced the administrative coststo thelowestpossibleerror rate due toimproperselection andmoral hazard. Although the index insurance in developing countries face some administrative constraints but provide positive benefits for suppliers and consumers.Due to the importance of rainfall in agriculture and dependence of performance of agricultural crops in particular farm dry cultivation to it, necessary information onrainfalldistributionand itsnegativeanomalies have important role in explaining thecauses of thereductionincrops and makes it possible to provide a proper planning to obtain high performance.

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Predicting time model and Displacement of soil in forest road construction degree2 with Hydraulic Excavator–Bulldozer machines (the series of Liashisera - Gilan Province)

Abstract:Forest road is used for optimization of ongoing andsustainable conservationand exploitation.Hydraulic excavatorandbulldozer machinery have significant role in construction of forest road. The purpose ofthis studyprovides amodelfor roadconstruction and specifyingthe amount ofsoildisplacement.Todeterminethefactorsaffectingthenet timeof the construction of roads,for everytwentymeters oflinearmultivariatemethods and to determine the removal level is used of unilateralANOVA. Theexcavationvolume and stump numberwas effective factor on model and the average of the removal level per 201/03square meters for every twenty meters of excavation.

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Effects of environmental factors on the ecological distribution of teucrium polium in the tang sayad of chaharmahal va bakhtiari province.

Abstract- TP with the scientific name (teucrium polium) Belongs to the family of mint (lamiaceae). It is known as a traditional herbal remedy for the treatment of many diseases, including; gastrointestinal problems, diabetes, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-oxidants. It is growing in most parts of the world including America, Europe and Asia that must be considered due to the limited germination and indiscriminate harvesting by local people.

In this study, the influence of environmental factors on ecological distribution of TP in the Tang Sayad of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was studied.In order to study these Species, 14Transects in the    mentioned area was selected randomly (Each transect 5 plot 2 x 2 with an area of 4 square meters),and soil at a depth of 0 to 2 and 20 to 40 cm were sampled, and for analysis was tested. And also topographic factors such as slope percentage were measured. Data, using SPSS and PC-ORD softwares were analysed. The results showed that the species in the southern slope for efficient use of solar energy and create more favorable conditions for growth has more distribution. Also it has life outside their origin distribution because of the different form of life which Indicates the power of this species in different climatic conditions and ability to adapt to the environment. Other findings suggest that multiple factors controls the presence of species  in the region, That , in addition to topographic factors , the most important factors that influence the distribution of species, are  soil factors such as the manganese, nitrogen and sand percentage .Plant parameters are positively correlated with the percentage of sand and silt and have negative correlation with saturation percentage and slope. strong correlation of  Plant parameters with the presence of manganese and potassium  is for impact on the soil under growing , So that these species can grow in soil with  loam  tissue and accelerate the factor ´s absorption and continue their grow .

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 9


The Effect of Seed Age of Petropyrum Aucheri Seeds on its Germination Characteristics

Abstract— Petropyrum aucheri Jaubert & Spach is a native shrub of Polygonaceae family which grows in semiarid areas. One of the main problems in applied ecology programs in pastures is lack of access to full information about germination of a lot of native plants of pastures.  This lack of knowledge has resulted in some executive problems such as failure to recommend these species for planting in fertile areas and the use of non-native species.  Since no systematic study has been done on germination of petropyrum aucheri seeds, it seems necessary to investigate it. Some plants seeds have low germination percentage immediately after the harvest. One of the most important reasons of this phenomenon is plant physiological dormancy. This situation might change due to the seed storage in certain conditions or after some time during the seed lifetime. This research has investigated the effect of seed age on germination traits of petropyrum aucheri seeds. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design in four replications. Three seed groups were prepared: 

A. Seeds which were almost one year old and had been in dry storage. 

B. Seeds which were separated from plant after maturation and were     sowed immediately after the harvest. 

C. Seeds which were harvested as immature and then were sowed. 

The results showed that germination percentage of the seeds which were in dry storage for one year had increased which was significantly different from immature seeds or the mature seeds which had just been harvested. It seem that  petropyrum aucheri seeds have a kind of physiological dormancy and need to be in dry storage in order to gain more percentage of germination. In fact petropyrum aucheri seeds have post-maturation stage. Seeds storage had no significant effect on germination rate in comparison to the state that the newly harvested seeds were used. Immature seeds had very low percentage and rate of germination and this matter rejects the intervention of the seed coat on germination. In other words, petropyrum aucheri seeds dormancy does not depend on their coat. It also seems that picking up immature petropyrum aucheri seeds prevents their post-maturation and highly decreases their germination percentage.

the intervention of the seed coat on germination. In other words, petropyrum aucheri seeds dormancy does not depend on their coat. It also seems that picking up immature petropyrum aucheri seeds prevents their post-maturation and highly decreases their germination percentage.

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Determination Risk of collision to deterrent cold temperature at sun flower sprouts

Abstract : One oft heStages phenological SunflowerLow temperature is  Green,That Cause Itstopsthegrowthis. Sunflowercultivationat the suitable time Can be prevented  The damage caused byfrost.For this purpose,Is usedThelong-termweather data in 17synopticstations of Isfahan Province. Thus theUsingsoftwareSMADAWas calculatedReturn periodof 20 yearscultivationTheprobability level 50%for eachstation. ThenAccording toBeenknown tocultivationtimeWas determinedRisk ofa collisionoccurringdeterrenttemperature , and DeterminedBothcorrelationwith height. Target is Determination Risk of collision to Deterrent cold temperaturesunflowersprouts . The resultofthisresearchShow At high altitudesandlow temperatureregions Has been postponedcultivationdate and  Risk of collision to Deterrent cold temperatureIncreases.

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Assessment of three climatic drought indices of standardized precipitation, deciles and percent of normality to select the most suitable index in Hormozgan province

Abstract— Drought as a natural disaster incurs wide varieties of human casualties and ecosystem dames differed to others natural catastrophes like flood, storm and earthquake to some extent. The present paper aimed at assess efficiency of some common climate indices including standardized precipitation index (SPI), decile index (DI) and percent of normality index (PNI) in Hormozgan province (southern Iran) at four stations of Kahurestan, Brentin, Bandar Abas and Jask. The required diagrams were plotted in software's SPSS and Excel. According to the results of comparing minimum precipitation year to sever and extreme drought years suggested that PNI and DI showed too extremely drought simultaneously to minimum rainfall event and better efficiency than SPI index in terms of representing too extreme drought. Among stations of interest, SPI index does mot reflects precipitation losses in annual scale, however it forecasts drought and its periods rapidly compared to two other ones. So, the most suitable indoices to analysis drought condition during years of a given statistical period, those PNI ,DI were fall into the first place followed by SPI. Finally, it is recommended to prepare drought zonation maps to cope with drought in basins of interests.

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Effect of Irrigation Reduction Analysis and Increasing Water Price on Productivity Indicators in Agriculture (Case Study: Plain Qorveh - Dehgolan)

Abstract —in this study, effect of increasing water price policy in the form of two, 10% and 20% scenarios and 10% water supply reduction policy on its productivity indicators through positive mathematical programming method (PMP)entropy has been investigated. The results show that with increasing water prices, CPD  and EPD  indicators improved and indicate that increasing water price can improve rate of production and employments per cubic meter but rate of NBPD  indicator will decrease. In water supply reduction scenarios, the situation is similar to price reduction policy but varying rate on indicators will be more. 

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Introduction and comparison of the important computer models in the topics of water and agriculture

Abstract— In the hydrology of basin, according to high non homogeneousity and the limitation of measurement technics ,we can not measure all the properties of the hydrologic system.

 these limitations and also need to extract the information from the measurements in time and area are the introduction of hydrologic models using. Although computer models have non certainity in their predictions that decrease their ability and confidence. in this article at first we briefly review different classifications of water resources ,watershed management and hydrologic models and then the abilities of some important models in the subjects of water, watershed management and agriculture are studied. 

At the end in a table we compare models that these results can be beneficial in correct model electing.  

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The effects of Cultured bed and scarification on seed`s survival and growth of two Zizphus tree types

Abstract: Ziziphus spina christi  and  Ziziphus nummularia are two important tree types which exist in khozestan. An experiment done on these types that consists of 2 steps;Including: 3 factors of cultured bed, 3 step scarification of the seed;Showed that Ziziphus spina christi types have the most survival and growth chance(47.7%)also, we can increase this survival chance by soaking the seeds for 48 hours in water and usual soil, that leads to more seedlings to germinatc therefore, it is necessary to scarify the seeds by solforic acid for Ziziphus spina christiseed`s germination and survival.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 8


The Effect of Sampling Season on Acid Phosphatase Enzyme in Rhizosphere Ash Fraxinus rotundifolia (case study: Chahartagh Ardal-Chaharmahal Bakhtiari)

Abstract—The present investigation was conducted during 2013 growing seasons in order to study the effects of season on the Acid phosphatase activity.

Sampling was done in at the outset and end of vegetation growth period. Spring and autumn are the main two seasons in this ecosystem. In each time five succulent trees (Fraxinusrotundifolia) selected randomly. Soil samples were taken from the upper 30 cm of soil. Roots were sampled at the same sites as soil samples.

We investigated in field experiments seasonal dynamics of acid phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity showed a seasonal pattern. Acid phosphatase activity significantly higher in autumn.As average acid phosphatase values ranged from 74.65μgρNP g-1h-1(in spring) to 126.92 μgρNP g-1h-1(in autumn).

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Comparison of potato vegetative traits in aeroponic and solid culture systems 

Abstract—The solid culture cultivation is the common method for minituber production in Iran. This method has several disadvantages including low performance and high potential risk to pathogen infections. Aeroponic system is a new method, which does not require soil and has been successfully used for minituber production. Considering the fact that there is a positive correlation between growth and the performance of minituber production, evaluation and optimization of plant growth can significantly increase the efficiency of minituber production. This project was conducted at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute in Karaj in order to compare the impact of these two cultivation systems in growth characteristics of the Agria cultivar in 1391-1392. Two culture systems compared by t test in 36 replication. For growth evaluation, stem height, stem diameter, internode length, Dry matter content of stem and root, root length, stolon length, stolon diameter and number of stolons were recorded and analyzed. Results showed that except the dry matter content of both root and stem, other traits were significantly different (P ≥1%) with each other. Based on the results, aeroponic system had a significant impact on increasing the vegetative growth, so that the height of the stem with the average of 240.18 cm and root length with the average of 79.58 cm in aeroponic system were more than twice compared to the height of the stem and root length in the solid culture system. Stolon characters were highly correlated with mini-tuber production efficiency. In aeroponic system, the average number and the average length of stolons were 21.25 and 14.14, respectively, which were much higher than that of in solid culture system.

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Evaluation of the Allopathic Effect of the Extract of Husk of Seed of Rice on the Germination and Growth of the Roots in Four specious of Weed in Laboratory Condition

ABSTRACT: In order to decrease the use of herbicides in stable agriculture management and improving the strategy of integrated pest management, the allopathic effect of the extract of husk of the seed of rice, var. Tarum, on germination and growth of the roots of four specious of weeds in laboratory condition were examined in 2013. Allopathic potentiality of different concentration of water extract of the husk of var. Tarum rice on germination and growth of four specious of weeds including Echinochloa cruss – galli, Amaranthus sp., Alimsma plantago - aquatic, and Sorghum halepense in a factorial treatment based on randomized complete block designs with four replication was done. Results showed that percentage of germination, length of root and stalk and dry weight of root and stalk of four specious of weeds were influenced of the concentration of the extract, types of weeds and the interaction effects between them. By increasing of the concentration of the extract of husk of rice all measured traits were decreased. 

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Calculating Marketing Margins Function of Grapes in Urmia

Abstract: The transition from traditional of modern agriculture, increased contribution of agricultural products in consumer market, along with dissociation of consumption centers from production areas,have made prominent the matter of marketing agricultural products. The present study evaluates determinant s on marketing margins using mark-up model. The study uses data from questionnaires collected from 60 producers, 20 small-amount buyers, 20 wholesalers and 20 retailers in 2011. Results indicate a direct and significant relationship between marketing margins of grape with retail price and marketing costs in Urmia. Results show that 1%change in retail price leads to a0.713 increase marketing margins, and 1%change in marking costs leads to a 0.269 increase marketing margins.  

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Seasonal Variation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Percent Colonization in Rhizosphere Ash Fraxinus rotundifolia (case study: Chahartagh Ardal-Chaharmahal Bakhtiari)

Abstract—The present investigation was conducted during 2013 growing seasons in order to study the effects of season on the arbuscular mycorrhizal percent colonization.

Sampling was done in at the outset and end of vegetation growth period. Spring and autumn are the main two seasons in this ecosystem. In each time five succulent trees (Fraxinusrotundifolia) selected randomly. Soil samples were taken from the upper 30 cm of soil. Roots were sampled at the same sites as soil samples.

Average arbuscular mycorrhizal percent colonization and spore number were significantly different between two seasons. Average arbuscular mycorrhizal percent colonization was significantly (P < 0.05) different between two seasons. Maximum-arbuscular mycorrhizal percent colonization was observed in spring (42%) and minimum-arbuscular mycorrhizal percent colonization was observed in autumn (15%).

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Revealed Comparative Advantages of Citrus Exports Among the Major Exporter  Countries : 1995-2010

Abstract— Based on the arguments in Balassa’s stages of comparative advantage thesis, this paper looks at the performance of exports in major produsers of Citrus over the period 1995-2010 and examines the RCA and the “Revealed Simmetric Comparative Advantage” (the RSCA) between these countries. The RSCA is also comparative to other measures of international trade specialisation. These measures included the Michaely Index, Trade Specialisation Index, Chi square measure and the Contribution to the Trade Balance.The results show that a number of countries such as Spain, South Africa, Greece, China, Egypt, Morocco, United States of  America, Netherlands, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran and Lebanon enjoyed the comparative advantage over the period 1995-2010. However Pakistan, Iran and Lebanon are losed their comparative advantage in the last years. Only countries of Spain, China, Morocco and South Africa their RCA index trends were upward and saw the most changes in 1995-2010. The results indicated that another countries’s Citrus export structure is faced with fluctuations and competitive position of their Citrus export has been weakened within the studied period.The evidence strongly suggests that despite the strong export performance experienced by another countries, thay are losing their comparative advantage with respect to primary years. 

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 7


Investigating the Cultivation Method and Regeneration of Petropyrum Aucheri in Pots to Reclaim Arid and Semiarid Areas

Abstract— One native species of Iran rangelands is Petropyrum aucheri. Nowadays, the use of native species for rangeland rehabilitation is superior to imported species due to their more compatibility during the past years. Since there is not much information about cultivation of Petropyrum aucheri, and considering its importance, some experiments were conducted in planting tray and plastic pots in order to achieve ideas conditions for germination and establishment of Petropyrum aucheri. Several experiments were carried out in nursery conditions, greenhouse, and habitat of petropyrum aucheri. All of the experiments were observational and descriptive for determining the percentage of germination. With the failure of one experiment and low percentage of germination, other experiments were carried out and finally in the sixth experiment good results were obtained and the percentage of germination and survival of seeds was high and successful cultivation method and deployment of Petropyrum aucheri were achieved. The results showed that:

In order to propagate Petropyrum aucheri nurseries could not be used, because the seedlings of Petropyrum aucheri depend on light and need a lot of light during the day. In order to cultivate Petropyrum aucheri it is not appropriate to use planting tray, because it seems that the seeds do not receive adequate water and soil due to shallow depth of such trays. In addition, the poles of such trays are very open and they cannot hold water well; consequently, cultivating Petropyrum aucheri in plastic pots is more successful. Cultivating Petropyrum aucheri too deep fails, so it is better to plant seeds in shallow depth and about 0.5 cm. 

The young seedlings of Petropyrum aucheri need temperature fluctuations during the day and night at the beginning of growth and the seeds germinate better and establish successfully in such conditions. Therefore, cultivating the seeds of Petropyrum aucheri in greenhouse is not suitable due to lack of plant fluctuations.   

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Natural and cultivated plants ability to absorb zinc, lead, cadmium and arsenic phytoremediation approach to environmental sustainability

Abstract— Exploitation of wastewater has been elevated for the reason of population growth, agricultural and industrial activities; it is not as easy as normal water to use because of some pollutants in this water. This problem led scientists to try to eliminate load of wastewater pollution entering into the environment through different methods. One method that is more effective is expanding application of vegetation in wastewater treatment in the country that has been restricted because of negligence and lack of understanding. Now, the present research tries to introduce and compare vegetation functions resistant to process of existing lead, cadmium and arsenic elements.                                          

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Application of new methods (RS and GIS) in water resources studies

Abstract—Preservation and management of water resources increasingly in various international assemblies and also our country due to, the development of agriculture and industry is taken into consideration. Lack of adequate and accurate information and data for optimal utilization of limited water supplies water crisis in the coming years the alarm has sounded. Therefore, in this paper we use methods and new tools such as remote sensing technology and GIS, due to the ability to identify phenomena in more focused studies, water resource managers and decision-makers operate.

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Capability assessment of ETM+ sensor of LANDSAT satellite to detect land resources

Abstract— Knowledge of variations of underground resources in different regions is crucially important as basic information for different plans. Proper exploitation of underground resources requires the knowledge of patterns and models of the region, so that sustainable exploitation becomes feasible while ecologic instructions are held. Repeatable and up to date data such as Landsat satellite’s data, because of their special features, can be used effectively in order to produce underground resources maps. Thus, in order to obtain more accurate results, it is necessary to investigate the capability of ETM+ evaluator in different situations and compare the results.

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Transient expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen in tobacco and spinach by agroinfiltration

Abstract: Antigen of hepatitis B virus due to its high immunogenicity is the most effective protein for making vaccine of B hepatitis viral disease. In this project, temporary expression of surface antigen of hepatitis B with agroinfiltration method or gene transfer by vacuum with agrobacterium method was used for making recombinant protein in spinach. Surface antigen of hepatitis B virus was cloned in pBI 121 plant vector under pCAMV 35S promoter and Nos terminator. pBI 121 recombinant plasmid was transferred to GV3850 agrobactriumtumefacienes with melting-freezing method. Temporary expression of protein can be identified 3 to 7 days after penetration. Expression of recombinant protein was measured by biochemical ELISAlaboratory method with HBs Ag kit which is about %1/2 and %1/1 of total protein of plant solution. This study indicates that spinach and tobacco can be used as host of producing recombinant proteins in making vaccines. 

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Risk evaluation of soil erosion in GIS by using USLE model (Case Study: Gabric Watershed south-east Hormozgan province, I.R.Iran)

Abstract— Soil is one of the important natural resources of each country. Today, erosion is considered as one of the most serious threats to development. It is necessary that the critical areas of erosion are identified and protection measures are implemented. Study area is Gabric watershed in the south-east Hormozgan province. The purpose of this study is risk evaluation of soil erosion by using USLE model in ArcGIS10.0. In this regard, the maps and required data is entered in GIS environment and after the organizing and processing, it is drawn basin erosion risk maps. 

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 6


Evaluations of pasture destruction with emphasis on seed-eating pests pasture plants in Lorestan Province

Abstract-Unfortunately, due to various factors such as excessive grazing and the high livestock density, fire in pastures, floods by heavy rainfall and droughts in some areas, also  by overharvesting (Overexploitation) of the plants in original habitats ,we are witnessing a decline in range plants every day. However, research shows that there are many species of insects that feed by pasture plants and inhibiting seeds germination, and their regeneration. Therefore, it is important to identify and collect them. In this study acting to collect and identify these factors for a year and overall ,250 samples of rangeland plants collected then seed-eating insects were separated from 47 samples. The most common and the most abundant insects collected have been order Coleoptera, especially family Bruchidae and Curculionidae. Bees have been order Hymenoptera, family Eurytomidae and Torymidae. 

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GIS modeling of Soil Erosion in the catchment area of Qazvin Palangeh in Iran

Abstract—Nowadays there is a lot of potential for the use of GIS technology in accurate implementation of soil erosion models. The purpose of this study was to implementation soil erosion model of Morgan and Morgan Finney 2001 (MMF) by ILWIS3.3 software at watershed Palangeh in Qazvin and estimation of soil losses in total watershed, land uses, soil units and compare them with each other. Based on these average annual soil erosion areas was 0.0001 (ton / ha) that agricultural-garden land use with 0.041 (ton / ha) and 1.2.2 soil units with 0.071 (ton / ha) had the highest rates of soil loss than the other units.

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Castor Oil Biodiesel Production by Ultrasonic-cum-Microwave

Abstract: The most commonly used method for biodiesel production is transestrification which process requires large amounts of energy and time. Process intensification is a very recent subject to improve efficiency and productivity of biodiesel synthesis. In this research work, the response surface method (CCD) was used to optimize the conditions for transesterification of castor oil using ultrasonic and microwave. The parameters in this study include the ultrasonic power, microwave power, ultrasonic mixing time and time of microwave irradiation. Based on the results obtained in this research it was found that ultrasonic and microwave have prominent effect on methyl ester synthesis. The optimum point was stated in microwave power of 350 W, ultrasonic power of 80W, microwave time of 126s and ultrasonic time of 240s that can reach 94.78% of conversion rate. The molar ratio and catalyst concentration were 6:1 and 1% catalysis respectively. The result showed that, using sequential effect of microwave and ultrasound is a fast method witch can increase reaction rate 10 times compared with the conventional method.

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The effect of Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Oxide on the Fermentation Parameters, and average weight of right half carcass cuts Lori- Bakhtiari Fattening Lambs

Abstract-The effect of sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide on the fermentation parameters of, rumen microbial population, and carcass characteristics, an experiment was conducted on 18 Lori-Bakhtiari ram lambs. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly different between treatments (p<0.05). Statistical analysis of the data related to right half carcass cuts significant differences between the studied traits (except neck and fat-tail weight) showed (p<0.05). These findings indicted that, under the conditions of this experiment, the adding of 0.2% sodium bicarbonate to the diet, reduced ruminal ammonia nitrogen, pH increasing and improve carcass characteristics of fattening lambs to be.

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The Comparison of Different Culture Media of Rosa hybrida cv. Dolce-Vita in vitro Conditions

Abstract — Rose is known as the first and the most important cut flowers all over the world. One of the common methods of mass production of this plant is propagation through tissue culture. The first step to have a successful tissue culture is creating a proper establishment with appropriate culture medium. In this study, after surface sterilization, explants were put in three different culture media QL, MS and WPM. We used 5 replicates for each treatment (each replication consisted of 10 explants). The results indicate that the effect of different culture medium on quality index and number of leaves is significant at 1% level but on regeneration is not significant. MS medium with average (12.8 Leaves per explant) was the best medium for Roses explants in establishment stage. The highest quality of explants (4.5 Index), was related to the treatment of MS medium. We saw that this treatment showed significant difference with other treatments. The least quality of explants (2.56 Index), was observed in WPM medium. Characteristics which were studied in this experiment were consist of number of leaves, regeneration percentage and quality index.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 5


Soil Quality for Sustainable Development

Abstract— Soil quality has found a very precious and special status in today’s agriculture and especially in sustainable development and neglecting it enters severe damages to the environment around us. Those measurable soil properties that affect the capacity of soil to empower product is called soil quality index. Some of the characteristics include organic matter, aggregates, pH, EC, nitrate nitrogen, and bulk density. The aggregated quality index or Nutritional Quality Index is two evaluation models in arid and semiarid regions. Soil stability index (SI) and the cumulative ranking (CR) are the other two models that are used to quantify soil quality based on its physical stability against erosion. Using these indicators of soil quality study is needed to solve the problems of soil. To fix any problem, the study of indices and soil characteristics is needed. Salinity, Sodium, and poorly draining are some of the soil problems that were examined to solve soil problems and its probable cause were examined.

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The evaluation of the social impacts of the Cooperatives of Animal Science graduates (a case study on the Cooperatives of the Animal Science graduates of Lorestan Province)

Abstract : The present research evaluates the social impacts of the Cooperatives of Lorestan Animal Science graduates as a sample of the Cooperatives of Animal Science graduates. The priorities of social variables given in this study are as follows, members’ increased participation in the activities of the company, building trust (intragroup), increasing specialized awareness (livestock) and member cooperation as the most important effects of the company. By an overall evaluation, we can arrive at the conclusion that the impact of a company concerning social issues would be often more than average. 

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Evaluation of pesticide D.D.T and its metabolites in Carassius fish of the Anzali Lagoon

Abstract— In this study evaluation of DDT and its metabolites was conducted in muscles of Carassius fish in 8 stations in spring of 2013 in Abkenar (west Lagoon of Anzali). Toxicological evaluation was analyzed with GC-Mass and MOOPAM method and using one-way variance analysis. The highest concentrations of DDT, DDD and DDE pesticides(2.31±0.65ng/g), (2.20±0.9ng/g) ,(1.88±0.65ng/g) respectively was at stations 2 and 7 (Eastern and Western) and the lowest concentration (1.16±0.41ng/g) and ND were at stations 2, 5 (Western and Central). Concentration of DDT and its metabolites in fish samples were determined below the Canadian standard and FDA, The purpose of this study was to assess DDT pesticide in Carassius fish and comparing data with determined standards amounts.

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Physical inhibition of browning reaction in ready to use product

Abstract—Enzymatic browning is an adverse reaction in ready to use product. By increasing of consumer’s trend to avoid foods that contain additives, physical methods of preventing this reaction in minimal food processing are being developed.  These methods are including modified atmosphere packaging; edible coating, reducing of temperature, using of gamma irradiation, high pressure and intense pulsed electric field.  Correct application of these methods with reduced metabolic activity and enzyme inhibition, caused prevention of softening, physiological and pathological damages in products and so leading to increase storage life in commodity.  

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Assess the risk of erosion in the Circh basin by using Slemsa model

Abstract—study of soil erosion, sedimentation basins and production, to conserve natural resources, land use planning, sustainable development, water and soil management, exploitation of resources is an essential door. Sirch area of the study area is about  67.11 km ² Shahdad sub-basins that have been used to estimate erosion SLEMSA model. In this model, factors such as topography, geology, climate and vegetation to square are calculated as the net area under study are established. Finally, the output plans represents the erosive potential of a range tons per hectare per year that by applying statistical techniques and graphical the map is drawn to the attrition.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 4


VERMICOMPOST IN AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Abstract— with so many benefits to provide food and having a healthy product, vermicompost has become a force in agriculture and not an option. Several targets are concerned in using vermicompost in agriculture, among which, preventing environmental pollution, soil resources sustainability and ensuring and providing physical health can be mentioned. The most important worm with a key role in the production of vermicompost is Eisenia fotida. This fertilizer has many advantages compared to other fertilizers, such as ability to increase water holding capacity and cation exchange capacity. The presence of beneficial microbes in vermicompost accelerates the cycling of nutrients in the soil and can limit the pathogens within the soil and green bodies. Four key factors in the production of vermicompost include PH, temperature, ventilation and humidity. Usually, two nesting and cement beddings are more common for production of vermicompost. Certainly in the near future, the smoother news would be heard on using vermicompost on agricultural land and orchards.

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Compared two groups of villages acceptor and non-acceptor new agricultural technologies: case study of Chamchamal rural district of Harsin province- Iran

Abstract— Despite introduction of  new agricultural technologies has been proved widely but unfortunately still farmers are not using these technologies very much. So This study compared two groups of Nader Abab as acceptor village and Heydar Ababd as non-acceptor village for new agricultural technologies in Chamchamal rural district from Harsin province. This Study is quality and developmental and by methods is ethnographic. studied Community, the key were the villages people that were selected using snowball. Data collection; observation (direct and cooperative), interviews (individual and group semi-structured) and the study of documents and information was second hand. Validity and reliability of information was approved through interviews with various research groups (triangulation method). The findings showed that the individual, social, economic, environmental, education - communication, technical and organizational factors affected the state of being acceptor and non-acceptor farmer. Culture creation, public education, integration of land, more attention to young farmers, attention to the norms of the village, were  recommended. 

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THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HUMIC ACID AND NITROGEN ON ATTRIBUTES AND THE YIELD OF MENTHE PIPERITA MEDICAL PLANT

Abstract- in order to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen and humic acid on the growth and yield of the essence of menthe piperita medical plant, an experiment was done at three replications in Islam Abad Gharb Shakheha-e-Zeiton industrial school as factorial in the form of random replications. The applied treatment included using nitrogen at 5 levels (0, 110, 220, 440, and 880 kg per hectare) and humic acid at 4 levels (0, 1.5, 3, and 6 litters per hectare). The results showed that the effect of different levels of nitrogen on essence yield, the humid weight of the single plant, the dry weight of the single plant and chlorophyll index in the first cutting and the aftermath was significant. The application of 220 kg of nitrogen per hectare caused the highest yield of the essence. The effect of humid acid on essence yield, humid weight and dry weight of the single plant and chlorophyll index at first cutting and the aftermath was significant. The consumption of 3 and 6 litters of humic acid per hectare caused the highest essence yield. The interaction effect of nitrogen and humic acid on essence yield and chlorophyll index in the first cutting and the aftermath was significant. The highest yield of the essence was obtained at the application of 220 kg of nitrogen and 1.5 litters of humic acid per hectare. 

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Evaluation of Biodiversity Indices Among Ecological Groups (Case Study: Rhone River Watershed in Basht County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province)

Abstract— In order to assess the biodiversity among ecological groups in Rhone River watershed, 62 sample plots (300 m2) were selected using a systematic-randomized sampling method. All tree and shrub species were measured in sample plots. To differentiate ecological groups, TWINSPAN method and the PC-Ord for Windows software version 4.17 were used. Then biodiversity indices were calculated for each ecological group. The results showed that three ecological groups were present in the study area. Also there were statistically significant differences between the ecological groups in terms of biodiversity and species composition.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 3


Analyzing the role of women and providing guidelines for rural development

Abstract: Rural women in most societies constitute major force of agricultural work. Importance of women issue in Iran especially in rural areas on the one hand is faced with limitation of resources and manufacturing resources; and on the other hand with rapid population growth and mass of the jobless people, in achieving to rural development. Rural women work alongside men in all stages of agricultural crops and livestock production. In general, development is a multi-dimensional process with various economic, social, political and cultural aspects; and rural women's participation in this process has been an active and effective participation. Women in our country play a significant role in rural society Due to the unfavorable social, economic, cultural conditions and the extent of their participation in various economic, productive and services activities is in high level. The most important aspect of this participation has been its economic dimension for rural women. Many development economists believe that what ultimately determine the characteristics and trends of economic and social development is human resources of a country and not its capital and natural resources. As half of the human resources, women are not only the goal and purpose of any kind of development but also they are considered as a factor of the economic and social development. In this article it is tried to provide a comprehensive picture of the status of rural women as well as recommended strategies to promote rural life and women's role in and rural development.

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Bioinformatics evaluation of gene structure and expression of ARF16 in Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract— Auxin as a plant hormone regulates a variety of physiological processes, including apical dominance, tropic responses, lateral root formation, vascular differentiation, embryo patterning, and shoot elongation. At the molecular level, auxin rapidly induces several genes that ARF16 is one of these genes. Among the known functions of this gene, control of root cap cells development and seed dormancy can be referred. In this study ARF16 gene using bioinformatics tools and resources have been studied and the molecular structure and gene expression in Arabidopsis was analyzed. ARF16 with AT4G30080 locus tag located on chromosome 4, containing 2360 bp and encoding a protein with 335 amino acids. This gene contains two major domains including B3 and Aux/IAA-ARF. It was found that genes AT2G28350, AT3G27580, AT3G05510 and AT1G15170 have a direct connection with our desired gene. Also shown that the highest expression of this gene is during seeding stage and afterward germination stage has a high expression.

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Review on Internet Banking via Implementing and Security approaches

Case Study: Iranian Banking System

Abstract ـــــ The study focused on the quality of service (e-SQ) in the Iranian internet banking and its impact on e-customer satisfaction (e-SC). Based on a literature review and expert advice on e-service, eight dimensions - effectiveness, fulfillment, system availability, confidentiality, responsiveness, contact, insurance and the aesthetics of the site - were used to measure the e-SQ Internet Banking while the Iranian e-customer satisfaction was measured using three key concepts - technology, business and products. Identical questionnaires on paper and on the Internet were used to collect primary data of e-SQ and e-CS among customers of the four major state-owned banks in Iran. The future development of banking industry is dependent on information technology. Banks are trying to figure out how to take as much advantage as possible by new technologies. While the adoption of information technology has significantly improved operational efficiency in banking, he inevitably banking information system is vulnerable. This document presents the state of e-banking developments, risks and critical issues of risk management.

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Spatial Distribution Analysis of Groundwater Quality Using GIS: A Case Study of north of Fars province

Abstract— The groundwater quality parameters were analyzed for 700 samples collected from the existing wells in north of Fars province in 2013. The maps of each water quality parameters were generated using geostatistical (ordinary Kriging) approach in the ArcGIS software. Experimental semivariogram values are tested for different ordinary Kriging models to identify the best fitted for the foure water quality parameters (Ca, Mg, Ec, Na) and the best models are selected on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE. The thematic maps of 4 groundwater quality parameters were used for ground water quality index (GWQI) map generation using overlay method in ArcGIS software. The results will be beneficial for the planners to devise policy guidelines for efficient management of the groundwater resources. 

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Polyphenol oxidase inhibition using chemical methods during minimal processing

Abstract— Minimal processing means the operations such washing, sorting, peeling, slicing or chopping and preventing browning in order to keep the freshness of vegetables. In this case, Mechanical injury and ethylene can stimulate phenolic metabolism in present of polyphenol oxidase enzyme caused browning of ready to eat product. Chemical methods in immersion form such as acidulates, reducing agents, chelating agents, complexing agents, enzyme inhibitors act to inhibit the enzyme with remove or function with its substrates (oxygen and phenolic compounds). In attention to chemical base of these methods, Identification of them in order to achieve high quality commodity is important. 

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 2


Hospital wastewater refinement using Vetiver plant in tropical regions

Abstract-Refined wastewater is used for irrigating crops and green space plants. The natural purification method comparing with the other methods is a suitable one, with the help of wetlands having low cost, easy navigation, low technology required and low power consumption. Vetiver is a leading plant in order to refine such wastewater which has unique morphological, physiological, and genetic properties. The purpose of this study was a comparison between hospital wastewater refinement by using Vetiver and typical reed in tropical regions.this study was empirically conducted in outdoor pilot place of Sabzevar university of medical sciences in the warm season of the year ( Summer) in 1391. In this study a glass pilot with dimensions of 100*50*60 was made. A mixture of sand, gravel and clay was selected as the soil. In this study subsurface and continuous system were used as irrigation methods. At first, hospital wastewater was stored in a 220 liter tank with a retention time of 4 days to settle, and then entered the pilot through the tank outlet valve with Debbie rate of 0.85 liter per hour. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the plant in hospital wastewater refinement, chemical parameters such as BOD5, TSS, TN, TP and pH were measured based on standards in this method.according to the findings in this study, the removal rate of DOD5, TSS, TN and TP parameters by Vetiver were 88.54, 95.71, 93.93, and 99.80 percent, respectively.According to the unique properties of Vetiver, including its high resistance to adverse environmental conditions and also its optimal efficiency, this plant is recommended to hospital wastewater refinement.

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Analyzing effective environmental factors on quality of secondary agriculture education

Abstract— This study aims to analyze effective environmental factors on secondary agriculture education quality. This is a descriptive-correlation study. Research statistical sample are all students at secondary agricultural school in Hajiabad county in Hormozgan providence (n=86). Data gathering was conducted with whole headcount. Research instrument for gathering data was questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using SpSS software. Based on results infrastructures, suitable accommodation, exercise facilities, student consulting and physical condition of classroom were effective environmental factor on quality of agricultural high school education which in sum covered 67.49% of variance. 

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The Study of economic methods to reduce waste agricultural products of Jiroft

Abstract—Jiroft is one of the most talented and most potato producing area in the country, dates and citrus in Iran. A high percentage of these products in various stages of production and post-harvest become waste. This will reduce waste products can play a significant role in increasing the performance, food security, increase exports and foreign exchange and create jobs. In this study we have attempted to compile the library using the concept of waste, while addressing the need to reduce it and its causes, ways to reduce the amount of waste of agricultural products system. The results of this study showed that the traditional structure of production, harvest, storage and transportation of the wrong systems, conversion and distribution of agricultural products, failure to observe proper standards of maintenance and lack of culture, and culture have a significant impact on increasing waste modification of consumption patterns, processing and packaging industries, the use of waste to produce other products, etc. are of economic strategies are effective in reducing waste.

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Toxicity of some commonly used pesticides in tomato fields against Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) under laboratory conditions 

Abstract— Toxicity of some commonly used pesticides on different developmental stages of a biological control agent, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), were investigated in the laboratory. Persistent toxicity of tested pesticides on the adult stage of parasitoid was also determined. The effects of pesticides on immature stages of parasitoid were tested by dipping H. hebetor larvae and pupae in pesticide solution at recommended concentrations. The adult wasps were exposed to field-recommended concentration of the pesticides on glass plates. Chlorpyrifos significantly reduced adult emergence when parasitoid larvae or pupae were treated with field-recommended concentration. Cypermethrin and iprodion+carbendazim also had a significant adverse effect on parasitoid emergence during the larval stage. Among all the tested pesticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos exhibited the highest toxicity to adult wasps. Persistency test showed that chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were “moderately persistent” and “slightly persistent”, respectively. Other pesticides were classified as “little persistent”. The implications of these results for the integration of biological and chemical control methods are discussed.

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Evaluation of fatty acids profile, sterols and tocopherol compounds and the power of radical receptivity of Laurus Nobilis  leaf extract

Abstract : The investigation of chemical compositions of Laurus Nobilis leaves showed that more than 70% of fatty acids compositions in this herb are unsaturated type. The predominant fatty acid in its extract is Linolenic acid which is 25.95%. Also, the recognition of chemical compositions of methanol extract of Laurus Nobilis leaves showed among Tocopherols, gamma and betatocopherol with 57.39%; among Sterols, beta sytostrol with 75.17% and among Tochotryanoly compositions identified, gama tochotryanol with 12.21% have highest values. The results revealed that the concentration 1600 PPM of the extract of laurus nobilis leaves, because of having higher Polyphenol and Tochopherol compositions with regard to inhibitory effects of free radicals at comparison with other extract concentrations as 200, 400, 800 and other instances were more effective and at comparison with the synthetic antioxidant BHT, at concentration 200 PPM, has greater effect.

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Statistical and Synoptic Analysis of Thunderstorms (Case Study: Tabriz Station)

Abstract— Thunderstorm is one of the most harmful atmospheric phenomena. The present study examines thunderstorms recorded in Tabriz Synoptic Station during 2000 to 2009. This includes statistical and synoptic analyses (at 500 and 850 hPa levels). According to statistical surveys, most thunderstorm events were recorded in the warm season at 18:00 GMT. The annual data of thunderstorms was fitted to Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The results indicated that the data are only reasonably fitted to a Poisson distribution. According to synoptic analysis, the main reason for the most severe thunderstorm recorded in Tabriz Station is that the station is located in the east of troughs of a low-height center in southern Scandinavia.

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2014: Vol 5, Issue 1


Analysis the effect of trees and fruit plants as urban green walls, on increasing sustainable natural resources

Abstract- According to increasing development and challenges of city lives, conserving the environment is essential more than before. Hence, sustainability and sustainable development arise to save urban habitats from industry and technology and to save and develop natural resources as a factor in planning agenda. Considering city parks, land occupation to greeneries and so on are considered in this approach. Although there are tensions here: green and open spaces do not lead to direct benefits so, there is a little financial support behind them. But there is strong willing to find new solutions about urban greeneries development in developed countries because of commitments over agreements and ecologic charters and also, public force. There for, one of the predicted solutions is taking benefit from urban green walls and roofs. Using these walls as modern urban development strategy to conserve city environment, decrease pollution and energy consumption optimizing is discussed. Besides having environmental benefits, they lead to sustainable aestheticy in urban landscape. This thesis, besides studying concepts like sustainability, sustainable development and green wall, analyze the role of urban green roofs and walls in city stabilization by analytic-descriptive method and library studies. In last, necessity of survey becomes clear and suggestions are presented. In general, studies show that paying attention to urban green walls, specially ignored spaces, has a significant effect on urban ecology and pollution decrease. Plants as natural filters, increase livability rate of cities.

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Reduction in obstacles to the development of agricultural mechanization of agricultural land area in Jiroft and provide appropriate solution

Abstract—Reducing the land area is a serious obstacle to the development of mechanization. The land area of applied research aimed at identifying the causes of the reduction was appropriate in order to prevent this process. The population of the 12 villages were randomly selected residential Jiroft, which was calculated based on the formula sample size of 130. Data analysis and the goals of descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. Results show that personal factors, social, economic, political, urban trend has influenced the reduction in land area, there is a significant positive relationship between age of farmer, education level, number of crops, loans and reduce the extent of agricultural land. In order to disseminate appropriate technologies and the increasing mechanization must be identified by the appropriate technology research centers, facilities should be provided for the recovery of land consolidation.

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Conservation agriculture innovation strategy to achieve sustainability in agricultural mechanization

Abstract— Due to the rural share of 31% of the total population of the country. The total acreage of agricultural products and 75% are in rural areas, undoubtedly the country's rural development through agricultural development; especially sustainable agriculture exposure is affecting the economy of the country. Currently, about 16.2 million hectares of crops in cultivation is the 17% figure is dedicated to the export of horticultural products. Sustainable development of rural areas to develop soil and crop conservation issues and other development and healthy organic crops noted. Therefore, this study is based on the challenges and strategies for the development of agricultural systems at the plant are investigated. The results showed that the development of organic crops mainly in greenhouse crops And a small quantity of garden products. So that almost 114,000 hectares and 126,000 hectares, the share of agriculture to organic methods of conservation and greenhouse horticultural sector has been. The results show that the cultivation of crops during 8 years of protection is a high growth so that in 2011 reached 300,000 hectares. Lack of familiarity with new methods of tillage and crop farmers and failure to develop and promote the benefits of organic products among consumers of barriers to the rapid growth and development of organic agriculture is healthy. So far, 154 countries in the list of producers of these products has been unfortunately, the name of the country due to the lack of discussion of standardization and lack of standardization and lack of standards has not been listed yet. selection and applying appropriate promotion and identification of machines and implements standards for organic production and adopting appropriate policies government can play an important role in the sustainable development of agriculture in Iran.

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THE EFFECT OF METHANOL ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF CHICKPEA UNDER THE IRRIGATION AND DRY FARMING CONDITIONS

Abstract- In order to study the effect of sprayed methanol on yield and components yield of chickpea under the irrigation and dry farming conditions, an experiment as segregated border-strips in the form of a basic plan of random complete replication with three repetitions in 2011 at Islam Abad Gharb Shakheha-e-Zeiton industrial school located in the kilometer 7, Islam Abad Gharb-Dalahoo road was done with geographical coordinates that the pilot treatments include irritation factor with two levels of normal irrigation (irrigation and without irrigation) and the secondary factor, i.e. spraying methanol solution in five levels (control group, 7%, 14%, 21% and 28%) were classified as secondary border-strips. Methanol was sprayed on the aerial organs of chickpea plant 3 times during the growth season with 10 days interval after starting to sheath. The results showed that the sprayed methanol had a significant effect on the yield and yield components. Spraying methanol solution with concentration of 14 and 21 percent, were more significant than other treatments on the yield and component yield such that they caused the number of pods on the plant, the number of seeds on the plant, the weight of the 100 seeds, and the seed yield increased. The most and the least seed yield were observed in the treatment of sprayed methanol with concentration of 21% (5156.8k/ha) and methanol concentration of 0% (3432k/ha). Generally, it was observed that by increasing the percentage of the methanol volume from an available limit, the result will be reversed.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 24


The effect of planting time on performance of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) to use in urban green space

Abstract: Using native plants is one of the most significant strategies to create green landscapes. Using the potentiality of such plants especially herbs which are also eye-catching can make the urban landscapes even more attractive. This experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of planting time on the performance of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and was planned to compensate for a part of town management costs as well. It was carried out on March 9th, April 30th, and May 20th, 2013 year in completely Block randomized design (CRBD) with 3 replicates during the year. The results proved that planting time has a significant effect (P <0.05) on such characteristics as the wet weight of bush, the wet and dry weight of boll, 1000 seed weight, total performance as well as harvest seed performance. However, there was no significant effect on dry matter and the dry weight of bush. Although there was not a significant statistical difference between March 9th and April 30th plantings, a comparative analysis on averages showed that a too early or a post-April 30th planting of this plant causes a decrease in the wet weight of both bush and boll, and consequently a decrease in performance.

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Bioinformatic analysis parameters ABP1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract: Present study has been performed to bioinformatic analysis of the gene locus ABP1. This gene is a gene encoding a protein.  Evaluation of nucleotides combination of ABP1 gene showed that its gene sequence contains 58.78% AT and 41.22%  GC.  The designation of its specific primers indicated that the same primers can be used for both PCR and qPCR techniques.  Sequence analysis of ABP1 protein showed that the sequence constituted with 198 amino acids, so that, 9.1 % of the total sequence is formed from Ile that makes up more than other amino acids existed in the sequence length. Molecular weight and isoelectric point of the protein ABP1 are 22043.3 and 5.51, respectively.  Instability index of 44.83 showed that the protein is grouped as a unstable protein.  Enzymatic digestion of protein sequence using tripsin enzyme created 9 slices.  Inner membrane results using TMHMM tool showed that the amino acid of 0-70 and 150-170 are located in the trans membrane area.  Protein domain of ABP1 was found using CD search in NCBI database.

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Long term water absorption improvement of wood plastic composites by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Abstract— In this paper wood plastic composites were produced by PVC polymer and reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes at different percentages weight of composites. Short term and long term water absorption and the effect of carbon nanotube on water absorption of nanocomposites were investigated. The results showed that the addition of 2 % wt of carbon nanotubes would decrease the short term and long term water absorption of composites. This reduction was due to proper distribution of nano particles in wood-polymer media and water repelling properties of nanotubes. Scanning electron microscopy pictures also showed good distribution of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix. 

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Biosystematics and adaptive investigations of anatomical structures of species Anabasis in Esfahan province

Abstract-The genus Anabasis (Chenopodiaceae) is compatible with dry and saline environments. The anatomical characters use for biosystematic classifications and finding compatibilities. The anatomical characters of species Anabasis were not studied in Esfahan. The species of the genus were collected in Esfahan in fall and summer and then determined. The anatomical characters of stem and other sections of plants were investigated. The soil of root were analized for Na, Cl, Ca and plants for Na and Ca. the anatomical characters confirmed natural classifications and along elements analysis suggested adaptations to climatic modifications.

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Modeling the pollution of Jajrud River in Tehran by QUAL2K model 

Abstract—Simulating river quality parameters is an optimized method of water systems and helps managers to make informed decisions. Jajrud River is a major source of surface water in Tehran city. In this project, the QUAL2K qualitative model was used to simulate qualitative parameters of required ammonium nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand parameters. The modeling results were highly representative of actual river conditions. This confirmed the capability of QUAL2K model to simulate qualitative parameters. By taking into account the high cost of qualitative measurements of river water qualitative parameters, application of QUAL2K model is recommended for estimating qualitative parameters. To calibrate the model, the measured statistical results that were taken four times during a year across selected stations were used and the model was calibrated.

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An investigation on yield and decreasing toxic accumulation of leaf and petiole nitrogen in two spinach in two cultivars (Spinach Oleracea L.) In different nitrogen level application and planting date

ABSTRACT: In order to determine the most suitable planting date, nitrogen level and the least amount of toxic accumulation of this element in two Spinach cultivars (Spinacia Oleracea L.), a split split plot in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment with three replication, was conducted in a research farm of  Bushehr Province (South Western part of IRAN) in 2007. The investigated factor include two cultivars of spinach (German broad leaf and Virofaly), in the main plots and planting dates in four levels(Sep.23 with every 15 days), in sub plots and the nitrogen fertilizer in four levels(60,90,120 and 150 kg pure nitrogen) in sub sub plot. The results showed that the effects of cultivars and nitrogen levels is not significant, but the effects of planting date and the interaction of nitrogen levels * planting date, and also of nitrogen level* cultivars* planting date were significant at the probability of 1% level. The mean comparison by Duncan,s Test showed that the highest yield(32.98 Ton ha -1), were resulted from the German broad leaf in the 3rd planting date(Oct 17th), and the 4th level of nitrogen fertilizer(150 kg ha-1). But the toxic nitrogen, in this level of nitrogen application, was higher than the permissible limit (1393 mg Kg-1). Therefore, with regard to the insignificant level of nitrogen fertilizer, due to the higher yield production of 29.64 Ton ha-1 at the 3rd planting date and the first level of nitrogen application, it is recommended, and the toxic nitrogen is lower than the permissible limit (528 mg Kg-1).

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 23


Statistical downscaling of daily mean temperature in Shahrekord Station, Iran: an assessment of climate change impacts in a semi-arid region

Abstract—The increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere due to human activities has resulted in global warming and a global energy imbalance. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are widely used tools to assess potential impacts of global climate warming. However, their outputs are difficult to use in regional impact studies because of their coarse spatial resolution. Downscaling techniques are used to bridge the spatial and temporal resolution gaps to reduce the problem of discordant scales by deriving regional climate information from global climate data. The objective of this study is assessing local climate change impacts on daily mean temperature using statistical downscaling technique. The application of statistical downscaling model (SDSM) is demonstrated with respect to the generation of daily mean temperature scenarios for Shahrekord station, Iran by 2010–2039. The data used for evaluation were large-scale atmospheric data encompassing daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the daily mean climate model results for A2 emission scenario of HadCM3 model. The results obtained from SDSM were acceptable for the temperature. From the downscaled results, it can be concluded that in the future, the station will become more “hotter” in the next 30 years using the HadCM3 scenarios. The maximum temperature rise of 24 ° C in July and the minimum in January with a value of 3 °C are observed.

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Determining the suitable planting date of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in Kerman’s green- belt and landscape

Abstract: Native plants count as rich natural resources of any given countries and have a higher resistance to climatic factors which can decrease the maintenance costs of the green belt. Detecting and using these plants in the urban green belts and landscapes will result in understanding the true value of such plants in terms of medicine, industry, creation of the green belt, and in the end, it can help increase the GDP (Gross National Product). Thus this research aimed at analyzing the best time to plant Hibiscus sabdariffa among March 9th, April 30th, and May 20th 2013 year in the urban green belt in completely Block randomized design (CRBD) and within three times a year. The results showed the key influence of the planting time on freshness, flowering, branch and boll numbers, not affecting the bush height and canopy. The most appropriate time to plant Hibiscus sabdariffa in Kerman green belt was concluded to be April 30th. Based on the results, an acceleration in planting will result in the most numerous bolls (83.167 numbers), as well as an increase in flowering period (83.67 days). Furthermore, a sooner planting time will result in the freshness of the plant.

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Considering the effect of targeting the energy carrier subside on urban families’ food expenses in Kerman

Abstract— Targeting energy subside means removing subside on energy carrier price, which can both increase economic efficiency (optimized balance between supply and demand, increase in consumption efficiency and changing its pattern) and fair income distribution. For this, first, the consumption patterns of urban families in Kerman were considered, by using the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and families’ income-expense data between “2002-2007” by income deciles. Then the income and price elasticity were examined. The mentioned groups includes: food, energy, clothes, transportation, communication and other goods. For all income deciles, as it was expected, the price elasticity is less than zero and the income elasticity is more than zero. Then the food support boundary of consumers was defined in 2007 and the effect of targeting energy subside on food support boundary was measured. The results showed that by increasing energy carriers’ price and cash payment of subside to consumers, the food support boundary of each citizen decrease from 211699 Rial to 165229 Rial. This project, generally, shows that before the implementation of subside targeting policy the first, second and third deciles and after the implementation of this policy the first and second deciles were enjoyed from food support.

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Advantages and disadvantages of sulfites as a food additive

Abstract— Sulfites as preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers and the browning inhibitors are added to foods. Sulfites are also used in the pharmaceutical industry. Exposure of sulfites in sensitive individuals may cause adverse effects that are: dermatitis, skin rashes and hives, low blood pressure, diarrhea, shock, anaphylaxis and asthmatic reactions. Exposure of sulfites will ocoure in foods and beverages containing these additives. Studies show that the prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in people with asthma are 3 to 10 percent.

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Study of Development Process and It’s Role in Degradation of Agricultural land with Technology GIS and RS(Case study: Ardabil Province, Iran) 

Abstract— Since agricultural plain lands of Ardabil have been important in providing food stuffs, and due to the necessities of land usage management in this section, determination of process and change-rating of land cover I important for developers. In this regard, dynamic temporal data of remote sensing can play an important role in searching and analyzing of land usage change which is done by means of numerical change detection techniques in which the descriptive process of changes in covering variety and situation of land use is based on the temporal series image data. Basic hypothesis in using remote sensing data is on the base of these criteria that claims the ascending or descending nature of changes between two or more periods is recognizable, and by comparing the related data from different years, we can detect mutual relationships between natural, social and economic parameters. In this study, maximum likelihood supervised classification and change detection techniques were applied to Land sat images acquired in 1990 and 2007, respectively, to map land cover changes in the Ardebil city. A supervised classification was carried out on  reflective  bands for the four images individually with the aid of ground truth data. Ground truth information collected were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. Using ancillary data, and expert knowledge of the area through GIS further refined the classification results. change detection technique was used to produce change image through cross-tabulation Changes among different land cover classes were assessed. During the study period, a very severe land cover change has taken place as a result of agricultural and  urban development projects. These changes in land cover led to vegetation degradation and cropland in part of the study area.

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The Effect of Sampling Season on Acid Phosphatase Enzyme in Rhizosphere Ash Fraxinusrotundifolia (case study: ChahartaghArdal-Chaharmahal Bakhtiari)

Abstract—The present investigation was conducted during 2013 growing seasons in order to study the effects of season on the Acid phosphatase activity.

Sampling was done in at the outset and end of vegetation growth period. Spring and autumn are the main two seasons in this ecosystem. In each time five succulent trees (Fraxinusrotundifolia) selected randomly. Soil samples were taken from the upper 30 cm of soil. Roots were sampled at the same sites as soil samples.

We investigated in field experiments seasonal dynamics of acid phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity showed a seasonal pattern. Acid phosphatase activity significantly higher in autumn.As average acid phosphatase values ranged from 74.65μgρNP g-1h-1(in spring) to 126.92 μgρNP g-1h-1(in autumn).

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 22


The effects of Thrichoderma harzianom extract on the chlorophyll rate and nitrate concentration in two varieties of Lettuce in soilless culture system

Abstract—In this study, the effect of extracts of TBi isolated strain of Trichoderma harzianum fungal species on increased or decreased amount of chlorophyll a and b as well as on the nitrate accumulation on lettuce in greenhouse conditions and in the soilless culture system was studied. The experiment was performed in a complete block randomized design with factorial arrangement of (2×4) in 6 replication. To conduct the research, four concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of the extract per each source, and also 2 varieties of Siahoo and Grade Lake were used. The amounts of chlorophyll "a" and "b" were measured by Lichtenthaler and Wellburn method; nitrate concentrations were measured using Spectrophotometer (Diazo) method. The test results showed that different levels of this fungus extract have had different effects on the parameters listed on lettuce plant. Among different levels used, the concentration of 5% included the highest concentration of nitrate and showed a significant difference at the 5% probability level with other levels. This level also had higher chlorophyll content than other levels, but the difference was not significant. The Siahoo variety showed higher nitrate accumulation as well as larger amounts of chlorophyll "a" and "b" compared to the Grade Lake variety, and the difference was significant at the 1% probability level.

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The Survey process aquaculture nutrition with emphasis on the culture of Micro algal such as Tetraselmis suecica and Senedesmus obliquus as food source in alternative media of sewages and its refine effects

Abstract: Phytoplankton are at the base of the entire aquatic food chain and play a vital role in the rearing of aquatic animals. They are utilized diversely in aquaculture, but their main applications are related to nutrition. There remains the question of cost of phytoplankton production systems  therefore culture of phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Senedesmus obliqus with use from urban wastewater was investigated that we essayed moreover reduce of production cost, nutrient absorption efficiency and settlement effect its. Tetraselmis and  Senedesmus with three initial density, namely high density, medium density and low density , were applied to primarily treated wastewater. The cell number of all cultures increased gradually in the fourteen days and the rates of increase were similar in all cultures. At the end of the 14 days study, over 80% NO3--N , 56% NO2--N and 80% PO43--P were removed from wastewater in all cultures except the low density one. These results indicated that the high density culture to be more beneficial as this treatment achieved satisfactory growth and nutrient removal within 10 days instead of 14.

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Analyzing effective environmental factors on quality of secondary agriculture education

Abstract— This study aims to analyze effective environmental factors on secondary agriculture education quality. This is a descriptive-correlation study. Research statistical sample are all students at secondary agricultural school in Hajiabad county in Hormozgan providence (n=86). Data gathering was conducted with whole headcount. Research instrument for gathering data was questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using SpSS software. Based on results infrastructures, suitable accommodation, exercise facilities, student consulting and physical condition of classroom were effective environmental factor on quality of agricultural high school education which in sum covered 67.49% of variance. 

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Evaluation of pesticide lindane in sediments of the Anzali Lagoon

Abstract—This study was conducted to investigate the contamination of chlorinated pesticide Lindane, in Abkenar sediments (West of Anzali Lagoon) at 8 stations in spring 1392. Toxicological evaluation was conducted with GC-Mass and MOOPAM method and it was analyzed using ANOVA. The highest concentrations of pesticide lindane (3.47±0.42 ng / g) have been the eastern stations and the lowest (1.62±0.04 ng / g) has been in the west e station. Lindane concentration in sediment samples were below the EPA limit, the aim of this study was to assess pesticide lindane in sediments and comparing the data with the determined standards. 

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The solutions for improving agricultural higher education in order to prepare graduates to enter the labor market

Abstract— Despite more than 40 thousand unemployed graduates in the fields of agriculture , agricultural development in higher education for improving the current situation is promising . This study aimed to analyze the ways to improve agricultural higher education system in order to prepare graduates to enter the labor market . The instrument was a questionnaire and the participants were a total of 100 graduates of Agriculture and Natural Resources Engineering Organization of Tehran. They were selected by using a stratified simple random sampling. The findings revealed that the participants’ suggestions in finding job are up-to-date training of students in line with the market and industry needs. Also, in setting up jobs, they suggested to place priority on loans and facilities for people with a college education, and in effective function in the job, their suggestion is to hold workshops relevant to the field, job, and the psychology of work. At the end, some recommendations are provided.

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The effect of approach channels on the discharge coefficient of ogee spillway in the axial arc condition with convergent sidewalls

Abstract—The spillways are used in civil engineering works. In some cases to ensure that the water passes over the spillway on a smooth surface, the approach channel is used. In this study, an experimental model of the ogeespillwayto arched plan and convergent sidewalls is examined. And to evaluate the effect of the approach channels, some channels with wide 46.2, 52, 58 and 70 cm are used. With 52% increase in the width of approach channel, the head over the spillway decrease by 11% and the discharge coefficient increase by 22%.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 21


The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot regeneration from Basil callus (Ocimum basilicum L.)

Abstract— Basil is a plant belonging to the family Laminaceae. This research was performed to investigated the effect of plant growth regulators (NAA,BAP and IBA) on regeneration of callus from different explants as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments and 3 replications was conducted. Treatments callus from explants of hypocotyl, cotyledon and root at MS medium containing (0.5 and 1 mg/l) BAP and (0.25 and 0.1 mg/l) IBA and (0.25 and 0.1 mg/l) NAA. Results showed that the type of small, medium type and the interaction of them significant effect (p≤0.01) the number of shoots. The highest number of shoots was obtained by 0.5 mg/l BAP+ 0.1 mg/l NAA using cotyledon explants. The lowest number of shoots on medium containing 1 mg/l BAP+ 0.1 mg/l NAA was created using root explants. The highest and lowest shoots in medium 0.5 mg/l BAP mg/l+ 0.1 mg/l NAA and callus from explants hypocotyl to the 8.92 inches from medium containing 1 mg/l BAP+ 0.1 mg/l IBA and the callus derived from root explants of 0.54 cm, respectively. This study showed no significant change in the number of shoots and shoots with callus from different explants of basil and various concentrations of NAA and BAP and IBA hormone created.

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The effect of magnetic field on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rat

Abstract—various studies accomplished over the last decade have examined the effects of the exposure of laboratory mice to static magnetic fields and all of them didn’t show the similar results. In the present study the effect of static magnetic field on three crucial liver enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was carried out. Ninety six BALB/C rats were divided into three groups. First group (A) was control, the second (B) was under 5 mT magnetic field and the third (C) was under the 7.5 mT magnetic field. The samples were under the study for 21 days (6 hours a day). On the 21th day the rats were slaughtered for assessing the rate of ALT, AST and ALP. The rate of ALT, AST and ALP were found 78.33±2.93, 275.45±5.1 and 182.73±5.84 respectively. About three enzymes, the significant difference between group A and B were found. The concentration of enzymes in group B were found 85.45±3.53, 291.03±6.11 and 209.59±5.71 respectively. Also the significant difference between group B and C were found. The concentration of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes in group C were found 93.22±3.97, 307.25±6.65 and 217.22±3.25 respectively. The results in the current study have shown there are a significant difference (p<0.05) between rats in group A and groups B and C about three enzymes. It means increasing the level of magnetic field cause damage to liver tissue and it result is the increase the rate of three enzymes.

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Evaluation  of  Spatially  interpolation methods in drought intensities zoning based on some statistical indices (Case Study: Fars Province in IRAN)

Abstract— drought is one of the most important environmental events and also it’s the integral part of climate fluctuations. This phenomena is a specific condition of precipitation loss and high temperature that might happen in every climate condition. Drought condition awareness and drought intensities zoning might decrease risks of drought losses significantly. Present study is an attempt to evaluate accuracy of place interpolation methods for occurred drought intensities zoning in Fars province in 1388 using Percentage of normal precipitation Index (PNPI), standard precipitation index (SPI), deciles precipitation index (DPI), and Rainfall anomaly index (RAI). Therefore, it used data of 41pluviometry stations in Fars province that distributed appropriately and inverse distance weight (IDW) with 1 to 3 powers, ordinary kriging (OK), and universal kriging (UK) Methods, were studied.

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Simulated rainfall - runoff watershe with  IHACRES 

Abstract— The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the process simulation model IHACRES rainfall - runoff in Dalaki basin. Therefore, temperature and precipitation and streamflow statistics Dalaki the daily scale , and from June 1990 until December 31, 2001 since the software was introduced IHACRES . The first Data in June 1990 to 31 December 1996 to calibrate the model and First Statistics June 1997 to 31 December 1997 were selected for the evaluation . With trial and error and calibration of the model was evaluated and it was determined the unknown parameters . The results indicated that the rainfall - runoff made is satisfactory and the accuracy is good.

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Investigating the effects of Salmonella enteritidis on broilers’ performance and gut characteristics

Abstract— This study was done to investigate the pathologic effects of Salmonella enteritidis on broilers’ performance and gut characteristics. Using completely randomized design, 80 one day old broiler chickens were divided into 2 treatment groups of positive and negative Salmonella with four replications. To challenge with Salmonella, 1.5×105 CFU of it was oral given to the positive group. The results showed that Salmonella did not affect the chicks’ performance, but it led to increase in jejunum weight, decrease in villi height and increase in crypt depth in some parts of the small intestine.

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Primitive studies for copper deposit in Bidkhan copper mine with regards to wide survey of altered areas and mineral indexes

Abstract—Bidkhan region has an extension about 104km2. This region includes some heights and also villages which all of them is called Bidkhan region. For approach to that region there is just one 2th grade asphalted and paved road which that is Bardsir – Bidkhan road. Bidkhan territory, regardless of its formation, with refer to evidences which obtained by 1:100000 geochemical surveys, it is a hopeful exploration territory and is defined and identified as a 1:25000 scale for metals minerals, especially copper porphyry deposits. With regard to new discoveries and some new evidences related to porphyry mineralization, Bidkhan can be introduced as a hopeful and important mineral region for exploring porphyry minerals.

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An Analysis of Land Use Instability in Urban Settlements in Southwestern Tehran Metropolis

Abstract: Tehran metropolis, due to various factors such as concentration of capital, enjoyment of infrastructures and employment opportunities, has turned to the most important hub for attraction of population in Iran. On the other hand, factors such as implementation of some improper spatial policies in Tehran city and district and increase in land and property prices, low-income immigrants’ being pushed to suburban rural settlements and finally unsystematic physical expansion of such settlements all have led to the appearance of urban self-growing settlements around Tehran metropolis. Such local-spatial conditions are more prevalent in urban districts of southweastern Tehran which surround Saveh Road. Appearance of such districts was triggered by development of Islamshahr through spatial-functional annexation of rural settlements and change of agricultural lands and it was aggravated by farther structural expansion and emergence of new cities due to the increase in immigration to this district. Currently, this trend is still in full swing with the decreasing attraction of the original districts of these immigrants. 

With view of the role that these suburban districts play in the stability of settlement system of the wider districts and also having in mind the emphasis of other studies done in this regard on the social and cultural aspects of this issue, in the current study, employing statistical data and documentary and field studies, it is tried to yield a spatial analysis of instability of the land use pattern in urban districts around Saveh Road. Analysis of spatial-local distribution of land use indicates severe shortage and scantiness of per capita urban land use and this trend becomes even more severe in the cities which reach out to more suburban areas which are further away from Islamshahr. by considering these districts as an undeniable reality, Therefore, reforming and systematization of the current land use to initiate active and functional involvement of these settlements in stabilizing the zonal system and their residents’ enjoyment of better living conditions should be in order. By identifying and analyzing the roots and reasons of centralism in Tehran and reforming the land use systems, a sustainable spatial pattern for other condensed urban settlements in other similar geographical areas in developing countries becomes feasible. 

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 20


The Effect of Various Irrigation Regimes and Green Manures on Yield, Moisture variations and Water Use Efficiency in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water infiltration to soil on yield and water use efficiency in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in conditions of irrigation intervals and green manures in Astaneh Ashrafiyeh, North of Iran. A was studied split plot in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications in the 2011 growing season. Irrigation levels were the main-plots consisted of four levels (no irrigation, irrigation with 6, 12 and 18 days interval).  Green manures included of four levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha were assigned to sub plots. Results of this research indicated that average final infiltration was 13 (cm/day) and volumetric moisture variations in different depths indicated that the moisture content in upper soil layers such as 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm was less than those of 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm layers which was due to water absorption in the first and second layers by the plant. The highest amounts of all studied traits of eggplant included of root height, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit yield and water use efficiency were observed in 6 days interval irrigation. On the other results also illustrated that plants that received 30 ton.ha-1 plots produced the highest fruit yield and yield determining traits than those in the control treatment. Regarding to the interaction effects between irrigation intervals and green manures, it could be concluded that 6 day irrigation Intervals and 20 ton green manures on ha was highest yield with 53.7 ton.ha-1.

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Effect of nano-packaging on postharvest quality and storage life of fresh-cut nectarine

Abstract— Effect of nano composite-based packaging prepared by blending polypropylene (PP) with nano-Ag and nano Ag+Silica on quality attributes and postharvest life of the fresh-cut nectarine (cv. Red Gold) during storage at 0-1 0C with 90-95% RH for 21 days was studied. Fruit weight loss, total acidity, ascorbic acid content, browning index, malondialdehyde content, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activity were evaluated during and at the end of storage. Nano-packaging significantly reduced polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity, browning index and weight loss. Nano packaging resulted in retention of fruit total acidity, ascorbic acid content, catalase activity and decreased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA).The results indicated that nano-packaging may be introduced as an effective technology in order to improve the postharvest life and quality of  fresh cut “Red Gold”  nectarinees.

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Evaluation of agronomic traits and tuber yield of potato cultivars in Ardabil-Iran 

Abstract— This experiment was conducted in order to evaluate different varieties of potato in term of agronomical traits and tuber yield in Agricultural and natural resources Research Station of Ardabil at 2012. The experimental was as randomized complete block design with four replications of 20 potato varieties. Analysis of variance showed that all traits were affected by the experimental treatments. Maximum days until stolon initiation, flowering and tuber initiation was belonged to Daifola variety, but during the growing season in Savalan variety was higher than the other varieties (137 days), while the lowest growth duration was belonging to Valletta, Karso and Vrona varieties. Maximum number of main stem, tuber number, and weight of tubers per plant was obtained from cultivar Savalan. The highest tuber yield was belonging to Savalan by followed Agria variety (50.5 and 48.2 tones per hectare, respectively).

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Evaluation of physiological and morphological indicators of salinity tolerance in 6 Varieties canola (Brassica napus)

Abstract: Salinity stress and combat to it is one of most important factors that has created many problems in human farming during thousand years This study was performed to determine reaction of canola seed germination under salinity stress by using a complete randomized block desin with 2 factor and 4 replication. The studied factures were salinity at 4 levels (0-100-200-300m Mol) and 6 varieties in cladding (Hrola 308 ـ RGS-3006 ـ RGS003 ـ Hyola 401 ـ Kimberlei  ـ Hrola 60). Analysis of showed significant decrease in seedling length , root length ,germination rate ,seedling dry matter and root dry matter .The results showed that most sensitive variety was RGS-3006 and most tolerant varieties were RGS003 , Hyola 401 under salinity stress at germination stage varieties Hrola60 and Kimberlei were less sensitive . Cluster analyze by Ward method divided these cultivars into three group. Group one includes RGS-3006, Hrola60, group two include: Hyola401, Hrola 308, PR401/16 and finally RGS003 was the only member of group three.

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In vitro effect of the adding of sodium hydroxide on rumen gas production of whole barley grain

Abstract— The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of treatment of whole barley grain (WBG) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on in vitro rumen gas production parameters. Experimental treatments included untreated whole barley grain (BControl) and treated barley grain with NaOH+water (35 g + 220 ml/kg DM WBG) for 30 days (BNaOH). In vitro gas production technique was used to determine the gas production parameters of the samples. The amount of produced gas at each time of incubation in each glass serum bottle was taken as the gas production parameter. Results of the in vitro technique revealed that alkali treatment of WBG caused an increase in the asymptotic gas volume (b) versus BControl (122.157 and 130.969 ml, respectively). Constant rate of gas production (c) significantly decreased by BNaOH compared with BControl (0.0247 and 0.0351 ml/h, respectively). Furthermore, treatment of WBG caused a significant increase in the halftime of maximal gas production (t1/2) versus BControl (28.05 and 19.74 h, respectively). The finding of the present study leads us to conclude that treatment of WBG with NaOH improved in vitro gas production parameters.

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The role of education and extension of  culturalization in order to promote optimal water use in agriculture

Abstract--Efficient use of water resources as a national resource and a major driver in farming is possible when the three main principles: water use efficiency, equity in water distribution and ecological and environmental balancingare observed.Notwithstanding the implementation of these principles and developments in this sector seems to be impossible without education and extension,because proper utilization of resources and modern technologies in agriculture is only possible when there is adequate training of operating units andnecessary culturalization in the agricultural community has been created to improve water productivity index,it is noteworthy that the success in this regard and achieving interests and national resources requires a public participation and collective collaboration .Due to the fact that public participation with the aim of optimizing water use, can be usually seen in decision making of decision-makers in projects and public policy making and this can provide desirable conditions with making changes in physical infrastructures and savings in water use and using  new methods of irrigation and developing rain-fed agriculture.Moreover, extension can play an important role  in agricultural sector in increasing technical knowledge and changing attitudes towards optimal water use as a character to provide information and to make missions .In this case, the present paper attempts to examine the role of education and extension of agriculture in order to culturalizationof  optimal water use through structural and non-structural solutions to increase irrigation water efficiency in agriculture.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 19


Determination of the best germination medium for Citrus aurantium seeds along with using organic fertilizers in Dashtestan area

Abstract— In order to evaluate the effect of manure (sheep and poultry) on Citrus aurantium seedlings a completely randomized design study with 10 replicate was planned. The treatments were included soil and sand (25, 50 and 75%) and mixtures of manure (sheep at 25, 50 and 75%) and (poultry at 25%) with soil and sand. The highest germination percentage and seed vigor was related to sand treatment. The highest germination rate was observed in sand and 25% soil. The highest daily average germination obtained in sand and sand 50%. The germination index was most in 50% soil and sand 25%. Poultry manure and 50% soil had the longest time to geminate with 40 days.

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Experimental Study of the Effect of Guide Walls Asymmetry on Hydraulic Performance of Ogee Spillways with Curved Plans

Abstract—Executive limitations are among the factors that have attracted the attention of many hydraulic engineers. Designing an asymmetrical ogee spillway was the focus of attention of the present research. This study analyzed the physical model of a curved ogee spillway with a plan in the scale 1:50. The spillway was tested with both symmetrically and asymmetrically arranged guide walls while each state included 2 angles 60 and 90 degree angles. Hydraulic parameters were measured for 6 discharges per unit width in the range of 6.74 to 48.42 L/sec. Flow depth in   =4.92 with a symmetrical 90-degree angle was 3.47 times the flow depth in a 60-degree asymmetrical angle. Prior to submergence, the static pressure profile was reduced with an increase in the discharge passing the crown in all states and sample cross sections. However, the static pressure profile was increased from the beginning of the shoot. Therefore, the lowest pressure was reported to be   for a symmetrical 60-degree angle around the crown with 48.52 . However, for a symmetrical 90-degree angle with  , which experiences submergence sooner, pressure profile uniformly increased from crown to toe with discharges more than 40.52 . Accordingly, the peak pressure was reported to be    for the same angle with 48.52 . Based on the observations and diagrams it was concluded that symmetry or asymmetry did not affect static pressure. This finding was proved fora60-degree angle compared in the symmetrical and asymmetrical states. Moreover, the difference between the two states obtained for the 60-degree angle was caused by the influence of downstream flow on upstream flow, which was itself caused by the change in the flow regimes. Discharge coefficient was also independent of the effect of symmetry prior to submergence.

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Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Cadmium by nano Zero Valence Iron 

(at Batch Experiment and Pore Media)

Abstract— Various agricultural and industrial practices can have direct and indirect adverse effects on the environment and water resources. Most of food source available from agriculture crops that irrigation from ground water, therefore treat of contaminated groundwater by in-situ remediation methods as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is necessary. In this research there is a comparison between percent adsorption of nano Zero Valence Iron (nZVI) and some mineral ores such as Calcite and Zeolite to receive purpose the remediation of some southern fields of Tehran city. the results shown 29.86% and 32.9% of increasing of adsorption of nZVI adsorbents in compared to Calcite and Zeolite. After realize of nZVI as optimized adsorbent, investigated effects of increasing concentration adsorbent and variation of primary concentration of pollutant by injection of 1 and 2 gr per liter of nZVI to contaminated water with cadmium (0.2, 0.5 and 4 ppm, concentration of cadmium). Results showed 5.5%, 3.4% and 11.5% cadmium adsorbed from contaminated water with concentration 0.2, 0.5 and 4 ppm (respectively), due to increasing adsorbent from 1 to 2 gr/lit in 2 hours of reaction started. Also, the result of increasing of primary concentration of pollution from 0.2 ppm to 0.5 ppm for 1 and 2 gr/L of nZVI was 5.45% and 7.75% decrease in adsorption value reported respectively after 24 hours. As a result, by increasing in primary concentration of pollution, the percent of the nZVI particles absorption will decrease. As a continue of experience, various of pH and temperature on the percent adsorption. Results showed by increase of pH, solution of ions were decreased, even some of the cadmiums which adsorption by nZVI were sediment and in acidic situation solution of ions were increased. The experiences showed that increasing temperature make increasing the adsorption. By made a vertical homogeneous pore media for simulation of remediation ground water in aquifer study about variation of adsorption cadmium with nZVI was implemented and In order to investigation of environmental effects of nano particles injection (nZVI), the concentration of iron ion was investigated.     

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A comparison of PPAR signaling pathway genes in intramuscular adipose tissue of human beings and ruminants

Abstract— Gene expression can be used to increase marbling. Of course, The PPARs are the important factors regarding gene expression in the adipose tissue. To characterize the main intramuscular fat, the present study compared the underlying genes in the human beings and ruminants. In doing so, the related genes PPAR signaling pathway were extracted and compared using KEGG and Ref seq RNA and the bioinformatics BLAST. The results indicated the cycle genes were, to a great extent, the same in the above -mentioned subjects and FABP1, UBC, CPT2, MMP1, UCP1, ILK, FABP3, OLR1, LPL genes were expressed in their intramuscular fat.

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Investigation of natural attractions of Lorestan province and its effect on tourism and ecotourism growth

Abstract- Tourism growth is important as a strategy for development of country. Finite economic resources such as oil and gas reservoir have forced various countries to utilize high-paying jobs and economic that use of the tourism industry is one of the most important. Lorestan province has an area of about two million hectares of forest and pasture and existence of abundant natural attractions and tourism in the province is one of tourism strengths in the province. Among the tourist areas of the province, are oak forests in the high mountains such as Sefidkooh, Makhmalkooh, Hashtadpahloo and Taf, protected areas, major waterfalls such as Bisheh, Afarineh, Haft cheshmeh, permanent and seasonal wells, Poldokhtar. Due to the various climates and also antiquity as well as old and historic settlement with appropriate management strategies, propitious situation can be created for ecotourism and tourism in the Lorestan province. The present study introduces the tourist spots and natural attractions through field visits that were located in different parts of the Lorestan province.

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Assessment CART model to estimate the potential evapotranspiration and relative humidity of air months later (case study: Irak station)

Abstract— In this paper the ability of CART tree models to estimate the potential evapotranspiration and average monthly relative humidity next month, has been evaluated for synoptic station of Irak. The data used in this article, was the average monthly weather station Irak. The data presented as the mean monthly meteorological variables as input to the algorithm. Include average temperature, sunshine hours, temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit during the period of forty-six years, from 1960 to 2005, After programming the algorithms to estimate the potential evapotranspiration and relative humidity next month, the CART algorithm using the correlation coefficient and the mean absolute error was evaluated. According to the statistical parameters of the CART tree model to estimate the average monthly potential evapotranspiration for the next month is better.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 18


Effects of Animal Manures and Harvesting Time on Dried Flowers Yield and Essence Yield of Calendula Officinalis.L

Abstract—To evaluate the effect of animals manure (including Chicken, Ostrich, and Cow manure) and harvesting time on dried flowers yield and essence yield of Calendula Officinalis.L, an experiment was carried out through the 2012-2013 season at the Agricultural Research Institute related to Zabol University (Chahnime) Zabol, Iran. A split plot in based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications was followed in the study. Results represented that dried flowers yield and essence yield of Calendula Officinalis.L, were significantly affected by different fertilizer treatments and harvesting time. Chicken manure increased 450% on dried flowers weight in compare with control in late flowering stage. Maximum of amount of essence was obtained by cow manure in early and mid flowering stage.

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LANDFORM CLASSIFICATION USING MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

Abstract—The main objective of this study is to landform classification in the elevation of north of Iran. In this study used morphometric feature for landform classification for the elevation of north of Iran. In order to landform classification used Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with 90 m resolution. For sixclasses; ridge,peak,pass,channel,pit and planar used slope, positive values of maximum curvature and negative values of minimum curvature.The result show that there are six landform (ridge,peak,pass,channel,pit and planar) that ridge class and pit class have maximum and minimum percentage respectively in the study area.

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The effect of  Green tea on bacterial changes in white shrimp (LithopenaeusVannamei) refrigerated at a temperature of 4 ± 1 °C

Abstract— Marine products form an important source of nutrients which are extensively used in human diets. Shrimp, a rich source of polyunsaturated acids and protein at a high percentage, is one the most important marine products. Green tea on the other hand contains a large quantity of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds which have been used to reduce putrescence in foodstuff. This research investigated the effect of various doses of green tea extract (200, 400, and 600 ppm) on the total bacterial load, psychrotopic and lactic acid bacteria and compared the results from the various doses because of the importance of the nutritional and economic value of shrimp. The results indicated that green tea extracts can increase shelflife between 2 to 5 days depending on the treatment type and extend the products use by date. In general the results indicated that different doses of green tea cause the increase in bacterial parameters in shrimp during refrigeration and the 600ppm is recommended as the best dose.

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The effect of Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) on chemical change of white shrimp during refrigeration storage

Abstract— Shrimp a member of the aquatic crustacean species can be found in most parts of the world both in freshwater and saltwater form. It is like most types of seafood full of calcium, iodine, and unsaturated acid protein. The meat of the aquatic creatures as a raw substance comprises a protein system that during fishing, transportation, preparation, and processing is exposed to a collection of internal changes and interactions resulting in its putrescence. Because of the nutritional and economic value of shrimp, this study investigated the effect of the different doses of green tea (200, 400, and 600 ppm) on the moisture content, pH value, peroxide value and the total volatile nitrogen and compared the results from various doses. The results indicated that the 600ppm dose had the most influence on the fall in the moisture content and the pH value while all doses of green tea significantly affected the other putrescent parameters (total volatile nitrogen and peroxide value, P<0.05). The results generally showed that different doses of green tea result in the increase in the qualitative parameters of shrimp during refrigeration.

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Effects of Natural and Unnatural Hazards on Environment of Lorestan Province Forests  

Abstract- Zagros forests are distributed in Wide range of country. Due to the destructive factors (normal and abnormal), they consider as protective forest that the Lorestan province 's forests are part of this forests. The results showed that natural factors (such as animals, insects, pathogens and climate changes) and abnormal factors (oil and gas pipelines, water, agriculture under the floor, the villagers fuel utilization of secondary forest products, interest sand mining , arson, grazing) lead to environmental degradation and disturbance in natural balance at these forests.

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Soil compaction, causes the soil compaction in green space and ways to improve 

Abstract— The main environmental impacts of urban green space is a function that creates a balance in the animated and inanimate city and plants in cities are an important part of the foundation. The major factor in the establishment, growth and survival of plants and create sustainable green space, is the soil condition of their bed. Soil compaction prevents proper penetration of plant roots in the soil and plant maintenance costs and increases protection. Evaluation of soil compaction before planting the plants to prevent its later stages, and provide effective methods of control and prevention enhances the quality and quantity of green areas can be rejuvenated.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 17


QUALITY CHECK OF ZAHEDANS DRINKING WATER SOURCES WITH RESPECT TO MICROBIAL PRESENCE (1392-1392)

Abstract: Dams and underground water sources are of utmost importance for providing drinking water for cities and villages. Water provided from these resources should me clean and pure of impurities and microbial. The main aim of this paper is to study the quality of Zahedan city drinking water reservoirs and comparing them with international standards.

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Biodiversity and Planted Forest Ecosystems

Abstract— Planted forests compare to natives are commonly very simple ecosystems in terms of their structure. These forests are subject to intensive management interventions to meet the efficient wood production which, in most established planted forests, is the explicit goal. The provision of ecosystem services and goods is related to ecosystem functioning. One of the important factors affecting ecosystem functioning is biodiversity. The biodiversity through two mechanisms including “niche complementarity” and “ecological insurance against disturbances and stress” affects ecosystem functioning. Lack of knowledge base that underpins the domestication and cultivation of tree species.as well as the low uptake of mixed planted forests may be attributable to the fact that surprisingly little of the body of knowledge and ecological literature on the relationships between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity has transgressed into the silvicultural knowledge of planted forest management. But fortunately, there are promising signs that ecologists are increasingly studying on production ecosystems.

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The effects of light period ,monochromatic light ,light intensity on multi aspects of  broiler‘s behavior and healthy and biologic condition

ABSTRACT: Light is one of the important subject in pourtly science and can affects  on multi aspects of broilers  but we could not discover whatever is needed about it. true  understanding about all of the aspects of light is one of the important step in improving   on aviculture industry.this article try to show the some effects of light on broilers life  and we hope that can emphasis on this important factor on broilers production ,and  it s use  in appropriate  way .Two trials were conducted with the objective of investigating the effect of light intensity, within the practical levels at confinement barns (1, 10, 20, and 40 lx), on production, processing characteristics, and welfare of broilers raised to 35 d of age. Each lightintensity treatment was replicated in 2 environmentally controlled rooms in each trial with 950 Ross × Ross 308 chicks per room. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with trial serving as a block. All chicks were exposed to 40 lx of light intensity and 23 h of light for the first 7 d followed by treatment light intensity and 17 h of day length thereafter. Body weight and feed consumption were determined at 7, 14, and 35 d of age. At the end of each trial, 60 birds per treatment were processed to determine the detailed meat yield. Skeletal and footpad and ocular health were monitored at 31 and 32 d of age, respectively. Body weight, feed consumption, feed:gain ratio, and mortality were unaffected by light intensity. Carcass, thigh, and drum yield as a percentage of live weight decreased linearly with increasinglight intensity. The 1 lx treatment resulted in heavier wings as a percentage of live weight. Light intensity had no effect on skeletal health, but ulcerative footpad lesions decreased linearly with increasing light intensity. Birds exposed to the 1 lx treatment had heavier and larger eyes. In conclusion,light intensity did not affect broiler production and mortality but did affect carcass characteristics. The 1 lx light intensity treatment had a negativeeffect on broiler welfare as demonstrated by increased ulcerative footpad lesions and eye size.

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Effect of hill on beds profiles rivers floods plain 

Abstract—Rivers are discussed as a dynamic and systematic, and yet with complicated relations, the correct operation of such dynamics, depends on understanding of the relationship it. In this study with the using a laboratory method and using of Permeable hill with a trapezoidal cross-section and a crest width of 20 cm, bottom width of 50 cm height of 5 cm effect of permeable gravel on riverbeds flood plain profiles was investigated. Experiments with four rates of discharge 4, 6, 8 and 10 liters per second and with channel bed slope 2 and 3 percent was performed. The results showed that with increasing discharge and slope of the channel bed, sedimentation rate is increase.

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Effect of caffeine supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of male broilers chicks

Abstract: Caffeine added to drinks and food as a stimulator drug, and causes HCL secretion in stomach, hypertension and dilated blood vessels. In this experiment 200 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (5 pens/ treatment of 10 male broilers each) in a completely randomized design. First treat was a control and the next three dietary treatments were supplemented with caffeine: 2) 0.5%, 3) 1.00%, 4) 2.00%. Broiler starter, grower and finisher diets, based on corn and soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and fed ad libitum. All data were analyzed by the analysis of variance general linear models procedure of SAS/STAT software and when treatment means were significant (P < 0.05), Tukey’s multiple range tests was used to compare means. Before analysis, the univariate test was used to assess the normality of all data. Results show that with inclusion levels of caffeine, FI and DWG significantly decreased. Different levels of caffeine had no significant effects on FCR. Pancreases, neck and bursa relative weight and carcass percentage in 21 d and neck, gizzard and thymus weight in 42 d significantly increased with higher levels of caffeine. It was concluded that there was no significant difference in 0.5 and 1.00 % of caffeine and 2% caffeine cusses caffeinism in broiler chicks. 

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A study of switching from conventional agriculture to organic agriculture in Iran: SWOT-ANP application 

Abstract—Since the mid 1980s, organic farming has become the focus of significant attention from policy-makers, consumers, environmentalists and farmers in Europe and state institutions have become increasingly involved in regulating and supporting the organic sector. A survey method, field studies and strategic management (SWOT) are utilized in this study to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the transition from conventional farming to organic farming in Iran and a questionnaire survey based ANP is used for weighting effective factors. According to prioritizing four strategies obtained from the analysis of SWOT, deducting financial and trade policies to support organic production, developing motives for public and private investment, establishing responsive foundation for research and guides and developing promotional programs based on related knowledge, are proposed.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 16


Wastewater treatment and environmental problems of mining

Abstract—Acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution is considered to be the most serious water pollution problem in mining areas.

The acid mine drainage (AMD) is considered to be a major due to water pollution, contributing to low pH and variable concentration of heavy metals in waters. This process has detrimental effect on surface waters, groundwater aquifers and soils. many treatment systems have been designed for  pollution removal to standard  limit. This study attempts to consider contamination, AMD generation, treatment methods, acid mine drainage natural and etc.

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Optimal Model of Wind Turbine Grounding Systems In The Mountainous Areas with Electrodes Modeling of case study

Abstract—According to existing problems in creating earthing system of wind turbines, in this article, different kinds of methods has been investigated. Then, according to the most of the wind turbines of Azarbijan province that are mounting in high rocky areas, it has been tried to present an indigenous optimised model for Azarbijan region. In this proposed system a two-layer earthing system modeling and its related calculations using CYMGRD software is presented. In this model an innovative method to reduce surface voltage gradient and a mutual between system rods, is given. The results have been showed by the way of finite element simulation in the related software and these results have been compared with references. By increasing the length of integrated earthing rods, earthing system resistance in rocky and mountainous areas, decreased. It has to be mentioned that this model is favorable in both resistance reduction and impulse wave explusion.

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Application of artificial neural networks in environment

Abstract-With the advent of modern information technology and communications, we are seeing light of astonishing developments in all of science.In fact, the computer with other advanced technologies such as artificial neural networks provides a way for the emergence of intelligent techniques. In recent years, the mining and geological sciences, due to high strain problems using neural networks and fuzzy logic. this paper present  a neural network model and tutorial them.

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Kite flow angle effects on Kite energy generation

Abstract— For electricity energy generation, Kite system, a system for conversion of up and down linear movement of Kite halter, such as attack angle, to a rotational movement of an axis, is used. We can generate electricity by axle attachment to a generator. An important point in energy generation by kite is the flow angle which can be obtained with respect to kite's width and height and its distance to the ground. Some argue that we can neglect this angle because of its low amount, but even this low amount has many effects on energy generation. We will show its importance in this article [3,5].

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Various hybrid techniques to increase the reliability of systems based on renewable energy sources

Abstract— The data recorded during the last 30 years to the world's energy needs have increased substantially so the use of new energy sources to replace fossil resources is vital. New energy systems in the future should be based on fundamental structural changes in the carbon-free energy sources such as solar and wind and geothermal and the biomass energy are used as carbon neutral .so one of the problems with this type of energy is their reliability .

In this paper we introduce the problem of reliable renewable energy sources with different combinations of the same hybrid systems, greatly to lessen and reliability.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 15


The relationship between dust concentration and diseases and deaths caused by air pollution in Kermanshah

Abstract— one of the most devastating effects of Hurricane, dust phenomenon. Environmental damage caused by the occurrence of - environmental, onset or exacerbation of respiratory diseases, heart disease, air and ground traffic, tourism, agriculture, etc. dust storms have direct effects on humans too. For example, allergies and can transmit pathogens can disrupt communications we first study to evaluate the outcome of decades of Kermanshah dust and then assess the implications on human health.

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Soil methane emission from Afforested areas with Pinus eldarica and Robinia pseudoacacia in Cheetgar Park, Iran

Abstract—The increase in the concentration of the major greenhouse gases (GHG’s) in the atmosphere is considered one of the main factors causing the warming .Forest ecosystems are normally net sinks for atmospheric CH4, because rates of CH4 consumption exceed its production. Tree influences both the production and oxidation of CH4, and can play an important role in determining whether a particular forest is a net source or sink of CH4. Purpose of this study was to gain insight into the influence of plants species on the CH4 emission of soil. To achieve this, areas with Pinus eldarica and Robinia pseudoacacia plantation were selected in Chitgar forest Park. Soil sampling was done randomly. Some important soil properties such as pH,   CH4 soil emission, organic matter percentage, and  the amount of active carbon were measured. Gas samples were collected by a common methodology based on a static chamber technique for CH4. The results showed that species type significantly affects soil CH4 emission and CH4 emission was significantly higher for the soil with Pinus eldarica plantation. Considering the effects of Robinia on soil characteristics and methane emissions, it is supposed that this species can alter the soil into the reservoir of methane.

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Hydrogeochemical factors governing the origin and transport of Cr from ophiolitic complex to water resources in the Pangi area (Kadkan, NW Torbat Hydarieh, Iran)

Abstract—The hydrochemistry of the water resources in Pangi area (Kadkan, NW Torbat Hydarieh), has revealed high concentrations of Cr and heavy metals (Cd, Ni, As) exceeding maximum permissible limit. The result of measurement by GFAAS showed that the highest Cr concentrations were found in waters in the vicinity of chromite mines. The high levels of Mg2+, Na+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- and Cr in the stream sediments often exceed the thresholds of the WHO standards. The water samples of the study area display pH with a mean 8.5, TDS with a mean of 1259 mg/l and EC showed 1978 μs/cm. Hydrochemical facies using Piper trilinear plot delineated two water samples as Na-Cl facies with Ca-SO4, Mg-Cl, Na-HCO3 and Mg-HCO3 facies as minor types. Local ophiolitic rocks, especially serpentinites and ultramafic units, are Cr-rich and represent a Cr source for groundwaters. Hydrogeological investigations confirmed high total Cr contents in soils and waters related to ultramafic rocks from northern ophiolitic zone. Cr(III) concentrations in resulting soils and sediments are magnified by weathering reactions, as a consequence of selective alteration of silicate minerals relative to chromite. The high concentrations of Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+ and HCO3- well as high values of EC, pH and TDS in studied samples are related to weathering reactions of ferromagnesian rocks of ophiolitic complex. The abundance of Mn and Fe oxy-hydroxide (as electron acceptor) with Cr rich spinels in the study area, creates a chemical systems potentially able to increase the Cr(III) to Cr(VI) oxidation. Cr(III) is highly concentrated in areas where the dissolved oxygen content of less than 1 mg/l and pH is in the neutral range. The rate and amount of Cr(VI) in environment increases with increasing chromium concentrations and decreasing pH. As in the ophiolitic zone, pH is greater than neutral range (pH> 7.9) and DO>7.67 mg/l, Therefore, given the values of DO, Eh and alkaline pH of the water sample in the area, chromium in water resources area must contain significant amounts of Cr(VI) and is in the form of chromate (CrO42-). The hydrochemical data demonstrate that serpentinites and serpentine soils are main potential source of non-anthropogenic Cr(VI).The enrichment and variability of Cr in serpentinites and serpentine soils is directly related to the abundance and weathering of multicomponent spinel system. 

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Solutions for Tunneling Problems

Abstract— Tunneling through weak and jointed rock masses such as in the metro project of  Isfahan (Shemshak formation) is a challenging task for the planners, designers, engineers and the geologists because of high overburden, thickly vegetated surface, poor rocks and highly varying geology with the presence of numerous small and big shear zones, thrusts, faults, etc. Due to these reasons, tunneling problems such as squeezing ground condition, chimney formation, face collapse, water in rush, etc. have been faced in the past and are still being encountered. Failures and the problems may be regarded as challenges and opportunities for generating new knowledge base and thereby increasing self-reliance in tunneling. Accordingly, recent experience of (i) tunneling through the poor rocks experiencing the squeezing conditions, (ii) SRF rating in case of competent moderately jointed rock experiencing spalling and rock burst condition, (iii) tunnels under dynamic condition, (iv) the effect of rock type on bolt length and (v) the improvement in rock mass quality Q because of the grouting of full-column rock bolt grout are presented in the paper. The challenges of cost-effective grouting in water charged rocks and swelling ground and TBM tunneling in metro project of Isfahan (Shemshak formation) are also briefly highlighted.

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The interaction of different voltages and salinity on the performance of electrofishing Capoeta capoeta gracilis

Abstract- Voltage and electrofishing was to evaluate the effect of salinity on performance. 270 fish were taken from the river Chehelchay province. Temperature, distance from the anode , cathode and anode spacing experiment, respectively 10° c, 10 cm and the 120 cm .Average length and weight of experimental fish 11.733 ± 0.349 cm and 14.030 ± 1.756 gr, respectively. in 3 Voltage 135 Volts, 15 and 45  and 3 salinity 0.5 , 2 and 4 g per liter electric shocks were applied to the individual fish . During anesthesia and recovery were recorded for fish. ANOVA and Duncan test was used for statistical analysis. The comparison showed that the average duration of anesthesia obtained from the voltages and salinity are significantly different. Minimum and maximum voltage of 135 volts during anesthesia, respectively 0.5 gr/l salinity time 0.85 ± 0.51 s and 15 volts voltage returns 2gr/l salt 8.14 ± 0.88 s , respectively. Well as comparison of average recovery time the above voltages are also significant differences in salinity and anesthesia. Minimum and maximum time the reset voltage of 15 V, respectively 0.5 gr/l salinity time 52.32 ± 16.79 s  salinity 2 gr/l voltage of 15 V with a time 140.62 ± 16.79 s  was achieved.

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Effects of part-load condition on energy consumption and Solutions for its reduction in textile industry

Abstract—The aim of this research is to define the effects of part-load condition on energy consumption in textile industry. For this propose, after defining the main energy consuming devices and their area of application, descriptive analysis of the effects of part-load condition on them will be provided. According to energy saving opportunities, pump as a device with most energy consumption reduction potential is defined. Then for a practical study, some pumps of Alyaf plant were chosen and studied, which proved that a significant amount of energy reduction is possible by employing variable speed drives.It should be noticed that in this paper energy saving tips are presented justfor part-load condition in textile industry.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 14


A survey on effect of dust storms on agricultural products in Kermanshah 

Abstract— Dust atmospheric phenomenon that leaves negative environmental consequences. Dust storms have negative effects on the health, economy, society and environment have led to losses of human resources, public health departments, industry, transportation, military and agriculture is particularly. Iran is one of the focuses of the influence of dust and environmental damage and human suffering caused by this phenomenon every year in our country is stuck. Should pay special attention to the dust shall rise. Because this phenomenon in recent years in some provinces, in addition to community health and social impacts on agricultural production is also influenced. So that caused damage in about 7 to 17 million tons in 88 agricultural and horticultural production has been. 

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Applications of Nano- drug delivery in Defending Biological Threats and Increase of Biosecurity Factor

Abstract-To reduce probability of using and lowering injury rate caused by biological weapons, biodefense is introduced of which main function is prevention. For vaccination prevention and drug prevention, preventing expansion and prevalence of infectious defense and overcoming drug resistance can be regarded as basis of control and reduction of injury.  The use of new methods such as targeted drug delivery with nanosystems such as small size, high possibility of drug transmission, increase of drug bioavailability and reduction of side effects considerably increase function of these sections. 

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Analysis of the economic struggles in municipal waste management

(Aras trade and industrial free zone)

Abstract— Keeping Natural environment and all God gifts for human being which exists in vast amount on the earth is one of the fundamental principles for saving human and all creature life on earth. One important part of this duty is controlling the solid wastes which have important role in the new era of sciences based on economic health. This article will attempt to explain the economic problems and investment cycles and their returns in the urban waste investment plans. Based on the surveys have been done so far, generally the holding of the wastes are done in  non- standard  and insanitary  methods and  include variety ways which have made big problems in the urban regions. On the other hand by proper management of vermicompost plan this problem can be transformed to an economic opportunity. Based on the surveys in the Aras free zone,  the implementation of waste plans will return the investment in the first year and will bring huge profits  for the investors in the next years.

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The relationship between dust storms and meteorological parameters in Kermanshah

Abstract— Problems of dust particles smaller than ten microns, one of the most important issues related to air pollution in many parts of the world is infected. Most dust entering the atmosphere comes from arid and semiarid regions. Due to the geographical location of the city of Kermanshah aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between temporal variation of pollutant concentration of dust and meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and wind speed in a period (1386 - 1392) is in Kermanshah. Daily samples of stations measuring air pollutants associated with environmental organizations were gathered in the city of Kermanshah. And examples of synoptic meteorological stations located in the city of Kermanshah have collected and samples were analyzed using SPSS software.

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Clean development mechanism and the challenges ahead

Abstract— Keeping Natural environment and all God gifts for human being which exists in vast amount on the earth is one of the fundamental principles for saving human and all creature life on earth. One important part of this duty is controlling the solid wastes which have important role in the new era of sciences based on economic health. This article will attempt to   illustrate the importance of the problem, recognition and classification of the waste, collection, transportation and excretion of them. Based on the surveys have been done so far, generally the holding of the wastes are done in  non- standard  and insanitary  methods and  include many variety ways which have made big problems in the urban regions. Based on the surveys in a particular region in Aras free region, there are a few households which put their wastes in plastic bags and then put them in special dust bins. The rest of them put their wastes in inappropriate plastic bags with various colours or keep directly them in unsanitary containers such as tins, cartons, empty buckets and inappropriate bins and so on.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 13


Reducing Energy Waste Using New Materials and Modern Building Techniques in Buildings

Abstract: According to statistics issued in Iran, more than one third (1/3) of energy consumption is associated to buildings section. Among these, heating and cooling are the most important energy consumption factors in a way that about 70% of natural gas is consumed for heating in buildings. One of the most important factors that leads to thermal energy waste in buildings are walls. In fact, a considerable portion of building elements that works as a separator between inside and outside of the building is the wall that in the case of proper use of good materials like 3D panels you can improve their heat resistance to a considerable degree and hence prevent from energy waste[3].

In this paper, the impact of using new materials on energy consumption is to be known and we see that after that the whole building’s energy consumption is reduced. This has a considerable effect on fuel consumption and can compensate the building’s financial burden in a short period of time. Not only it is economically justifiable, but also it is beneficial.

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Identity In Architecture

Abstract: Architecture has a ling background in underground and there was many excellent patterns at last times that the major areas of architecture is made in ground.

The oldest patterns are the caves which were the first human shelter and they would change to life situation with fresco and a little transformation. Several traces are remained in Iran,Egypt and India which are dug in the cliff and ground.

Development and protection of the same and equal human relation with environment,conserving history ,culture,the lack of identity and similarity are the characteristics of this architecture.

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The relationship between dust concentration and the number of injuries and deaths caused by accidents in Kermanshah

Abstract— An atmospheric phenomenon in arid and semi-arid areas or areas adjacent to these kinds of phenomena is dust and to dust storms. This largely influences the climate of these areas. That is resulting darkening the atmosphere, reducing horizontal and vertical viewing many effects on other environmental, social, economic and health. This climate cannot be considered a new phenomenon but in recent years for various reasons, the frequency of occurrence and intensity change. Issues and problems that have made it to the West and South. One of the most important environmental crises in the arid and semi-arid desert damaging generation and wind erosion. The dust storms and are considered to be the consequence of moving dust. In recent years Dust storms in the Middle East, particularly in Saudi Arabia Sahara and Iraq too much for the country to have adverse effects. Its scope extends to the major cities. Losses to the extent of this phenomenon are not limited to threats, agricultural and industrial areas, disrupt the normal lives of citizens but clearly become a serious threat to environment - the environment. This study examined the relationship between cognitive phenomena and dust concentration in the air and the number of injuries and deaths caused by accidents in Kermanshah deals.

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Study of the Role of Atmospheric Synoptic Patterns on Air Pollution in Tehran(Case Study of Air Pollution in Tehran on (2-6 December 2012)

Abstract—The study of synoptic systems helps in recognizing the mechanism through which weather phenomena occur and can be predicted. The present research studies the relationship between synoptic patterns and the number of days of severe air pollution in Tehran that led to a two-day closing of the capital city. For this purpose, the original data on air quality in Tehran from 2nd to 6th of December 2012 at 12 stations measuring air pollution in Tehran were obtained from The Air Quality Control Company and then using the re-analysis data from NCEP / NCAR, Omega and pressure level maps (500 to 1000 hp) were drawn in Grads and synoptic patterns were analyzed during the mentioned days. The results showed that the spatial distribution of emissions, the highest and lowest pollutant in North West, South West and South East stations were PM10 and CO respectively. In the central and north east parts, the highest and lowest shares belong to Nox and CO. Study the relationship between concentration of pollutants and synoptic patterns demonstrated the reasons of atmospheric stability conditions that led to severe increase in pollutants were descending dynamical high-pressure conditions of Siberia from North-East of Iran, negative omega, the location of occluded-low blocking system and anti-cyclone conditions over the area under study.

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A survey on changes daily, monthly, seasonal and annual dust concentration in Kermanshah

Abstract— Problems of dust particles smaller than ten microns, one of the most important issues related to air pollution in many parts of the world is infected. Most dust entering the atmosphere comes from arid and semiarid regions. Due to the geographical location of the city of Kermanshah aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and temporal variations of pollutant concentrations of dust in a time period (2005-2011) is in Kermanshah. Daily samples of stations measuring air contaminants associated with environmental organizations gathered in the city of Kermanshah. And the samples were analyzed using SPSS software.

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Biological Agents, Detection and Control Strategies Based On New Technologies with Emphasis on Nanotechnology

Abstract-Biological Weapons are difficult to detect and control and it is less possible to produce microorganisms with high pathogenic power which are resistant to antibiotics and potential for changing their detection in standard manner. For this reason, application of new technologies for detection and control seems necessary.    Detection depends on two factors of speed and power of detection and control depends on maximum protection and prevention of expansion. 

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 12


The investigation of the role of complementary industries of agriculture division on reducing environmental pollution

Abstract : Industries that processes agricultural and livestock products into materials and semi-manufactured or ready to use goods called processing industries. processing- complementary industries are among one of important branches of agriculture field. Since most agricultural products have different production time and consumption and a significant amount of these products are lost the role of processing industry is unmatched role in promoting country agriculture, in one hand the role of these industry in reducing environmental pollution, directly or indirectly is remarkable.

In this paper were view existing internal and external sourcesthe role of this industry in reducing environmental pollution were studied and in the end it was concluded that the industries with different stages of agricultural waste reduction, Reducingrural migration to urbanas well as the improvement of the rural economy, thereby reducing pressure on the environmentandnatural areas.

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Synthesis of carbon coatings on anodized aluminum alloys, and it's application as BTX pollutants adsorbent

Abstract— Industrial, agricultural and urban wastewater and sewage containing toxic organic substances are the major pollutants of surface water and groundwater. In recent years the use of adsorbents as an efficient method has got a great attention due to capability of this method in removal of the mentioned pollutants. In this work, the 7075 and 5083 aluminum alloys samples with the desired size and dimension were anodized in the oxalic acid electrolyte after heat treatment using a two-step anodizing. The above technique is applied because of more uniform honeycomb structure of oxide layer produced by this method. Then, phenolic resins and polyvinyl alcohol as carbon precursor were coated on anodized aluminum by simply immersion in the above polymer solutions. Finally, the carbonization process was carried out in a vacuum furnace for application of these samples as adsorbent. In this study, aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylene was evaluated as an indicator of organic pollutants. Results showed that the benzene, toluene and xylene content of aqueous solution have been reduced in all tested samples.

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Conservation agriculture innovation strategy to achieve sustainability in agricultural mechanization

Abstract— Due to the rural share of 31% of the total population of the country. The total acreage of agricultural products and 75% are in rural areas, undoubtedly the country's rural development through agricultural development; especially sustainable agriculture exposure is affecting the economy of the country. Currently, about 16.2 million hectares of crops in cultivation is the 17% figure is dedicated to the export of horticultural products. Sustainable development of rural areas to develop soil and crop conservation issues and other development and healthy organic crops noted. Therefore, this study is based on the challenges and strategies for the development of agricultural systems at the plant are investigated. The results showed that the development of organic crops mainly in greenhouse crops And a small quantity of garden products. So that almost 114,000 hectares and 126,000 hectares, the share of agriculture to organic methods of conservation and greenhouse horticultural sector has been. The results show that the cultivation of crops during 8 years of protection is a high growth so that in 2011 reached 300,000 hectares. Lack of familiarity with new methods of tillage and crop farmers and failure to develop and promote the benefits of organic products among consumers of barriers to the rapid growth and development of organic agriculture is healthy. So far, 154 countries in the list of producers of these products has been unfortunately, the name of the country due to the lack of discussion of standardization and lack of standardization and lack of standards has not been listed yet. selection and applying appropriate promotion and identification of machines and implements standards for organic production and adopting appropriate policies government can play an important role in the sustainable development of agriculture in Iran.

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The Calculation and Study of the Radon Decay Chain in the Environment

Abstract— The main part of human exposure to radiation comes from the environmental radiation of Radon. It is estimated that half of the effective dose humans receive comes from radon and radon daughters with a short half-life. Radon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and neutral gas which is 100 times deadlier than CO poisoning and is the second major cause of lung cancer after smoking. This study tries to calculate and examine the radon isotope decay chain which is hazardous in the nature. The results show that only five of the several isotopes produced in the radon-222 (222Rn) decay chain and whose decay in enclosed places reaches equilibrium over time are important. Studying those isotopes in dosimetry calculations is considered to be important while the other isotopes do not threaten our health.

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Drought Monitoring and Zoning in western Azerbaijan province using standardized Index SPI

Abstract—  Drought  is  a  normal  and  continuous  manner of  limited and  there  is the  probability  of  its occurrence  in all regions  with  totally different  climates .

In  this  research , for Zoning  the drought  intensity in western  Azerbaijan  province  in 20 years interval  in  order to analysis and  separate droughts , the  standard  precipitation index in different  chronological  intervals  has  been  studied . the  obtained  results  show  that  drought  has been  raised from west to  the  east  and  in chronological  intervals of  3 and  6  months , two  western  regions  and in intervals of  12 , 24 , and 48  months  , some  parts of  eastern  regions  of  province  have  been  suffered  from  severe drought . 

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One-dimensional Modeling of Geothermal Reservoir of Sabalan Zone using Magnetotelluric Method 

Abstract— Main subject of this research is one-dimensional reverse modeling of Magnetotelluric data for estimating changes of electrical resistivity and achieving a general view for modeling geothermal reservoir of Sabalan Zone in higher dimensions. The studied zone is located in Moeil Valley of Sabalan Mountain in northwest of Iran. One-dimensional modeling of data was done on data of a station (station No. 27) using Occam's approach. Modeling results show electrical resistivity distribution pattern to be high –low-high from the ground surface to approximate depth of 5 km.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 11


Noise Pollution: Status in the Iranian Law

Abstract—Noise pollution has long been a concern for mankind. This study aims at analyzing and evaluating the noise pollution in the law and legal texts of Iran. Given the growing importance of noise pollution and its resulting problems in daily life, considering it is essential.  Due to the legal deficiencies in this field in Iran, the best solution is to the aggregate rules relating to noise pollution and to revise regulations on prevention of noise pollution and to fill gaps in the regulations.  However, monitoring the implementation of these rules, having effective sanctions along with information and public awareness can lead to improved situation regarding noise pollution, especially in big cities. In this study, library method based on taking notes from written and Internet sources has been used. 

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MHD for Direct Renewable Power Generation

Abstract—Efficiencies of the all modern thermal power plant technologies lie between 35% and 40% since they need to reject large amount of thermal energy to the ambient. Among the renewable power generation systems, owing to its high power production, high efficiency (about 60 percent) and proper response to the problem of thermal pollution and air pollution, utilizing the technology of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has gained particular attention.The beneficial environmental aspects of MHD are probably of equal or even greater significance when compared to conventional power stations.The process of MHD has not only the capacity of producing the power but also it is applicable to aeronautical thrust systems. MHD promises a dramatic improvement in the cost of generating electricity from oil and gas and is beneficial to the growth of the national economy. Paper presented here, reviewed the fundamentals of power generation through this technology and the pertained equations.

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Reduce and optimize the energy consumption of residential buildings in Lorestan and return on investment

Abstract— In this study, a simple method has to offer for calculating the optimum thickness of a brand name for polystyrene thermal insulation used in residential buildings walls of Lorestan province. However, this research taken on residential buildings in city of Khorramabad. This study examined the walls of a polystyrene insulation with different thicknesses and cement coating with thickness is 2 cm on each side. The results this study show that is estimated the optimum thickness of insulation polystyrene 3 cm and returned to towns in this province insulation cost at 2 years.

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Simulation and comparison of Kite production powers in various wind speeds

Abstract— Concerns about running out of fossil fuels in recent decades rise interests in renewable energy resources. Wind power is one of the renewable energies which is believed to be very fruitful in producing electricity. Nowadays, there are many plans for generating systems with the ability of transforming wind energy to electricity. It seems that most of the systems planned for producing electricity are very complicated and large in size. In this work, we will simulate Kite power system in small scale used in various altitudes and average wind speeds, for creating tension forces and eventually electricity. Regarding Kite dimensions, we found PMSM motor as an appropriate choice to be used because of its suitable output. Fluent software is used for calculating the tension forces. We also used MATLAB software for computing the moment caused by tension force in Winch. We also calculated the output caused by Winch couple and Generator spindles. The results for various speeds are compared.

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Oil Pollution of the Sea from the Perspective of International Law

Abstract— Oil pollution is one of the types of environmental pollution which (that) can be have a huge impact on the lives of humans and other species on earth. Many factors are affect oil contamination, which is often applied to human or human-caused pollution is made up of equipment. Each year, oil pollution are causes enormous costs for oil companies and oil-producing states. This pollution is dangerous in many ways to humans and the human environment and the risks are more pronounced when the oil pollution is be created in the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf as closed or semi-closed seas To prevent contamination and prevent the spread of many national and international that these efforts have helped to reduce oil pollution at the international level , but until complete resolution of the contamination(infection )and the establishment of national and regional agreements to prevent oil spills at sea a long way left.

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The effect of inoculation of Glomus mosseae on sunflower growth and Pb uptake in a Pb-contaminated soil

Abstract— With the increase of environment pollution by heavy metals in the past decades and its effects on the food chain, phytoremediation can be a way to reduce pollution of metals from the environment. This study aiming to evaluate the ability of sunflower inoculated with Glomus mosseae for grow and uptake of lead (Pb) in a soil contaminated with zero, 600, 1200 and 1800 mg kg-1 Pb. This study was carried out in a greenhouse cultivation. Increasing lead contamination decreased root and shoot biomasses of sunflower significantly. In contrast, inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae, increased plant growth in soil contaminated with lead. Percentage of root colonization by Glomus mosseae was rose by increasing the level of Pb to 1200 mg kg-1 and was reduced at 1800 mg kg-1 Pb. Lead concentration in mycorrhizal sunflower varied in the shoot biomass from 26.67 to 166.67 mg kg-1 and in the root biomass from 45.14 to 435.43 mg kg-1 Pb (for zero to 1800 mg kg-1 Pb respectively). Dry weight was varied and increased significantly above the permissible limit (30 mg kg-1 Pb), by increasing the lead level. Translocation and enrichment factors were less than 1 and sunflower stored more Pb in its root rather than its shoot.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 10


Environmental Hazards Threatening the Persian Gulf

Abstract—The Persian Gulf is one of the most important waterways in the world. In addition to geopolitical and economic position, the Persian Gulf has one of the best ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, this ecosystem is threatened by various hazards. Hazards threatening the Persian Gulf ecosystem are divided into natural and environmental hazards. The aim of the present study is to identify hazards and to determine the contribution of natural and environmental hazards threatening the Persian Gulf. Continuing the current approach, one of the most unique and diverse ecosystems in the world will be destroyed. Given evident global interests in this region, coastal states must help to form a convention or regional and perhaps international agreement through meetings and cooperation using active diplomacy.

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Energy optimization in a typical building in Khorramabad

Abstract—In the present study, the typical has been paid residential building in Tehran. Results show that changes in temperature regulation inside 5.40% and 10.25 % of heating and cooling load decreases. Double glazed windows leading to the cooling load decrease 7.79% and 2.69% of the heating load. Results show that by placing a shade over the windows of energy consumption is about 1.33 % reduces the cooling load. Finally, apply all changes to a decline of about 20.00% of the cooling load and 8.59% of the heating load.

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An Investigation into the Effects of Using Renewable Energy Resources on Environmental Protection

Abstract—As a result of industrial developments, the environment is constantly being exposed to innumerable risks. Since the start of the second half of the twentieth century, extensive changes have been observed in many areas. One such area was the environment towards which a different approach had to be taken. As a result of various conventions put forth regarding the environment, and due to the close ties that linked it to international law and human rights, increased attention was focused on the environment. As a result, protection and restoration of the environment became one of the most important goals and a top priority in many countries. In line with such environmental policies, implementation of renewable energy resources has been proposed as a crucial solution for environmental problems. In fact, using renewable energies not only protects the environment, but also leads to human development in other fields as well.

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Optimize and reduce energy consumption in residential buildings in Khorramabad from view of saving and economy

Abstract—In this paper, the economic dimension and reduce heat loss has been at the wall insulation in residential buildings Khorramabad. In this study the thermal insulation is selected type of rock wool with thick 1 and 2 inches. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of external walls of buildings in the rate of energy dissipation are considered in 6 types of different wall. The results show that the rate of energy dissipation at walls is due to the type and thickness of insulating walls between 57.67 to 79.80 toward the wall without insulation reduced. Also, the solid brick walls has the highest and clay blocks has the in energy rates are lowest. At the end of the review and justify the economic viability has been use of the insulation in Khorramabad and Investment return period is determined building insulation by Depending on the wall.

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National Security governance using civil defensive approaches

Abstract: - This paper examines how security governance is applied as both an analytical framework and an empirical model in civil defense. Civil defense, which was originally set up for war defense, is now transforming into an integrated emergency management unit, embracing wartime air defense and peacetime disaster protection. How civil defense transitioned along this process is a reflection of the security governance paradigm. Nevertheless, the inefficiency of inter-organizational cooperation among civil defense units implies that the integration of various forms of organizations needs further improvement.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 9


The feasibility of bio-energy production from agricultural waste

Abstract— Biofuels are additive or substitute for fossil fuels; particularly fuels derived from crude oil that plentiful resource can be used for domestic cellulosic biomass. Biomass is a renewable source for energy production and applied with a geographical range that uses agricultural products collected from the farms and natural agent conifer damping off, forest, agricultural and food waste, municipal solid waste, sewage and aquatic plants to produce bioenergy. In this paper, the feasibility of biofuel production, bioethanol, biogas (methane) production process, the conversion of biomass to electricity and heat, bio-hydrogen production and gas production from municipal landfill sites has been studied. The results of this study show that the utilization of agricultural and municipal waste from the perspective of environmental, economic and investment opportunities and researches are necessary and important.

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How to introduce ourselves as they don’t introduce us

Research examines the concepts of stable development,stable and native architecture and presentation an unfamiliar and different pattern,but very important in native architecture called Spi Mazget in Gillan. Also,the abilities and needs of this old building for achieving rural and urban native stable development will be subjected under discussion.

The abilities of this building will consider to develop and keep on armonious and rhythmical humans relation with environment, conserve of history , culture , lack of unidentified and  make cities similar , aimful utilization of native people,growth and progress of inhabitants livelihood quality. At the end ,with summary and conclusion can specify the place of this native architecture in rural and urban stable development and the importance of reviving building and its surrounded for getting to all aspects of development.( How to introduce ourselves as they don’t introduce us).

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Investigating the Ways of Crisis Management

Abstract—this study mainly aims to determine the ways of dealing with crisis. Dealing with disasters includes preventing and planning for dealing with them; prevention is costly while taking long time to deal with crises; but in long-term it can be economic than planning for readiness to deal with. . In this paper by a descriptive method, and using documentations and reviewing the findings of other studies and papers, we will investigate and determine the ways of crisis management.

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Influence of Climate Change on North Wall and Roof Insulation

Abstract— The ever growing attention to the energy and the effort to reduce using non-renewable energies in structures, has made simulating softwares of energy consumption inevitable. Using simulation software, the amount of energy consumption can be estimated. The simulation software cannot calculate the optimum case in building and the user must compare several methods and types to reach optimum case in a building. In this study, Building Energy Optimizer software to assist on the north side of the external walls and roofs of a building with insulation in 7 different cities of Iran (Ardabil, Tabriz, Tehran, Bandar Abbas, Isfahan, Yazd and Shiraz) simulation and optimization has been done. The results of the energy consumption changes and place of insulation in external walls and roofs by Climate Change (City) will be examined. Poly Roll insulation with 75 mm thickness in north side of external walls and roofs is achieved minimum energy consumption; Place insulation on the interior walls are generally stressed, and The optimal location for placement of the insulation and Optimizing Percent, where climate change is altered.

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Surveying the temporal variations of water temperature of gasseous wells in region of Hamehkasi-Famenin in order to obtain geothermal energy

Abstract— Requiring more energy and limitations of the use of fossil fuels has caused human to goes on renewable energies such as geothermal energy. In recent years, the water of some of the agricultural wells in the region of Hamehkasi- a county of town of Famenin in state of Hamedan- has become corrosive, salty and gaseous. So it is assumed that this gas is evidence of the existence of a geothermal resource in the region. Therefore, To this end, Gasseous wells were identified and their temperature was measured monthly during the three years. Then, data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated observations method. The results showed that temperature changes in most wells with a confidence level of 90% over the past three years are significant and illustrate an upward trend. These results confirm the possibility of existence of an internal geothermal resource. 

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 8


Investigation distribution of heavy metal contamination (As) in sediments and (Cd) in water of the Dohezar River (Iran) by using GIS

Abstract— The concentration of elements As, Cd in sediment and water samples were analyzed to determine the level of river pollution Dohezar River. Ranges of metal concentrations of As in sediment samples as follows : AS :4.10-66 .70 (PPM) and metal concentration of Cd in water samples is Cd: 0.006-0.312 (mg / l). These two elements are similarly distributed at the regional level and is uniform in all stations show a significant increasing trend. To evaluate sediment pollution index enrichment (EF) and to assess the pollution of the water pollution index (PI) is used  , the chemical analysis of these two metals represent relationship  are very high concentration in water and sediment areas with natural resources such as sediments and rocks bed of the volcanic region.

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Study of color polymorphism in the marsh frog Rana ridibunda in Amir Kelayeh  international wetland , Guilan

Abstract—Amirkelayeh wetland has area of approximately 1230 hectare. is located South of the Caspian Sea, the Northeast Gilan, between the towns Lahijan (36 km), Langroud (19 km) and Kiashahr (24 km) and with geographical coordinates Eastern 12 ' 50 ˚ and 17 ' 37 ˚ Northern.  One of the most interesting phenomenons among some animals is color polymorphism between different populations of the same species' This variation in color is likely due to the adaptation of animals with the environment in order to escape from the predator or nearing to their prey Or other factors. Here, we investigated this phenomenon in Rana ridibunda which is found throughout the Iran. This work was carried out at eight months of 2012. During the present study 95 Specimens of  marsh frog were Collected from 6 different stations. In addition, 6 different forms of  Rana ridibundas were identified, that form 4 had the highest frequency. Then data for each species were analyzed by spss9 software.  (Full Text PDF)


Examines the use of Geothermal energy in Iran

Abstract— This study was conducted to investigate the use of geothermal energy in Iran. Human life depends on energy. Most of this energy is supplied by fossil fuels. Human consumption of these fuels in the not too distant future was going to face many crises: 1- environmental pollution 2- climate change 3 - Ends of the resources.According to the fossil fuel crisis, renewable energy must be used because They are clean and permanent development.. Iran is a country due to tectonic setting has very high potential in the field of geothermal energy. Therefore, with proper planning and investment principles in this field, we can bring to our country sustainable .

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Feasibility Study of the Use of Brick and Ceramic wastes in Making High Strength Concrete to Reduce Environmental Consequences

Abstract— The building industry is a major consumer of natural resources and producer of wastes. Re-use of construction wastes not only can help preserve natural resources, but also can reduce environmental pollution as well. This research studied the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete containing brick and ceramic wastes as a partial replacement for cement. Results of analyses indicate that application of these wastes to concrete contributes to the protection of the environment and elimination of blind discharge of such wastes into the environment and increase strength parameters of concrete.

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Investigation on the application of different satellites in snow measuring studies and the recommendation of appropriate one

Abstract—Runoff from snowmelt is one of the most important resources of fresh water and required water for agriculture and in most places of the world is the only resource of fresh water. Thus, determination of these resources and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) evaluation play a significant role in water resources management. As a considerable deal of snow is located in mountainous and inaccessible places, study and monitoring of snow through traditional methods and land measurement methods are almost impossible. Thus, satellite-based data are used to gain accurate data of Snow Covered Area (SCA). And, the combinations of Remote Sensing and Snowmelt models result in SWE. In this study, different satellites which are used to determine SCA and application of satellite-based data in snow measuring are studied. Finally, MODIS satellite is recommended as an appropriate satellite for snow measuring studies.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 7


Comparison different peak flow frequency distribution functions

 (Case Study: Babolrood River)

Abstract—Flood and drought are two natural phenomena that originate from climatic variations. In Iran these events are considered more than other natural events because of large effects of them in different sectors. Calculating return period of peak flow and daily flow is important in estimating inflow discharge to the water structures such as dams, canals, and designing and managing watersheds. In this study peak flow data of Babolrood River located in the Babol city of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran has been used to estimate peak flow frequency. The best distribution function selected among 65 different functions and used to estimate the return period of peak flow data.  In this study log-Pearson (3) distribution function and different experimental methods used to calculate return period of applied sere. Then using chi-square test, two methods of moments and advanced moments (SAM) were compared. Results showed that SAM method with the correlation coefficient equal to 0.975 was the best method to estimate the return period of peak flow.

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The Effect of Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients on the Vacuum Drying of Porous Body, A Numerical Study 

Abstract— In the present study the phenomenon of drying a wet substance under vacuum has been investigated numerically. At first, the environment air pressure of the sample was reduced linearly in 1 min and then became constant. In this study the effect of heat and mass transfer coefficients on the temperature and moisture rate has been considered and the temperature and moisture rate distributions in the square-shaped substance due to the reduction of vacuum chamber pressure are predicted by numerical method. It is shown that for a high heat transfer coefficient, the center temperature of the apple gets to the balanced temperature rapidly, because much more heat is transferred from the fluid to the surface, while in similar conditions, no significant change in the moisture rate is observed. While changing the mass transfer coefficient has no effect on the temperature distribution, but the sample moisture rate is changed under the same conditions.

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Eco Tourism Capabilities In Bojnourd City

Abstract—Tourism is one of the important and effective elements of communication between humans. so we cant be neglectful about the development and evolution factors in tourism such as continent and tourism capacities. because these categories are the basic creator of communication between regions of a country .urban tourism centers are one of the functions that its distribution and transmittal is very important. With respect to in proper distribution of tourism functions and its shortage in Bojnourd city it is tried to codify a comprehensive data bank of tourism functions location in Bojnourd and at last we offer a optimal pattern for distribution of tourism space in Bojnourd city.

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Birjand city air quality assessment based on AQI ; 2012-2013

Abstract— The main objective of the present study was to monitor the degree of air pollution in Birjand city; 2012-2013 based on the air quality index. The results of air quality index suggested that the health quality of air in Birjand in the assessed 356 days from 366 days in 2012-2013 was in clean’ or acceptable’ level, but in 10 days it exceeded the standard level where sequentially PM10 and CO had the highest share as critical pollutants polluting Birjand City in the non-standard conditions.

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The erosion of bed and bank of rivers as a result of river material removal

Case study: Mahabad-Jandaran River

Abstract: The destructive effects of alluvium material removal from rivers and agriculture lands in some of cities of country such as Mahabad - City especially in the river leading to Yoosofkand Dam have reached to its zenith and have been caused to detect many problems such as the pollution of flowing waters, changing river regime and changing river morphology and also increasing the risk of flooding. In this study, the effects of river material removal have been evaluated over the erosion of bed and bank river of Jandaran. Erosive effects of removals were detected over river- bed and bank in the field-visited through the path of waterway. According to the results, high changes have been created in river morphology by irregular removals.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 6


The easiest way to reduce network losses tension

Abstract— Our aim in this paper an overview of the types of power losses and energy losses and the method of calculating the factors affecting it. As part of the electrical energy produced by the plant in production between consumption and a significant amount of energy is wasted in power plants is spent on domestic spending. The most affordable and easiest ways to reduce losses, reconfiguration and modification of fixed connections in the network voltage. Since the amount of losses in large scope changes, resulting in a maximum loss occurs mainly during peak hours is far more than the average amount of energy losses.

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Evaluation of the heavy metal contaminations in water resources in ophiolitic complex of Pangi area, (Kadkan, NW Torbat Hydarieh, Iran)

Abstract—The extent of transfer, distribution, controlling geochemical factors and enrichment of heavy metals in Pangi area (NW Torbat Hydarieh, Iran) were investigated. Ten heavy metals and metalloids such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using AAS and GFAAS. The mean metal pollution index (MPI) and heavy pollution index (HPI), in the Pangi and Targhi area were found to be above the critical pollution index values. Index of metal and heavy metal pollution index showed that 5 samples of water samples, not potable. The results indicate that multiple sources of pollution in the water resources of the region. The two main sources, one associated with the dominant lithology of ophiolite sequence in the region (extensive serpentinites as well as sulfide ores in dikes) and another, mining activities in the region. High values of Fe, As, Cu, Mn and Cr elements associated with lithologic units but high levels of Ni and Cr are associated with mining activities. High levels of Cd associated with fertilizers used in agriculture but high Pb must be obtained from the vehicle exhaust emissions (due to heavy road traffic). The enrichment factor (Ef) of heavy metals was in order of Mn > Fe > Pb >Ni > As > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd in the study area.

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Simulation of a high gain coupled inductor boost converter for standalone photovoltaic systems

Abstract—This paper presents the results of a design ,mathematical modeling and simulation of 300 w high gain DC-DC boost converter with coupled inductor   boosting a 24 v battery bank to 311 v DC aiming to supply residential loads with DC voltage in a standalone PV system. The converter can supply most of residential ac loads that input stage is a single-phase rectifier. The simulation tests with 300w converter that supplies electronic lamps, mobile charger and AC audio/video system shows the viability of proposed idea.

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Water Balance Simulation іn Reservoirs uѕіng bу Partial Recurrent Neural Networks

Abstract— Thіѕ research deals оn partial recurrent neural networks аnd thеіr application tо thе non-linear autoregressive simulating оf dynamical systems. Thіѕ special case оf neural network саn bе visualised аѕ а data-driven model іn state space, whеrе а standard neural network model іѕ applied fоr thе description оf thе non-linear transfer function. Eасh solution wіll thuѕ possess аѕ іѕ generic form оf time propagation mechanism thаt appears іn conceptual dynamical models аnd linear black box models оf type ARMAX. In thіѕ report, thе theoretical background tо partial recurrent neural networks іѕ provided, tоgеthеr wіth аn application thаt simulation water balance іn reservoir оf Zayandeh-rud dam іn Isfahan province іn Iran country thе practical relevance оf thеѕе tools fоr modelling dynamic hydrological systems. 

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The Use of Wind Energy in the Agriculture Sector with Passive Defense Approach

Abstract—Reliable and timely providing of energy consumption in agriculture is very important in passive defense. Given that the agricultural sector in Iran is one of the major energy consumers nowadays, this article will try to investigate exploit the benefits of wind energy in agriculture. For using wind energy, a wind farm should be built and operated first. Localization of wind turbines technology is required for the development of wind power plants. Lack of environmental pollution, being free and lower costs in the long-term, are the main advantages of the use of wind energy.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 5


Vaccine Antigen Production Against Bioweapons In Recombinant Chloroplasts

Abstract— Bacillus anthracis is ideal for making biological weapons, but the licensed anthrax vaccine is unsuitable for widespread public administration. Recombinant subunit- vaccine candidates offer potential alternatives, and plant-based production systems facilitate the inexpensive bulking of target antigens. A recent report demonstrates expression of anthrax protective antigen in tobacco chloroplasts. this material is immunogenic and protective when injected into mice. Provided an economic purification scheme can be developed, this technology holds promise for an improved vaccine.

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Evaluate the environmental benefits of increasing water recovery from effluent in Songun copper processing plant

Abstract—During concentrating process in Songun copper processing plant, tail with 50% solid produce and transport to tailing dam. The high volume of waste water containing chemicals discharge to the environment and leads to numerous environmental problems. In this study it has been tried to reduce environmental complications of discharged effluent into dam, through improvement of sedimentation process in tail thickener and increasing water recovery. For this purpose was studied effective parameters on sedimentation include pulp solid percent, pH, type, concentration and rate of flocculent, were analyzed through 27 experiments using Taguchi experimental design method and optimum conditions for increasing underflow solid percent to the amount of 5% have been determined, that is equal to increasing reclaim water to the amount of 61 m3/h.

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Presents a New Computational Approach to Management of Technology Transfer

Abstract— In  the  article  with  an  intelligent  approach  to  be  cheeked  management  , planning  and  technology  transferring  of  activated  organization  in  urban  areas. Investigation conducted  revealed  that  computational  intelligence  as  a  branch  of  artificial  intelligence  can  have  an  important  role  in field  of  technology  transferring  as  a  good  method.

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FMEA usage in the environmental safety analysis of the generators combustion chamber in combined cycle powers

Abstract— This study has carried out to prevent potential accidents occurrence and existing safety level enhancement in during the visit from generators combustion chamber using FMEA technique. FMEA is a method to systematically identify risks that an individual (operator), a product or a process can confront it and deals with Results and effects caused. In the present study, first, the individual (operator) has been considered as the object of study from safety aspect and then, based on eyewitnesses, events statistics occurred and interview with safety authorities, he (she) has categorized accidents and investigated Risk Priority Number (RPN) relationship for each of the events and next, results obtained have been analyzed and evaluated. The significant events Identified and reviewed by using FMEA method, 6 cases have been among which have dedicated to themselves, objects downfall and stumbling, the highest and the lowest RPN, respectively. The study results show although the power plants industry appears a safe industry, apparently and in a superficial glance, there are the countless risks in workplace of such industries that can cause occurrence of incidents sometime irrecoverable. Based on the findings of this research, the following corrective actions to reduce safety incidents were proposed.

1 - Preparation and implementation of comprehensive guidelines for regular inspection

2 - Holding workshop and safety training classes for personnel with regard to working conditions

3 - Justification and classification of the special individuals for various working conditions

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 4


Benthos and their role on quality control of industrial and agricultural effluents

Abstract:Keeping Natural environment and all God gifts for human being which exists in vast amount on the earth is one of the fundamental principles for saving human and all creature life on earth.  Due to the environmental laws and principles, Control of the agricultural and industrial effluents is an important part of this duty which plays an important role at the current time. Nowadays There are new methods which are considered in the control of the agricultural and industrial pollutions. Pollution monitoring based on biological indicators is of the most practical methods of determining the quality of water. Based on the surveys conducted on the research area generally most of the pollutions are type of agricultural and industrial effluents. In this case study, it is attempted to determine the quality of the local water based on the dispersion of the Benthos living in the Aras River.

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Numerical Study of Bilateral Badgir Performance at Day and Night

Abstract—The Iranian people always invented clever solutions to combat against hardships of the nature, after thousand years of invention they are effective yet, even we utilize them nowadays. Badgirs are old inventions seen elsewhere in the desert cities. Arrogantly, the badgirs just utilize environmental conditions and atmospheric properties of the region rather than any additional energy to fresh the ambient , they are different from present air conditions that consume huge amount of energy to provide fresh and clean air for our buildings. Typically they are designed to work based on temperature difference at day and night. The paper is to review airflow of bilateral badgirs at day and night. Fluent software is applied to view pattern of air flow, x and y are velocity counters at CFD directions.

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Mapping Annual and Monthly Mean Air Temperature of Iran Using Geostatistical Techniques

Abstract—Geographical distribution of temperature patterns due to its extensive use in agriculture, water resources, tourism, industry, dams and irrigation utilization is important. Determining hydrological homogeneous regions is one of the primary needs of decision-making and planning of water resources. In this study, average temperature of 27 synoptic stations of Iran from 1951 until 2010, has been used for mapping air temperature of Iran by comparing and selecting best geostatistical methods among Kriging and inverse distance weighted methods. According to the results, weighted inverse distance method with correlation coefficient equal to 0.734 between the actual and the model data, was selected and used to interpolating and drawing monthly and yearly air temperature maps of Iran. 

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How to use the capacities of waste management، electronic waste to reduce damage، based on the web-II technology

Abstract— According to the legal capacity of the Waste Management Act, Article 15, approved by the Iranian parliament's open session on Sunday, May 09, 2004 Of special wastes, including electronic wastes, can be the use of improved communication, especially from Web II technology, the environment and more explicit opportunity to facilitate better implementation of the Act, in accordance with Article 50 of the constitution Iran. In the past, an electronic waste recycling factory was built in the city of Mashhad, and after a while it was closed because of some reasons , the most important was the lack of support in collecting electronic waste. Lack of necessary infrastructure in the law enforcement, the important thing is to check the citation and somewhat argumentative articles 1, 15 and 16, to address the above issue and enforce quality articles mentioned. Outline entitled "reference electronic waste, based on web II technology", with the possibility of analysis of web-based software, where importers, distributors, retailers, buyers, NGOs, investors and entrepreneurs, the main institutions regulatory enforcement and related issues are involved and active, as it proposed . this project started with a primary project entitled "Environmental Design after Sales Service," especially electronic goods and policy.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 3


Assessment of Biodefense Vaccines and Its Emerging Aspects

Abstract—Besides natural disasters and naturally occurring novel infectious diseases, nothing potentially threatens the health and stability of nations and health systems as much as the devastating threat and unfathomability of bioterrorism. Other than attempts at political solutions and interdictive attempts,only antimicrobials and vaccines offer possible means for protection. Of these, vaccines offer the most immediate and definitive of preventive solutions. Limiting the development and use of vaccines however are social, political, ethical, and economic considerations, and this article will provide a brief exploration of each of these issues and the intersection with the need for such vaccines. In this article we define bioterrorism as the deliberate use of naturally occurring or bioengineered microorganisms in order to cause harm to people, animals, or plants.

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Effects of increasing and decreasing the subsurface flows on groundwater balance in some parts of Urmia lake basin (saghez Chay-Leylan Chay)

Abstract— Urmia Lake is the largest water surface between the lakes in our country, which plays important role in the level of humidity and drought and also in the climate of area.

Water balance, is a discussion about studies on the water cycle, in this basin. Including a discussion of the groundwater that nowadays is one of hydrological challenges due to drought and decreasing lake water. In order to obtain the desired data within the water balance area, existence one piezometric network with good distribution is necessary. Based on the density of water resources utilization and river existence, and drainage, evaporative areas and geological factors that can change the level of ground water, the piezometric network distribution of plain was selected and completed. Maximum transfer capability between 500 and more than 1500 square meters in the study area is on the day. The results indicate that influence factors on velocity of subsurface flow in soil, is gradient, plant roots, soil structural factors and hydrologic, soil hydraulic conductivity and network range. Gradient affecting subsurface flow is 30-20 percent approximately.  Hydraulic conductivity of water as another important factor in the decrease and increase in subsurface flow is the component of porous soil important characteristics in the region. These factors will cause some changes in the water balance.

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Social, economic and environmental impacts of peat fires in Gharehbagh plain, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract— The recent Peat fire in Gharehbagh plain from 2009 until now, has caused numerous social and environmental impacts in the plains. The most important environmental impacts of peat fires in the Plains, can be destruction Peat land in the area and the loss of 3.9 million cubic meters of peat noted.

(Full Text PDF)


Optimize the regional coefficients empirical Fuller’s formula using the PSO algorithm (Five catchments of southern of Urmia Lake)

Abstract— The purpose of this research is optimization of regional coefficients of Fuller’s relation using Particle Swarm algorithm (PSO), which for this purpose, the 24 hours maximum discharge of 5 stations by 21 years' time-domain, in the south of Uremia Lake Basin, were gathered. Then, most appropriate statistical distribution was calculated, and regional coefficient (C) using Particle Swarm algorithm equal to 0.31 and regional flooding coefficient (β) for return periods of 5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 years have been estimated 0.95, 1.19, 1.24, 1.28 and 1.31 for the study area, respectively, and the plan of iso-coefficient curves has been plotted for regional coefficient (C) in the study area by GIS.

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Strain-rate Effects Forecasting in Clayey Soils

Abstract—A laboratory investigating wаѕ guided tо analyze volume change behaviors оf five unlіkе types оf expansive clayey soils sampled frоm ѕеvеrаl areas іn Sistan аnd Baluchistan, Iran. Thе research laboratory test results, whісh wеrе showed іn аn earlier report, аrе analyzed hеrе tо assess existing correlations thаt саn bе applied tо forecast swell аnd shrink related displacements іn thеѕе soils. Thе test database іѕ аѕ wеll applied tо arise newer аnd practical models fоr predicting volume changerelated soil properties. Models developed hеrе uѕеd soil plasticity аnd compaction properties аѕ experimental variable*. Newer models thаt rely оn seasonal compaction moisture content variants іn thе undersoil wеrе introduced tо approximate bоth volumetrically аnd vertical swell аnd shrinkage strains expected undеr civil infrastructure. Thе developed correlations, аlоng wіth thе existent models, wеrе ѕо applied tо forecast vertical soil swell trends оf fоur case analyses whеrеvеr swell induced soil movements wеrе monitored. Thіѕ comparability analysis proved thаt thе model dependency оn thе volume change test procedural data аnd moisture content variant referable seasonal alterations wіll lead tо bеttеr forecasting оf swell movements іn subsoils. Future research directions аnd recommendations аrе allowed оn carrying оut thе developed models іn а realistic approximation оf swell movements оf infrastructure construction projects.

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Insulation on Building External Walls with Curtain Direction and Climate Change

Abstract— Using simulation softwares to optimize energy consumption in buildings are important. In this investigation that is performed in Ardebil, Bandar Abbas and Tehran cities with different insulation conditions and by using building energy optimizer , the simulation and optimization was done on exterior wall in north, south, west and east directions. This software has the ability to automatically optimize. With climate change, insulation condition and optimum percentage of energy consumption in exterior wall will alter too. In northern exterior wall with 75 mm Poly roll insulation, the lowest energy consumption was achieved.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 2


Influence of SVC on power system reliability

Abstract— Static system can enhance the transient stability margin , improve system reliability . Probability of error, probability of location error probability function of the protection and perpetuation of the load curve (LDC) are all factors that affect the system transient stability . However, if the system chooses a narrow range of stability of the region to work on improving the system utilization is achieved . Unless this narrow range of system utilization is a small fraction of the period , the mean improvement in the reliability of the system is small .

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Evaluation of  climatic  potential  of  Ease  and  convenience  of  Tourism in  Chaharmahal  and  Bakhtiari Province Using  the  Human  Bio climatic  Index.

Abstract—In this  research  considering  the main  effect of  climatic  conditions  on  tourism, the  tourism  potential  in  Chaharmahal  and Bakhtiari  province  using  the bioclimatic  index  has  been  studied .Bioclimatic  by  emphasizing  on climatic  conditions  of  temperature  and  moisture  in minimum  and  maximum  in a  diagram  named  first  diagram  investigates the  daily  and  nighty  conditions  at each  station. With  emphasis  on  long  term  statistical  data , The  general  result  shows  that  the  best  daily  conditions  in Borujen  and  Shahrekord  is in  May  and  June  months , for  Lordegan  is  April   , and  for  Kuhrang  is just  in May  that  conditions  are  at  convenience  zone  boundary  . And in September   and  June  despite  the  suitable temperature  ,  the  moisture  in air  is  Low.

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The Analysis of Standardization Performance in Industry in Terms of Energy Management, Case Study: Product Managers of Mobarakeh Steel Company, 2013

Abstract___The conscious use of energy in industry is a key lever to ensure the sustainable development of the industry. The cost of measures’ effective performance, management establishment and energy efficiency will bring economic and social benefits for industries and will reduce the negative environmental impacts of the energy consumption. Unfortunately, the industries in developing countries do not have the advantages due to the lack of effective deployment of measures and energy efficiency,for example the loss of executive benefits. The researcher has attempted to support the steel company for the proper implementation of efficient energy management by studying the energy management system and its standards and finding the differences and gaps between theory and industry.

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Monitoring the urban solid wastes, opportunities and threats (Case study: Aras trade and industrial free zone)

Abstract— Keeping Natural environment and all God gifts for human being which exists in vast amount on the earth is one of the fundamental principles for saving human and all creature life on earth. One important part of this duty is controlling the solid wastes which have an important role in the new era of sciences based on economic health. This article will attempt to   illustrate the importance of the problem, recognition and classification of the waste, collection, transportation and excretion of them. Based on the surveys have been done so far, generally the holding of the wastes are done in  non- standard  and insanitary  methods and  include many variety ways which have made big problems in the urban regions. Based on the surveys in a particular region in Aras free region, there are a few households which put their wastes in plastic bags and then put them in special dust bins. The rest of them put their wastes in inappropriate plastic bags with various colours or keep directly them in unsanitary containers such as tins, cartons, empty buckets and inappropriate bins and so on.

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2014: Vol 4, Issue 1


Application of distributed generation systems (DG) approach to investigate the causes of the losses and the DG

Abstract— Since the radial distribution systems typically are designed, there is no generator at the time. So there we were running on generators and distribution equipment and electrical network load voltage conditions and can affect system performance parameters, positive or negative. This issue has caused problems for distributed generation as an option to raise production to meet the increased demand. Use of words, the aim of DG in distribution grids , providing all or part of full-time network, power consumption or part-time, among which is the main goal of active power production from renewable sources Stowe also useful in reducing harmful environmental effects .

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Evaluation Landfill Method For The Produce Biogas And Effective Factors

Abstract—Domestic and industrial wastes generally produced by the anaerobic digestion with high percentage of methane are called Biogas. If the wastes can be separated from the environment and then Biogas can be trapped in a confined environment, using gas control and transmission techniques and equipment in scientific methods and its energy can be used gradually, it would be an effective step in providing energy. 

Nowadays the problem of providing energy is also the concern of all countries in the world. Today, using renewable energies is one of the suggested solutions. Bio-gas is one of these renewable energies which produces energy, in addition, it has benefits such as; creating agricultural fertilizers, increasing the level of public health in the society, controlling diseases and is a proper solution to solid waste propulsion.

Industrial and social liquid or solid wastes will cause environmental serious pollutions. The biogas production can reduce dangers of these wastes and after that we can have energy and fertilizer for using. Biogas can be achieved from the process of anaerobic waste treatment and landfill. In this article, we will study and introduce the landfill and its points.

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Management of Air Pollution Control in Cement Industry

Abstract— The cement industry is one of the oldest and most important industries in Iran’s economy as well as one of its greatest environmental polluters. Any activities that involve the breaking, crushing, drilling and grinding of materials may produce fine silica dust. However, the dusts can also be found in soil, mortar, plaster, shingles and abrasives. Dust particles are usually in the size range from about 1 to 100 µm in diameter. Pollutants are greatest risks for the environment and human health problems. The pollutants are often lumped together under the term smog. Dust generated in the cement industry can be studied in order to achieve the dust emission control equipment. Although many operations generate dust are inevitable, but the loss of trapping dust and prevent dust dispersion produced by techniques such as those outlined in the paper will be obtainable.

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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Wind catcher Generator

Abstract— The future landscape of wind energy as a reliable and safe energy recourse gained a noteworthy position in longtime scenario of energy supply in the world.  the rotation of hundreds of wind turbines all over the world is a non-negligible truth which turned the dream of electricity generation by wind, to reality. It is anticipated that by 2020, the global wind energy capacity will reach to 1000 Giga Watt. prevalent wind turbines (turbines with horizontal rotational axis) play the main role in this scenario but they have  problems such as limited functionality, different directions of winds, costly repayments and so on. In this article we will design a modern system and then we will simulate this design by Fluent Software. The results of simulation and experimental sample are presented.

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Evaluation Methods of Acidic Drainage due to Mining of Sulfide Minerals “Case Studies of Darrehzar Copper Mine”

Abstract—Environment is exposed to serious threats at global and national levels and it has forced all countries to organize and systematize the existing chaos by research and investigation about environmental problems. Acid mine drainage may be the worst environmental problem which has a negative and deleterious effect on the quality of surface and ground waters. Many of pollutions (especially in mining areas) refer to weathering and decomposition of rocks, minerals and mining pulps; these pollutants enter the life cycle of animals and plants by entering the geochemical and biogeochemical cycles (water, air, plant, soil, sediments, minerals, rocks, etc.) which leads to ripples and environmental problems. 

   Acidic drainage is obtained from the oxidation of sulfide minerals especially when pyrite is exposed to air and water. Iran has abundant mineral reserves and resources that their mining and processing can lead to a serious source of pollutants.

Among these, sulfide mines are important in extraction process due to aggravating the acidic drainages and increasing the concentration of heavy elements; it is also important in processing stage due to the emission of pollutant gases especially SO2. In this paper, we have investigated the geochemical processes and environmental issues of acidic drainages resulting from sulfide ores of copper mine in Darrehzar, Kerman. In order to rectify this situation, we can use the methods of “open limestone channels” to control and treat the acid drainage of copper mine in Darrehzar based on standard methods of managing the acid drainage and considering the situation of similar mines. Effectiveness of semi-industrial bioleaching project is recommended by performing various experiments.

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Hydrological and geochemical processes controlling the origin and transport of Arsenic in the Pangi area (NW Torbat Hydarieh, Iran)

Abstract—In this study, arsenic concentration and pollution in water resources of Pangi area (Kadkan, NW Torbat Hydarieh), adjacent to Sarhang- Golbou ophiolitic zone, is investigated. Results of this study indicate high concentrations of arsenic in local water resources as arsenic concentration is 12 times greater than standard values in Golbou. Aquifer lithology, hydrological gradient, and water geochemistry of Roudeshour and adjacent areas show that the same processes control arsenic concentrations in surficial and ground water resources. As-bearing sulfide minerals especially pyrite and arsenopyrite are the main origin of arsenic in water resources. In spite of that, arsenic remaining time and mechanism of diffusion in water phase is controversial. According to geochemical studies, arsenic can be released at and close to surface of aquifer and then during geochemical reactions it can be transferred to depth. States of arsenic diffusion in aqueous phases depend on oxidation of As-bearing solid materials and displacement of antagonistic ligands. In presence of sulfides and reducing conditions, thioarsenic is dominant form of arsenic but in oxidizing conditions arsenate is dominant form. Thus, solution of Fe oxy-hydroxides together with arsenic diffusion, is the main agent of high concentration of arsenic in local water resources.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 24


Compatibility Study and Comparison of Ten Soybean Cultivars in the Climatic Conditions of Iranshahr

Abstract— Soybean is an important oil crop because it contains 18-20 percent oil and about 40 percent protein. Since around 90 percent of the vegetable oil needs of the country are imported, evaluation of different soybean cultivars for planting them in various regions can play a considerable role in increasing oil crop production. For this purpose, 10 soybean cultivars were compared in the form of randomized complete block design in three replications at the Agriculture Research Station of Iranshahr in 2012. Results obtained showed there were significant differences among the cultivars with respect to the characters of seed yield, biological yield, and harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1000-seed weight, and number of lateral shoots, plant height, and percentage oil content. Comparison of the means using Duncan’s method indicated that the maximum seed yields with 3487, 2803, and 2461 kilograms per hectare belonged to the cultivars Villiams, SAHAR, and Katoul, respectively, and the minimum to the cultivars L44, and M9 with 1243 and 1400 kilograms per hectare, respectively. Moreover, results of correlation analysis revealed that there were positive and significant correlations between the yields of the cultivars and the characters of biological yield, harvest index, number of pods per plant, 1000-seed weight, and plant height, and a negative and strong correlation between the yields of the cultivars and their percentage oil contents.

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Water Balance Simulation іn Reservoirs uѕіng bу Partial Recurrent Neural Networks

Abstract— Thіѕ research deals оn partial recurrent neural networks аnd thеіr application tо thе non-linear autoregressive simulating оf dynamical systems. Thіѕ special case оf neural network саn bе visualised аѕ а data-driven model іn state space, whеrе а standard neural network model іѕ applied fоr thе description оf thе non-linear transfer function. Eасh solution wіll thuѕ possess аѕ іѕ generic form оf time propagation mechanism thаt appears іn conceptual dynamical models аnd linear black box models оf type ARMAX. In thіѕ report, thе theoretical background tо partial recurrent neural networks іѕ provided, tоgеthеr wіth аn application thаt simulation water balance іn reservoir оf Zayandeh-rud dam іn Isfahan province іn Iran country thе practical relevance оf thеѕе tools fоr modelling dynamic hydrological systems. 

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A Robust hybrid method based on fuzzy logic for maximum power point Tracking of photovoltaic systems

Abstract- In this paper a new method based on fuzzy logic for maximum power point Tracking of photovoltaic cell is presented. This method uses solar radiation(G), ambient temperature (T) and output power (T) as input and estimates duty_cycle (D) of maximum power point . measuring Thevenin circuit equation results in robustness of method respecting vaiations of load and battery . simulation results show that fuzzy Logic controller outperforms other controllers in different atmospherically conditions.

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Effects of Three-Phase Voltage Unbalance on Induction Motors For Sustainable Energy

Abstract—Analysis of the steady-state performance of an induction  motor connected to unbalanced three-phase voltages is presented. The index of voltage unbalance used in this paper is the complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) that consists of the magnitude and the angle. In addition to formulation and discussion of the motor operating characteristics under voltage unbalance, special emphasis is placed on the effect of the angle of the CVUF on the motor. It is found that the angle of the CVUF is also an important factor that merits particular attention in analyzing voltage unbalance issues.

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An Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Operating Conditions on the Efficiency of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

Abstract—In this study, experimental investigations have been carried out for obtaining the thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar collector. Thermal efficiency of the collector was plotted against reduced temperature parameter and the effects of the ambient temperature, operating temperature, and radiation intensity on the collector thermal performance have been investigated. The results showed that the thermal efficiency increases by increasing the ambient temperatureand decreasing the inlet temperature. It is shown that the the collector has a better performance under the lower operational temperatures. 

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Ethic Relations and Environmental Crises

Abstract— while modern world moves industry and progress train in time railing, it abandons itself from ethical- Extraterrestrial constraints to achieve humanism ideas and absolute rule of humans on the world. Ethics is trying to recognize good and bad. It has been based on unity brings perfectionism and excellence- seeking for human. So it does not permit innumerable invasion to man who knew himself absolute active after the Renaissance. Then ethics was gradually marginalized; as a result, moral, social, psychological crises were appeared for humanity. Environmental crisis is one of them caused by modern man's invasion to nature body (including the Earth, the sky, the seas, and etc.). Now, after passing several centuries of the modern era, humanity does not any choice except moral doctrine to resolve crises surrounding crises including the environmental crisis. Morality and its teachings put numerous solutions in front of the man who is tired of unbridled modernity in order to realize sweetness material improvements in the context of ethics and spirituality.

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The Importance of Teaching Protection of Environment

Abstract: Environmental issues have received a lot of attention within the past few years and many countries have imposed different regulations on protection of environment and environmental policies have been developed. Governments pay special attention and are fussier towards environmental courses in academic and school education than before. Today, it is impossible to guarantee environment protection by means of passing regulations that do not usually suffice. Teaching protection of environment in developed countries is not something new but it is a part of educational system in such countries. Teaching protection of environment and containing it in curriculums and increasing students' knowledge about environment can be a good solution to stopping environment destruction. The present research tries to cast a glance at the importance of protection of environment in formal education system. 

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Updates on Thermal Design of Plate Heat Exchangers Using ε-NTU Method

Abstract— It is not very common in engineering community using ε-NTU method to design plate heat exchangers. The technical reports giving ε-NTU data for these exchangers in the literature is also scarce. This paper deals with thermal design of plate heat exchangers by ε-NTU method to fill this gap. The authors believe that ε-NTU method is superior to LMTD approach because of its simplicity and more importantly the capability for parametric study in an existing unit. An in-house computer program is developed to work out ε-NTU data for concurrent and countercurrent loop patterns, and series-series configurations. The ε-NTU data for the above configurations are presented in tables simplifying accessibility to the data.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 23


Aras river water improvement and application of phytoremediation for removal of industrial waste

Abstract— Today the pollution of the boarder waters has made crucial problems for the neighbouring countries.  Throwing the industrial and homemade wastes and water wastes, hospital and domestic wastes in to the water are examples of sources which make the water polluted and also making water warm is another problem arose from those activities. The pollutions which have been made by countries beside the basin of the river are one of the important struggles associated with Aras River. Recently mining activities in the suburbs and basin of the Aras river have increased the pollution of the waters going to the Aras and consequently the Aras river itself.  Mining activities and extraction of ore and metals in Azerbaijan, Armenia and Iran are examples of such activities. The entrance of pollutants to water ecosystems threatens both the natural environment and the health of the residents of that polluted region. The pollutants which enter through mining activities to the water penetrate to the Aquifer and soil and threaten the life of the residents. Underestimating the dangers of these pollutants not only threatens the life of local people but also the major part of the society. So these problems should not be underestimated. It should be mentioned that the water of Aras river is used in irrigation of agricultural fields in downstream of the East Azerbaijan and Moghan plain in the Ardabil province.  The results of this research show that in order to use wastewater in ponds, it is better to use plants which absorb metals. In order to reduce the effects of heavy metals tamarix shrubs and  Loui straws can be helpful to filter the water waste. The implementation of the new methods of filtering by considering the environment helps to reach the goal of filtering and also to keep environment itself.

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Introduction to ocean energy technology

Abstract— Due to the increasing need for energy and limited fossil resources and the completion of this Resources, Human will have to remedy deficiency to supply. In this paper, an renewable energy has been studied. First, a brief wave and tide energy obtainable from the ocean (sea) and then on how to create waves and tide are presented. According to local conditions, for creating waves and tidal power plants and the essential points for the plants mentioned and then has been investigated the methods and technologies of electricity production from waves and tidal force.

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The Effect of Biofuels-derived Energy in Environmental Preservation and its Role in Sustainable Development

Abstract— By the ongoing trend of energy consumption in the world, the human has faced two great crises: Environmental pollution and increasing devoid of energy resources. Nowadays, biofuel derived energy has been paid more attention because environmental pollution, caused by fossil fuels, and also restriction of resources of fossil fuels, has developed. The present research uses descriptive and library research methods. As demonstrated in the conclusion, today, development is the most important preoccupation of the countries. As a matter of fact, stability of ecological, economic and social elements, as a complex, and the interaction among such factors, will bring sustainability or non-sustainability. Therefore, paying attention to environmental preservation is a prerequisite for sustainable development and more importance shall be attached to biofuels as sustainable energy resources and a vital factor in environmental preservation.

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Determination the optimum points for exploitation of geothermal renewable energy using Magnetotelluric in Sabalan area

Abstract— The main subject of this study is interpretation and 2-D inversion modeling of Magnetotelluric data in order to more accurately assess geothermal reservoirs, providing a realistic model of the structure of these sources and determine the optimum locations for drilling interest. Study area is located in a place called Moil valley in north-western Iran. 2-D modeling was undertaken based on Mackie's inversion algorithm. Modeling results are consistent with the geological facts so that stations 8, 11, 18 and 28 have been proposed for tapping wells in the area.

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Implementation of Small-Scale On-board Membrane Filtration Plant Powered by Solar Energy in Iranian Offshore Industries

Abstract— Sea water desalination and treatment, energy consumption and the undeniable necessity of marine industries to freshwater for drinking, cooking, cleaning, washing, for boilers, industrial process applications and other uses are integrally related and need to be addressed together in order to achieve all the sustainable development targets in maritime engineering as the world are moving quickly toward this aim. In this manuscript, desalination of sea water by using reverse osmosis (RO) system powered by solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels and its application has been described as a particular case study research for Iran Marine Industries as on-board applications on oil and gas rigs as well as vessels and boats. Accordingly, the insolation map in Iran indicates that in southern part of Iran in Persian Gulf region, where the marine industries are active, the net irradiance is the highest. PV-RO on-board marine plant is able to provide guidance and support for each distinct application of freshwater production in marine industries. The scope of supply includes plants ranging in capacity from only a few hundred liters per day through to hundreds of cubic meters per day by using solar energy.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 22


Ecotourism Management Approach to Achieve Sustainable Development

Abstract — Today 's approach to ecotourism as one of the aspects of ecotourism, environmental tourism has led to a wide range of environmental protection and economic terms, The dynamics of the local economy by creating jobs and income causes to achieve sustainable development through ecotourism successful passes from hand to achieve sustainable development require the attention of the pillars of economic, social, cultural and environmental impact on a community; so as ecotourism management activities affecting the development of all the organs, over the past needs to be studied. between these two categories, the proper strategies to achieve sustainable development of ecotourism management is described.

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Using Mesoporous Titania supported Pd-Cu bimetallic nanocatalyst for the reduction of nitrate in water and surveying other parameters

Abstract—Mesoporous titania synthesis with sol-gel method. It was used as a supported in Pd-Cu bimetallic catalyst. The potential of this nanocatalyst was evaluated in the process of liquid-phase nitrate hydrogenation. The same flow rate was used with H2 and CO2. In the next, Formic acid with Hydrogen Used for reducing nitrate from water. Formic acid increased efficiency. Initial nitrate concentration was 88 mg/l. In the first step, concentration of final nitrate measured 30 mg/l. With using formic acid, concentration of final nitrate received 28 mg/l. The effect created phase was also examined. Anarase phase had a better outcome while it had not appropriate morphology. The prepared samples were characterized by SEM and XRD. Concentration nitrate ions in the aqueous solution were determined by employing a spectrophotometer.  

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Estimation of external costs of effects of Nitrogen oxides over the human health in one thermal power plant.

Abstract—Power plants are counted as one of the sources of constant pollutants. In the dissipated from this sector, the year 1390 (solar calendar) 634884 tons of NOx which can impose direct and indirect influence over human health. In this study the aim is to estimate external costs of nitrogen oxides which is dissipated from one thermal power plant over the rate of fatality in surrounding life forms therefore the desperation of atmospheric. Pollutants are reviewed and the regions that are influenced are located. The number of fatalities that is attributabuted to this power plant was equivalent to 65 persons and the figure of external costs is 43875 million Rials. 

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Studying the Level of Government Employees' Awareness about Environmental Crises and the Role of Training in Enhancing Awareness

Abstract—This research was undertaken to review the level of staff awareness about potential environmental risks. The research procedure is descriptive survey with a statistical group composed of 550 government executives and experts, among whom 220 persons were selected randomly using the Morgan table. The questionnaire prepared by the researcher was validated by the relevant specialists. The data analysis was conducted using EXCEL Spreadsheet. It was determined that 86% of the staff believed their training on crisis was at a medium to low level. Subsequently a number of proposals were made on training.

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Introduction to renewable and clean energy hydrogen

Abstract—In this study, hydrogen renewable energy has been studied. This element is an element that is abundant in the earth's surface. Continue on hydrogen production from different materials have been investigated. Hydrogen energy with using fossil energy and renewable energy is produced. Hydrogen production from these materials, often without producing carbon dioxide. Finally, renewable and clean energy storage systems is presented. 

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 21


Round-the-Year Security Analysis of Large-Scale Wind Power Plants 

Abstract— Electricity market simulation has been combined with detailed calculation of current flow to provide a complete picture of congestion in transmission networks and also the time cognitive aspects and features of the correlation (automatic) time series of wind speed and load are considered. This validation is feasible using a year data of the load and the wind speed. By comparing the results of the snapshots and immediate annuity method for a region, this can be achieved that the new method provides more accurate results and obviates snapshot drawbacks.

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Comparing the Environmental Impacts of the Thermal and Solar Power Plants and the Role of Environmental Training in Application of Renewable Energies

Abstract—In this research the environmental impacts of thermal and solar power plants were reviewed and then compared with each other. After analysis and corrective actions, it became clear that through propagation of greenhouse gases thermal plants cause climatic changes, increase social costs and leave irreparable impacts on environment, whereas solar power plants have a major role in reducing the production of greenhouse gases and their negative environmental consequences. In this article, after reviewing the existing challenges for optimizing the management of energy and complying with international commitments related to the use of renewable energies and the key role of environmental trainings, a number of relevant proposals are presented.

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Analysis the role of energy in contemporary urban planning theories and programming to reach a sustainable city

Abstract- Today, city contaminations are uncontrollable and put earth in an unhealthy position. Increasing consumption of unrenewable energies results in economic, social and environmental problems for citizens , also challenges like global warming, climate change, greenhouse gasses arise that decrease quality of life. The importance of this issue is very high that modern urban theories emphasize on energy in sustainability of cities. Reasonable consumption of resources are increasing quality of life are discussed in these theories and minimizing unrenewable energies consumption is suggested. This thesis is decided to  analyze urban planning new theories and reach to a model for energy management by analytic-descriptive methods. Studies show that energy planning process should be based on renewable energies and contemporary urban theories are trying to find solutions to decrease undemanded ecologic effects. In last, principles, policies and new models are suggested for urban development.

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Optimizing of a gas turbine cycle  by Genetic and PSO algorithms

Abstract— Exergoeconomic is one of the best effective tools to find the best solutions for optimization of thermal systems. In this paper, operating parameters of a gas turbine power plant that produces 140 MW of electricity is determined by using exergoeconomic principles to optimize by genetic and PSO algorithm. Evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to minimize the cost function and optimally adjusting five design parameters. Comparison results exhibit among the PSO algorithm, genetic algorithm and the base case. Simulated results indicate that application of GA method leads to better results in terms of cost per unit.

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Investigating the economic and environmental effects of tourism on rural areas in Iran

Abstract— Rural tourism refers to employment and income potential which can be an appropriate strategy for socio-economic development of rural communities in order to protect environment, civilization and rural development. So it can improve economic status of the inhabitants by creating new economic opportunities. This research seeks to identify and analyze the economic and environmental implications of tourism in rural areas based on sustainable tourism characteristics. The research method used in this paper is documentary-analytical which uses multiple papers and internet references. The results show that although attention to rural tourism as a factor of national development cannot solve all the villager’s problems, but benefiting the effects on different economic and environmental sections such as employment, income, unemployment reduction, reclamation, rangeland and natural resources rehabilitation along with making appropriate policies in order to preserve environment will lead to sustainable rural development.

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Position in the international environment

Abstract—Due to the devastating condition of the bioenvironment,UN has put the environment problems as one of its priority programs in the format of a Un environmental program in order that the countries reach a sustainable development, investigate the bioenvironmental problems and its complications that leads to devastate the world. The problems are discussed among the countries and important suggestions are presented. The goal of the current prescriptive/ analytical study is investigating the international position of the bioenvironment in which the most important plans and the cooperation of the international society will be discussed in case studies and finally a conclusion will be made. 

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 20


Investigation of sea and groundwater level changes on seawater intrusion in an unconfined coastal aquifer

Abstract—Increase in water usage from wells and sea water level, are the most substantial factors in saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. At the present research, these Phenomena and groundwater barrier as a strategy to prevent groundwater salinity are investigated. For this purpose, hypothetical unconfined aquifer with the steep coastal geometry is simulated by SEAWAT mathematical model with GMS9.1 interface. Based on the results, the 0.1, 1and8 mm/yr rate of seawater level rise make saline water to intrude3percentage, 9.3% and 15% respectively more than its natural condition. In addition, when well discharge is 0.02m3/day, increase in saline water progression in compare to the lack of water harvesting will be 14%. If the discharge is 0.04 or 0.06 cm/day, saltwater progression will increase to 30% and 45% respectively. Finally, Based on the results of simulation, construction of subsurface barrier decreased the saltwater intrusion to 28.5 m. In other words, barrier decreased saltwater intrusion 23% and it can prevented saltwater intrusion.

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Variable Speed Wind Turbine DFIG Modeling for Dynamic Stability study of Grid

Abstract— One of the most important problems in wind Micro Grids connected to the distribution networks is fast and proper response to the instabilities due to sudden disturbances. In this paper to study of system behavior encountered disturbances, steady state and transient dynamic response of Micro Grids equipped by DFIG will be simulated by using of Cruise equations. Dynamic response of voltage, frequency rotor and stator currents will be discussed by this simulation. The results show that simulated machine has been fast response and robust performance in contrast with load sudden changes and grid disturbances.

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Waste Management: Movement based on Sustainable Development Approach

Abstract— Increasing growth of population and consequently increase of waste production, special concerns about reduction of resources endowment and pollution of the available natural resources led the experts to place waste management on top of their plans in recent decades. In this regard, the present research entitled waste management; movement based on sustainable development has taken step in the research area.   This research using library studies concludes that one of the most important cases for sustainable development is production of wastes and their management. Proper waste management which reduces hazards of human health and environmental damages is very important. For this reason, it is emphasized that some actions such as reduction of waste volume, reuse and recycle of waste and also encouragement and reinforcement of waste management system compatible with the environment should be basis of the future plans in all countries.

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Parametric Analysis for Dust Plumes Modeling using MODIS Data over Khuzestan Province, Iran

Abstract— Dust events are intricate climatic processes which may largely affect environmental and health conditions. In the present study, among the parameters and indices concerning the most efficient dust detection algorithms as to MODIS products, three principal ones (BTD31,32, NDDI and MEDI) were selected to asses their and linear and exponential correlation to one key terrain data, Corresponding visibility, for two separated cases: a) all dust events reported thorough synoptic codes and b) heavier dust storms (with visibility less than 1000 Km). As a conclusion, in both case (a) and (b), BTD 31-32 shows the highest correlation (mild correlation) and was presented as the optimum parameter. Finally, we present an optimum exponential equation derived from regression as well as recommendations to achieve more efficiently dust modeling.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 19


Optimization Electrical Energy Consumption by using Smart Grid

Abstract- Optimization  of  power  energy  consumption  is  one  of  the  important  factor  in  power  energy  distribution . The  nature  of  irregularly  and  non-linear  of  load  consumption  derived  from  various  factor  cause  we can’t  predict  accurate  consumption  of  load, and as  a  this  reason  some  of  the  produced  energy  operationally  wasted.  One  of  the  new  method  to  prevent  west  energy  using  of   intelligent  electricity  network.  In  this  paper  during  investigation  on  the  method, also  great  role  of  it  in  management  and  optimization  of  power  energy  consumption  will  be  checked.        

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Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the sediments of Sehezar River (Iran)

Abstract— The aim of this study was to assess the level of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, As, and Ti) from 14 sites in the surface sediments of the Sehezar River, around Tonekabon, Iran, so, The highest concentrations of metals were found in downstream at the  site-15 and The lowest concentrations of metals were found in midstream at the  site-9.

According to the values of correlation coefficients, except the As, all of heavy elements shown a significant positive correlation existed among the metals studied, indicating that the elements were derived from lithogenic sources.

Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF) and enrichment factor (EF).

 The CF values indicated that all sites were enriched and moderately polluted by heavy metals in the sediments of the Sehezar River and EF values for all metals studied in the sediments confirms Lithogenic sources on the metal levels in the surface sediments of Sehezar River and related to weathering of rock units and recycling of surface sediments in the Sehezar River.

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Applying Analysis Hierarchical  Process (AHP) technique for prioritization of management's criteria of health , safety and environment of urban parks

Abstract : Green spaces are important in urban areas so that they are being regarded as one of development's standards of societies, also these are being accounted  as a criterion of  promotion quality of life. Therefore to define priority of criteria for management of health , safety and environment of urban parks for minimizing bodily harms , financial damages , unfavorable influences and set up safety and peace in public gardens are necessary for establishment such places . 

Present paper intends to access prioritization criteria by using AHP technique , after recognition criteria and indices which are based on experts opinions and related documentations .

Hereto, by using questionnaire and opinion poll of 10 experts then using Super Decision software , management's criteria of health , safety and environment of urban parks were classified . among identified criteria and indices ,park's drinking water, preservation park's environment , playground and devices have the highest ranks , respectively, between health , environment and safety factors. 

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Synthesis of valuable chemicals from biodiesel byproducts, using functionalized spherical mesoporous silica

Abstract—Biodiesel is conventionally produced through transesterification of vegetable oil in the presence of alcohols such as methanol. Due to sharp increase in the production of biodiesel, the price of glycerol significantly dropped, making it one of the most promising platform chemicals of the near future. Among the various reaction pathways for catalytic conversion of glycerol, oligomerization to polyglycerols (PGs) is one of the viable and demanding processes due to the wide field of applications of PGs in cosmetics, polymers, food additives, antifogging film industry, pharmaceuticals, biomedicals and drug delivery systems. In this study MSU type mesoporous silica was synthesized, using TEOS as silica source. After that, the surface of mesoporous material was functionalized by chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonating reagent. The obtained materials containing SO3H groups were applied as acid catalysts to the etherification reaction of glycerol. The main product is 1, 4-dioxane- 2, 5- dimethanol which is dimerization product of glycerol. All of the mesoporous catalysts were characterized by BET analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the progress of catalytic reaction was followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

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Study the companion species of Launaea acanthodes (Boiss.) O. Kuntze and the relationship among the distribution and elevation using random- systematic sampling in Neyshabur- Razavi Xorasan Province- Iran

Abstract—Herbal treatment is very common around the world. The use of medicinal plants has increased due to chemical drugs. Identification of medicinal plants in natural habitats and their companion species as the first step and evaluation of their properties as the second step have long been indicated in increasing the health community up to now. In this regard, due to topographic conditions in Neishabour, Xorasan province, Iran; the height from sea surface is one of the most significant ecological factors in environment and many qualitative and quantitative parameters are depend on that. For this purpose, 70 random- systematic samples (1.5 × 1.5) were used to estimate vegetation. The area which studied was some about 7 hectare. Samples collected from each plot, transferred to Payam Noor University of Mashhad and identified using various Flora. According to atmospheric conditions; altitude, latitude and longitude results were interpreted.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 18


Environmental Impacts of Using Pumped-Storage Power Plant

Abstract— Increasing demand for electricity has been caused numerous environmental problems. In recent years it has been considered more and more by governments and makes them moving toward using green energy. In this paper, in addition to a brief introduction of the pumped-storage power plant operation, the impact of these plants on the environment has examined and we have shown how the issue of large-scale storage of electrical energy through a proper way can help the cleanliness of the environment and expand the use of renewable energy.

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A review of the biological status of Persian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), a precious and endangered animal species in Iran 

Abstract: The Persian fallow deer with the scientific name of Dama mesopotamica, is one of the two deer species in the world. The other species is the European fallow deer. The Persian fallow deer is the largest species of fallow deer and larger than the European species, but its antlers are not as wide and large as the European one. They are 60–100 kg in weight and 130–240 cm long with a 16-19 cm tail. The length of gestation in female is approximately 230 days. Their maximum life span is about 20 years and the maximum breeding age is around 15 years old. The maturity age in fallow deer is about 16 months, except that males are in fertile for several years. Persian fallow deer is usually nocturnal and rests during the day. The animal usually feeds in the early morning or evening. It has a very strong visual sense and is a very good swimmer. Molecular study of the animal has shown that there has no genetic mixing and hybridization between Persian fallow deer with deer transferred from Germany, and their population is absolutely pure Iranian with their own homogeneity structure. According to the latest statistics in recent years, there are about 551 heads of deer today in Iran that regrettably the number reduces everyday. One area of Persian fallow deer distribution in Iran in the Ashk Island is located in the National Park of Urmia Lake. Unfortunately, in recent years, the increased environmental crisis due to drought of Urmia Lake has led to intolerable environmental conditions of the area for the deer, and thus the reduction of their population. Fallow deer population experiences non- desirable conditions in their other breeding areas; for example, during the ongoing year (2013), the loss and death of more than 70 heads of Persian fallow deer in the Karkheh margins has exposed this valuable species to the border of extinction. Preserving the valuable genetic resources of this valuable species through generating fibroblastic germ cells as well as developing proper opportunities for increasing the number of deer followed by restoration and revival of Urmia Lake and making the environment conditions of Ashk island more viable for the Persian follow deer can be considered as necessary measures to prevent the extinction of this species.

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Effects of Cadmium and Organic Matter on Soil pH, Electrical Conductivity and their Roles in Cadmium Availability in Soil

Abstract—an experiment was carried out to study the effects of cadmium and organic matter on soil pH, electrical conductivity, and cadmium availability as a factorial treatment arrangement in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four levels of cow manure (0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) and five levels of cadmium (0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg -1soil) filling pots of 2 kg soil. The results indicated that addition of cow manure to soil can reduce the soil pH and increase the electrical conductivity resulting in cadmium availability increase.

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Optimization and Modeling of energy consumption in combined parallel absorption-compression chiller on building

Abstract— Energy consumption and its cost is always one of the main issues in energy zone, because chillers are one of the main consumers in domestic and commercial, we have to find a way to reduce chillers energy consumption. In this paper combined parallel absorption- compression chiller are modeled and optimized. First a thermodynamic model with the base of thermodynamic laws is analyzed, after modeling of absorption-compression chiller thermodynamic cycle, objective function is sum of energy consumption in compression chiller compressor, absorption chiller boiler, and condenser fan in absorption and compression chiller, pumps in absorption chiller. Refrigerating capacity building, the return of investment, inlet and outlet water temperatures to chillers, water mass flow rate in chillers and the refrigerant temperature entering compression chiller are constraints. Analysis of this model, percentage of chillers used in every month is determined and the objective function is obtained.

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Effect of pedestrian bridges on air pollution

Abstract— detailed analysis of accidents largely depends on the knowledge of drivers, vehicles, routes and links between them are. In this paper we evaluate the safety of roads in urban and non-urban areas in the next section briefly discusses strategies to suit the possibilities and capabilities of the experts of law in Iran 's legislators and the Discussion evaluates Based appropriate extent of damage can be caused by low levels of road safety can be prevented.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 17


Evaluation of Soil Potential for Carbon Emission in Abyek Area of Qazvin Province

Abstract—This study was conducted in order to determination of soil potential for carbon emission in the Abyek area of Qazvin province, Iran. The study area is located between 50º 18´ to 50º 24´ E and 36º 00´ to 36º 09´ N. This study characterized the spatial variation in average amount of susceptible organic carbon (SOC) to emission, related to geoforms, soil taxon and major kind of landforms (MKLU). Field investigations were carried out with digging and describing 32 profiles and 27 mini pits during early April. The soil attributes that were measured included; pH, electrical conductivity (EC), CaCO3, organic carbon % (wet digestion and combustion methods), soil texture, saturation percentage and active carbon. The results revealed that the average of SOC to emission in Highglacis, undulated geoform with pasture land use, Highglacis, flat with pasture land use, Middle glacis with both pasture and agriculture land uses, Lowglacis with both pasture and agriculture land uses and depression with pasture land use were 1.9, 1.48, 2, 1.9, 2.1, 1.1 and 1.8 ton/ha, respectively. The average of SOC to emission in Enisols and Inceptisols were determined 0.8 and 1.3 ton/ha, respectively. In addition, Calcixerepts and Haploxerepts have had the average of SOC to emission about 1.3 and 1.5 ton/ha, respectively. This characteristic in the soil family textural classes of Fine-loamy, Sandy-skeletal, coarse-loamy, Loamy-skeletal and Fine were calculated about 0.04, 0.06, 0.06, 0.02 and 0.03 Kg/m2, respectively. 

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The effectiveness of gas rationing in reducing fuel consumption and air pollution 

Abstract— Gas rationing as an economic policy have been numerous ecological and social consequences that are needed to evaluate the frequency. In the absence of a sharp increase in environmental pollution and even decreased with the increasing entry of vehicles in large cities, as a result of the implementation of this policy is to assess. Before rationing gasoline consumption than other petroleum products has increased so that nearly doubled the per capita energy consumption has increased more or less constant rate.

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Introducing a recycling method for iron oxide nanoadsorbent from mine waste and its application in wastewater treatment 

Abstract— In this study, a feasible and environmentally friendly method was used for the recycling of iron oxide nanopowder from steel industry waste, and its application in the removal of pollutants from wastewater was investigated. The iron content in the residue transformed to  Fe3O4 powder through leaching and reacting with sodium sulfite and ammonium hydroxide. The obtained powder was consisted of spherical nano-crystals with high purity and was reacted with wastewater containing cobalt in different concentrations and  pH levels giving rise to a removal of  91 percentage cobalt at alkaline ambiance.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 16


Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite in Synthetic Bone Grafting – A New Approach

Abstract — Bio material is the term usually applied to living or processed tissues or to materials used to reproduce the function of living tissue in conjunction with them. Simply it is a material intended to interact with the biological system. Although autogenous- and allogeneic- bone grafts have been used for a long time in bone therapies, there is still a donor shortage and infection risk. As an alternative, synthetic biomaterials have been developed and clinically used as bone grafts. Disclosed herein are an environmentally friendly Biocomposite prepared from a mixture, as reinforcement, of fibers extracted from plant herbs like banana, roselle and sisal which have a medicinal value. Metals and alloys that are successful as bio materials include: gold, tantalum, stainless steel, Co-Cr, NiTi (shape memory alloy), Ti, Zirconia.  The selection of the material for implants depends on the complication of bone defects. Shortcomings of many metals include low biocompatibility, corrosion, too high stiffness compared to tissues, high density, and release of metal ions which may cause allergic tissue reactions. Polymer composites provide alternative choice to overcome the shortcomings mentioned above. This paper is intended to fabricate Natural fiber reinforced composite as a plate material by using the polymer bioepoxy resin (epichlorohydrin). The plate material uses calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate, hen eggshell powdered material and Hydroxy Apatite ceramic composite and collagen as its coating. 

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Improvement of heavy metal adsorption by nano-structured bentonite

Abstract— In this study because of the proper cationic exchange capacity, high specific surface, stability, and cheapness of clay nano-Bentonite, it was used as an absorbent agent for adsorption of zinc as a heavy metal. In order to improve the adsorption mechanism in nano- Bentonite structure a model was introduced based on three improving factors including: 1- dimensional factor and analysis of d-spacing effect 2- Inter layer cation types by investigation of swelling index factor effect 3- Effect of environmental conditions such as pH, metal ion concentration, absorbent concentration and stirring speed. For investigation of model efficacy, three mentioned factor were tested in three steps. First, preparation procedure was done on six samples for determination of dimensional factor amounts, d-spacing and swelling index. Then the expected sample for maximum adsorption based on these amounts was selected. Second, by using Experimental Design software and CCD design model, the environmental effect was investigated and optimum amounts were determined. Third, these conditions were tested for all six samples. Results showed that the decreasing of dimensions results in decreasing of d-spacing in samples and increasing of swelling index in Na-Bentonite samples. In Bentonite samples the counter effect of swelling index on d-spacing caused 30% increasing in absorption. Finally, a sample with dimension of 2.05 nm, swelling index of 17.6, d-spacing of 12.59 and absorption recovery of about 94% was selected as the best absorbent.These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for conferences or journals. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at JMEAST. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column. Page margins are 1,78 cm top and  down; 1,65 cm left and right. Each column width is 8,89 cm and the separation between the columns is 0,51 cm.

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Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Ab-anbars with Windcatcher by using Computational Fluid Dynamic at Different Velocities

Abstract— One of the most important parts of traditional architectural structural building in Iran that have a significant impact on the urban landscape and architecture, are domes. In the natural architecture of the central plateau region, establishing a spiritual and material relationship between the environmental conditions and the use of arched ceilings, such as domes over the centuries has become an important feature of the place. In this paper, as an example of the masterpieces of the ancient Persians, the efficacy of such ceilings in ab-anbar with windcatcher has been investigated. The ab-anbar as one of the infrastructures has a great position in the Iranian civilization and is spread almost in the frontline across Iran. Ab-anbar space does not disclose and all of them have a vent for air. Confined space makes the possibility of access to storage inside difficult, additionally, it makes the water very hot, so on sunny days the storage inside is very hot. Therefore, all the ab-anbar has air vents on the storage roof. The vent and the windmill cause the coolness and the salubrity of the water in addition to the ventilation inside the tank. In this paper, we firstly discuss the function of the ab-anbars and then we study the function of ab-anbar with windcatcher under different velocities using computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose, first the geometric modeling and mesh structure is done in software GAMBIT and then we investigate the flow patterns in this type of ab-anbars with using FLUENT software.

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Mini Review on the Application of Neural Networks in Solar Energy Conversion

Abstract—People and animals are much better and faster at recognizing while computers are an integral part of day to day activities in engineeringdesign.Artificial neural networks are applies to problems where the relationships may be quite dynamic or non-linear. ANNs provide an analytical alternative to conventional techniques which are often limited by strict assumptions of normality, linearity or variable independence.Neural networks can be applied to the solar system models to make sensible decisions in different areas. Paper presented here reviewed the most important applications of the neural networks in the solar energy systems.

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Exergy a method for determining the rate of energy dissipation in the walls with and without insulation of residential buildings in Lorestan

Abstract— In this paper, exergy analysis has been walls of residential buildings Lorestan province. In order to analyze the walls with different materials, three types of walls has been selected with and without insulation. Insulation is used thermal insulation polyurethane spray in this study. After presenting the equations on the rate of heat transfer, the rate of input exergy loss, exergy loss rate of output, total exergy loss rate and reduce the amount of non-insulated walls using spray polyurethane foam insulation wall insulation and the second law efficiency is estimated.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 15


Laboratory investigation of the effect of a new labyrinth with different length and width in the wing length of a triangular-shaped labyrinth weir

Abstract - Due to minor changes in the static load on the crest in case of large fluctuations in flow rate, polyhedral weirs, compared with other types of weirs, are considered as economic structures to control water levels in the irrigation networks. Using labyrinth weirs is an effective and economical approach to improve the efficiency of the weir by increasing its effective crest length. In this case, for a constant hydraulic height and width, it passes a greater discharge in comparison with other types of weirs. In this study, the V-shaped plan-form weirs are studied [1, 2]. Tests are conducted on 30 models with 7 different discharges, and in a total of 210 tests. The models include 30 V-shaped weirs with various lengths. The models are investigated in a flume with 8 m length, 0.35 m width and height of 0.40 m. The results of this study indicate that for all triangular-shaped weirs the ratio of discharge coefficient to P/  ( : total hydraulic load, P: weir height) is at first increased and after reaching a maximum, begins to be reduced. As the height of labyrinth on the weir wings increases, as a result of increases in effective length, the discharge coefficient is increased for a specific  /P. The results also show that increasing the wing length reduces the discharge coefficient. Also, the discharge coefficient is greater for V-shaped weirs than linear ones.

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Survey Effective Factors on Adoption of Low Input Sustainable Agriculture from the Standpoint of Agriculture Experts in Ilam Province

Abstract— Nowadays the world is facing many problems, which the most important one of them is the Explosion of Population. This increase in population will cause serious implications on the consumption and distribution of food around the world. Previously, in order to meet the increasing demand for food, breeding livestock and further harvesting from agricultural land while enriching them with more nutrients, were the two dominant ways of increasing the production. But it seems highly unlikely that we can harvest more food by adding more nutrients to agricultural lands in the future. Therefore, designing systems that can comply with the long-term requirements of Humans, while considering optimal resource conservation, is a very important issue in modern agriculture. In such systems, inputs like chemical pesticides are slightly used. In this regard, agricultural experts are constantly seeking ways to reduce the dependence on external entities, while meeting the financial interests and social acceptability of farmers. This article aims to survey the factors affecting the adoption of sustainable low input agriculture from the standpoint of agricultural experts in Ilam province. A questionnaire was used as the main tool for this research and its validity was approved by seven professors and experts of Ministry of Agriculture. In order to assess the reliability of the questionnaire, a preliminary test was conducted using 30 questionnaires and The Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated to be 88%. Statistical population were comprised of 170 agricultural experts from Ilam province, of which according to Cochran's formula, 313 were chosen as the sample and were selected using a stratified random sampling method with proper attribution. A statistical analysis was conducted after data extraction using SPSS version 12 software. The dependent variable in this study is Adoption of low input sustainable agriculture from the standpoint of agricultural experts in Ilam province, and independent variables include individual, educational, economical, and social factors. The results obtained for the inferential statistics show that there is a positive and significant relation at the level of 95% between variables of age and accepting the low input agriculture, and also there is a positive and significant relation at the level of 99% between variables of marital status, work experience, educational factors, social factors, economical factors, and accepting the low input agriculture.

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Economic Evaluation of the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Intelligent Management of Environmental Crises

Abstract- One  of  the  challenge  about  jungle  environment  is  related  to  factors  who  are  accorded  in  natural  or  artificial. Variety method for present of events is done. In this paper, efficient and economical is investigated use of wireless sensor networks as a method based on information and communication technologies in the prevention and control of such problems. Evaluation results show that the use of this type of sensor has a cost to an acceptable level; it can be useful to solve such problems.

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Concentration Distribution of Elements in Water and Biomass of Mineral Hot Springs in Ramsar

Abstract-There are 9 mineral hot springs with a surface temperature of 20-60 °C in the southern and southeastern slopes of Ramsar. Thermophilic cyanobacteria grow in sediments and biomass in environmental conditions of mineral hot springs. The aim of the present study is to measure concentrations of heavy metals in water and biomass and to assess the ability of biomass to remove heavy metals. The order of heavy metals absorption by biomass was as follows: Zn<Pb<Cd<Co<Li<Ni<As.

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Modeling Monthly Mean Air Temperature Using SAMS2007 (Case Study: Urmia synoptic station)

Abstract—Modeling many hydrological processes are difficult because of existence of so many parameters that effect each other and create complex systems.  So applying related software's can be useful to solve this problem. In this study, the average monthly temperature time series data of Urmia synoptic station in the period of 1951 to 2005 modeled and forecasted using SAMS2007 software. Before modeling, applied time series controlled, normalized and stationarity tested. After preparing data parameters of model estimated and base on the Akaike test, best model selected and average temperature of studied station forecasted within the next 15 years. Correlation between actual and generated data approved the ability of time series model and applied software. Results showed ARMA (1,0) with the less AICC can be recommended to predict air temperature of Urmia synoptic station.

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Fabrication of Industrial Safety Helmet by using Hybrid Composite Materials

Abstract-Composite materials with thermoplastic matrices and a reinforcement of natural fibers are increasingly regarded as an alternative to material replacement for various applications. The substitution of the traditionally used composite of natural fibers such as sisal, banana and jute can lead to a reduction of the component's weight and furthermore to a significant improvement of specific properties like impact strength, compression strength. One of the major fields of application for such materials can be found in structural components manufacturing of industrial safety helmets. 

In this project work natural fiber particle reinforced materials such as Sisal, Banana and  jute reinforced polymer composite material with epoxy resin has been used for fabrication of industrial safety helmet . Impact strength and compression strength values are identified. The helmet manufacturing aspects are reviewed. Both the thermoplastic and the natural fiber composite shell manufacturing techniques are presented with specific mentioning of the advantages and disadvantages to each type from the manufacturing point of view.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 14


Estimation  of  Environmental  Damage  in  Wetland  and  Ecosystem  based  on  Artificial  Neural  Networks

Abstract— Estimate  of  environmental  damage  to  ecosystem  and  wetlands  have  an  important  role  to  making  decision  of  organization , For  compensation  these  damage  and  preventing  from  repeating  them. Shofar  different  methods  presented  to  compute  these  damage, In  the  paper  to  be  tried  by  using  artificial neural network  estimate  accrue  quantity  of  damage.  The  result  showed  using of  this  method  can  useful  to  estimate  the  damage.

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Investigating the Role of IT and Communication in Tourism

Abstract—this study mainly aims to investigate the role of information technology (IT) and communications in tourism. Today we can see main changes in the tourism. Meeting the tourists’ needs better and fast for making them more satisfied by technological facilities and displaying and introducing the facilities and capabilities of host to foreigners as well as providing them with facilitated transportation is the main objective of tourism industry. In this paper by a descriptive method, and using documentations and reviewing the findings of other studies and papers, we will investigate and determine the role of IT and Communication in tourism.

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The methods of making stability in architecture and future urbanization

Abstract –Increasing population ,to become industrialized .The life ,unformed consumption and production of pollutants and building industry are as one of the largest social and economical parts, that are unlike with humanُs free soul in changing environment and humanُs health and many factors like pressure and  alienation in cities . Even though the result of modern crisis are recognized well, but many solutions related to problems seem inefficient and that is because of their separated approach connection to natural , as the value of natural is not revived.

However , stable development has ecological, economical, cultural-social roots, but the place of nature would be more clear by researching the ongoing modern human’s problem and their approaches in stable architecture.

At the end and whereas the new activity is correlated with new generation. It world present some approaches by obtained-progresses and the speed of modern technologies with the respect of belief, social samples and the role of energy and populations, so that the trilogy relation, human, nature and architecture with the respect of humans role and also architecture would prepare people for having such architectural and urban spaces.

The method of this research is based on library. And obtained results of this research will embark on some approaches for designing high green building in future with the aim of reforming the relation of human, nature and architecture.

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Numerical optimization of hybrid wind-diesel system–compressed air energy storage based on genetic algorithm

Abstract—In this study, the accessible technical ways tosupercharge diesel engine in wind-diesel system with high penetration and the use of compressed air energy storage system (WDCAS) have been studied to optimize system performance and reduce consumption expenditure. The principle of the hybrid system is shown based on increasing engine performance and reducing its fuel consumption. The engine used in optimization in MATLAB software has a capacity of 5 liters and a speed of 1500 rpm. The optimization of this system has been done by genetic algorithm. Finally, the optimization problem has been raised to maximize power output as the objective function of wind-diesel system-compressed air energy storage. The obtained results of optimization show that the use of compressed air system decreases fuel consumption up to 50%.

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Using a combination of two input chopper to help recharge a hybrid car

Abstract—According to humanitarian programs and projects on environmental problems is increasing day by day. In this paper, a new structure for charging batteries in hybrid vehicles will be provided. In accordance with the terms of inputs, each input source can be individually or combined in their power to carry out.

With regard to infrastructure and SEPIC circuit composed of two inverter CUK, do not use the filter for high frequency harmonics. Harmonic Generator reduces life expectancy and reduce the performance is. This structure can MPPT (Maximum power point tracking) can be defined for each input. In this article, we will analyze and simulate the structure are listed.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 13


A review of the biological status of Iranian dwarf honey bees (Apis florea)

Abstract: Honey bees of the Apis genus are classified regarding to their size, into three groups: large, medium and dwarf honeybees and the Apis florea species belong to the third group. Fore wing length in this species has been evaluated to be between 5-7 mm. These honey bees mostly make hives in urban areas, areas with high agricultural activity and Savannah. The distribution region of this species in Iran is the southern half of the country. Morphological studies of these species in Iran indicate that according to Bergman’s rule, there is a positive correlation between the increase in height and size in this species. Therefore, the honey bees of the southwestern areas with higher latitude and the larger size are grouped in a cluster and the honey bees in southeast parts of the country with lower latitude and smaller bees are grouped in another cluster. Other morphological and geometric-morphometric studies about the dwarf honeybees of a number of provinces in Iran has shown that honeybees of Hormozgan (with lower latitude) are different from other provinces honey bees (Ilam, Khuzestan and Bushehr) with higher latitude. Also, the length of the third and fourth tergite and the length of the proboscis, are the most variable morphological features in the Iranian dwarf honeybees. Karyotype study also included 16 chromosomes of this species in two groups: 4 metacentric chromosomes (1, 4, 7 and 11) and 12 chromosomes (including sub-metacentric chromosomes, sub-telocentric and 2 acrocentric chromosomes). Molecular study of these honey bees using microsatellite markers indicated that these honey bees have a suitable genetic condition because the great environmental diversity and interactions between genotype and environment. Regarding the morphology of the Apis florea honey bees in Asia, they have almost a different status. This species has a great importance in the pollination of crops in the southern parts of Iran and is considered as a local and national asset for the country. so, serious operations should be taken to preserve of this precious species in Iran.

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The new method to make polyamide membranes for water treatment

Abstract—Polyamide membranes are composed of three layers and can be used for desalination. Construction of the separation layer of the membrane that occurs through the polymerization is very difficult. In this paper, the usual way and the new way to build membranes have provided. The SEM images of the structures have been formed to consider. UV rays can be said to make this type of membranes are not suitable. Increased duration of the polymerization process for making these membranes are effective.

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Assessment Habitat Suitability of Phasianus colchicus (talishensis) in Siahkal, Gilan Province, Northern Iran

Abstract—The present study has been done to assess Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus population in nature and habitat suitability rate. We used call counting to estimate the population of Common Pheasant in reproduction season (spring) in Tootestan habitat in Siahkal area of Gilan Province. The most calls were heard in part 3 of garden section of the Tootestan. According to the sexual rate we have estimated 153 Common Pheasants. Study on habitat suitability is necessary the attention to fundamental factors of life. Thus we identified biotic and threatened factors and we sorted quantity factors by numbers rate and quality factors by ranking mode (excellent, good, middle, weak) and then we evaluated value of the habitat suitability per part and also total habitat. The part 3 of garden with prevailing cover of shrub/grass has most suitability index is 0.8. Then 2, 4, 1 parts have most suitability index.

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Wastewater and compare treatment difference methods together

Abstract: In this paper , water and wastewater are discussed. In the first of research, sanitation ofwastewater research in Iran and world , history wastewater treatment and necessity of research are involved

Its wastewater treatment purposes , the main pollutants in wastewater , familiarity to terms such as BOD, COD, TSS, SS, PH, TDS, TOC, , heavy metals in wastewater , waste -producing sources , combined wastewater, The types of municipal , wastewater treatment methods such as physical methods and chemical explanations , each of them ,and differentmethod suchas  reverse osmosis , ozone gas , adsorption, filtration, coagulation, activated carbon, first treatment,secondary treatment,advanced treatment, the method of wastewater disposal and finally proposals have been brought.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 12


Poverty and deprivation, conflict with sustainable development and environment

Abstract— This study was a descriptive analytical research. The main objective of this research has been investigated how the poverty and deprivation caused instability in the environment. More than one million people in Iran, still live as nomadic. Reason poverty and lack of access to essential services and basic amenities, these have the unsustainability for their environment life. In other words nomad people, every year has destructed forests for fuel requirements, and destruction rare animal and plant species. The viewpoint of migratory nomads’ households, the most important factors that could be affected the use of wood for fuel respectively was included to: lack of access to better fuel (26.5%), economical factors (18.3%), geographical and infrastructural factors (16.2%), educational factors (9.7%) and cultural factors (8.01%).

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MIXED INFECTION OF ECTOPARASITIES AND BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS IN EL-BEHERA GOVERNORATE AND ITS RELATIONS TO ECONOMIC LOSSES

Abstract— A bacterial and ectoparasitic study on cultured O.niloticus was conducted in one-year survey from November 2012 until November 2013. O.niloticus were collected from different Fish farms in El-Behera governorate seasonally. Various parasites were recovered, including Tricodina sp., Chillodenillae sp. and Monogenetic trematodes with high incidence during Spring and Summer seasons. In a bacteriological survey about 200 bacterial isolates were recovered, A.hydrophila (100 isolates) was the predominant bacteria, followed by P. fluorescens (60 isolates) then the Streptococcal spp (40isolates). The highest number of outbreaks occurred during Summer and Spring seasons. Sensitivity to different antimicrobials has been observed in this study. Experimental infection in apparently O.niloticus using one isolate of A. hydrophila showed recorded mortality rates 90%.upon I/P injection respectively. Our results concluded that, the higher economic losses resulted from parasitic infestation were observed in Trichodina, Monogenia , Mixed infection between Monogenia and Trichodina and the least losses observed in Chilodenella and the losses in return due to their infestation were 600, 400, 200.02 and 13.30 LE/1000 cultured fish, respectiovely. While, the higher economic losses due to bacterial infection observed in A. hydrophila , Pseudomonas flourescens and Streptococcus infection and the losses in return resulted from their infection to the fish were 500, 400 and 260.68 LE/1000 cultured fish respectively.  

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Numerical optimization of hybrid wind-diesel system–compressed air energy storage based on genetic algorithm

Abstract— In this study, the accessible technical ways tosupercharge diesel engine in wind-diesel system with high penetration and the use of compressed air energy storage system (WDCAS) have been studied to optimize system performance and reduce consumption expenditure. The principle of the hybrid system is shown based on increasing engine performance and reducing its fuel consumption. The engine used in optimization in MATLAB software has a capacity of 5 liters and a speed of 1500 rpm. The optimization of this system has been done by genetic algorithm. Finally, the optimization problem has been raised to maximize power output as the objective function of wind-diesel system-compressed air energy storage. The obtained results of optimization show that the use of compressed air system decreases fuel consumption up to 50%.

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Factors affecting on farmers' attitudes towards sustainable Environmental effects of integrated pest management

(A Case Study of pistachio growers in Kerman province)

Abstract— Excessive use of chemical pesticides has resulted in severe environmental pollution. Integrated pest management recently is considered a sustainable approach to pest control.  Although History of integrated pest management in Iran is more than 20 years but IPM applying by farmers  is very low. Farmers' attitudes towards sustainable Environmental effects of integrated pest management can effect on IPM applying by them. Main purpose of this research is Determination of the factors affecting on farmers' attitudes towards sustainable Environmental effects of integrated pest management for suitable planning about IPM applying. Questionnaire was used to gather information from 306 pistachio growers in Kerman province. Result showed that there was positive relation between the roles of extension agents, farmer's Net income, IPM technology costs, farmer's Level of Education, farmer's Spirit of Innovation and farmer's association with farmers' attitudes towards sustainable Environmental effects of integrated pest management. Also there was negative relation between The cost of chemical control with farmers' attitudes. Finally, suggestions are offered.

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Hospital Waste Management In Order To Reduce Environmental Hazard

Abstract— Hospitals in broad spectrum produces waste materials which during health care activities as compared to other waste product are potentially harmful in causing infection and injury. Collection and disposal of hospital and other health care centers waste products requires specific locations due to their danger to human health, animals, plants and environment. Materials and method in this research work is descriptive and analytic and are obtained from valid documents and resources. In general we can mention that managing hospital waste materials plays a vital role in preventing its negative impacts over environment.

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Survey of environmental approaches in the view of international trade law and international investment law

Abstract: Generally, trade and investment law are new concepts and in this respect it is similar to the Environmental Law, hence, it is not too far-fetched while these two young category have been Somehow diverging and There has been no Comprehensive, coordinated and convergent look in these two areas. It seems that reinforcement of interaction and collaboration between the fields of environment and natural resource with economics, trade and investment activities can help foster mutual understanding, facilitate the attainment of business strategies according to the needs of the environment and provide conditions for sustainable development. This paper has attempted to review the most important international agreements, as well as investigating the Attitude of a number of international organizations, to analysis these documents and global environmental issues. 

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 11


An overview of the dust storm effects on economic

Abstract— Increase the number of dust storms in Iran and the Middle East of the environmental challenges become. Dust storms are human, environmental and economic effects. This study is an overview of the latest research in scholarly journals and various websites, including Iran Medex, Iran Dock and SID is made of the phenomenon dust storm exacerbations and impact on human health and environmental effects, international relations and reduce security threats costs will increase even further.

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Energy, environmental and sustainable development

Abstract— During last decades, especially since 1970s and World Commission on Environment and Sustainable Development (1978), environmental issues have been emerged as controversial challenges in political and academic contexts. The present research followed as analytic-descriptive in documental manner, was aimed to review and analysis other literatures on renewable energies and environment in different countries all around world. also investigated the challenges of substantial approaches to dealing with sustainable energy and its environmental consequences. Finally was studied the highlight environment contribution to achieve sustainable development.

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Comparing different Normalization functions (Case study: Monthly Rainfall of IRAN)

Abstract— In the application of statistical theory and probability analysis of hydrologic time series it is assumed that the variables were normally distributed.  Since many time series are not normaly distributed, it is required to normalize data before any analysis and modeling. Normalization has been done by transition functions.  In this study, using 12 common transition functions, average monthly rainfall series in different regions of Iran converted to normal. Then according to the skewness coefficients, the best functions in each climate zone of Iran selected.  Results showed that for warm and dry regions in Iran square root function, was the best transition function for rainfall series. And for the other regions such as warm and wet climates, Johnson function and moderate climates, inverse function can be used with the probability.

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Evaluation of seasonal chemical pollution of drinking water resources using Factor Analysis: a case study of Maragheh city

Abstract— Drinking water quality is an important factor in human health. The aim of the present study is evaluation of seasonal chemical pollution of drinking water resources of Maragheh city in 4 seasons of year (March 2009 to March 2010) and determination essential variables of drinking water quality. For determination of this variables, factor analysis method is applied to 20 water quality parameters of drinking water resources. Water samples were collected from per locality and analyzed by standard methods. Results of factor analysis show that the most significant parameters (total hardness, chlouride, nitrite, nitrate, potassium, calcium, iron) with strong loading values were contributing to the variation in drinking water quality in all the seasons studied. In other words, any arbitrarily selected parameter from these parametes could be used as a "marker" variable to detect potential chemical pollution.

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The application and impact of combined heat and power generating systems in the industry

Abstract— In the last three decades, the major increase in fuel prices , talk of alternative fuels , increasing energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution, the interest in using new technologies , including combined heat and power production (CHP) has increased. The results of the optimization of energy supply, improve production efficiency and reduce environmental pollutants resulting from energy production and energy supply sector, several optimization strategies have been proposed.

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GROWTH AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS IN EARTHEN PONDS

Abstract- Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were stocked in fifteen earthen ponds measuring 1000 m2 (25x40m) and 1.25m deep. The ponds were allocated into five treatments in a complete Randomized Design and labeled as T1; feed only (F) and served as a control group, T2; Compost + feed (CF), T3; Chicken litter + feed (CLF), T4; Fish rigger + feed (FRF) and T5; inorganic fertilizer (Urea +Super phosphate) + feed (IFF), where each treatment was triplicated. The T3 (CLF) treated fish group showed significantly higher growth parameters than the other treated fish groups, whereas, the feed-only treated group was the lowest. Yet no significant differences observed between fish grown in the CLF and CF treated ponds in their daily weight gain. Meanwhile, the survival rate % was generally high in all treated fish groups with the highest survival observed in T2 (CF- treated fish group) Additionally, the different pond management practices regarding the different fertilizers used in this study had fairly improved body composition of O. niloticus fish which revealed a significantly higher levels in the body moisture, fat, ash and protein content than those recorded for the fish at the start of the experiment. Generally a significantly higher phytoplankton and zooplankton number was noted in the fertilized ponds as compared to the number recorded in the feed only treated pond water. Regarding the type of the fertilizer applied, the highest phytoplankton count was noted in the pond water of the CLF treated ponds. Also it is worth stressing that the blue green and green algae were the dominating species in the pond water received fertilizers especially in the CLF treated ponds. The high natural pond productivity achieved in the current study with regard to the plenty and dominance of certain species of plankton besides the benthic materials existed in the ponds is definitely influenced by numerous types of fertilizers considering that the highest level was noticed in the CLF received ponds. Accordingly, our recorded results of chlorophyll α (ug ml-1), phytoplankton and zooplankton count and their species combination in both pond water and fish stomach contents are matched and supporting each other. It gives further verification to the superiority of using fertilizers plus supplemental feeding in producing higher fish yield rather than using artificial feed only and that the usage of CLF is preferable than the other treatments. For all treated fish groups, generally higher incidences of protozoal parasites were found in summer, autumn, and spring which was 73%, 64.5%, and 64% respectively. Yet, the results of the current study recorded parasitic infestation without a meaningful fish mortality in the experimental ponds which is supported by the high fish survivability detected in this work. The net profit was significantly higher from fish cultured in ponds received chicken liter and supplemental feeding. Therefore, overall results obtained in this study suggest that the combined application of fertilizers (namely chicken manure) and feed would be an effective technique to improve the production of a filter feeder, such as O. niloticus. 

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 10

Water resources management in drought conditions

Abstract— Drought is a natural phenomenon caused by changes in weather patterns due to reduced there is less rainfall than usual. Manage the implementation of all the features and capabilities of existing and prevent water waste, speed up performance is needed to alleviate the drought. This study is an overview of the latest research in scholarly journals is provided. Prevent water loss, water in agriculture management and control, environmental management and treatment, water control and ... Approach to water resources management in drought conditions in Iran.

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Multi criteria rules for equitable allocation of GHGs emission reduction at a country scale

Abstract— The adverse effects of climate change and GHGs emission can be combated just by application and acceptance of emissions reduction policies which are based on "Equity" concept. In addition, lack of supranational authority to impose the international agreements and no accountability for reduction efforts at country level may lead to poor implementation of emission reduction targets. As a result, this research suggests and applies fifteen different linear combinations of some principles in order to explore different kinds of burden sharing rules at a country scale for Iran. The focus is on "Horizontal Equity" on the premise of reduction target, economic development and the fulfillment of regional equity. The results of this study show that a 20% cut in Iran’s GHGs emission will lead to about 7-9% reduction of GDP over the period 2010-2020. Amongst the models examined for the appropriateness in this study, the model which assigns a greater weight to the criteria of CO2 per Added Value, demonstrated to be the most viable economical choice that is also fully supportive of less developed provinces. Iran's economy is strongly emission dependent thus application of high potentials for sustainable development and green economic growth, especially renewables, should be placed at the head of governmental plans.

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Area exploration Takhte Soleiman based on geophysical and satellite imagery

Abstract—Geology studies is a multi-stage activity that is began in a small scale and is became to large scale. With combining the results of each phase, study area gets smaller and eventually sites is selected as target for drilling, in order to achieve mineral deposits. Data resulting from studies of topography, geology, geochemistry, geophysics and drilling will achieve a tremendous amount of information that when they to be organized properly, reliable and useful results will presented. With regard to achieved progresses in the field of geographic information system(GIS), significant development occurred in the earth sciences, including obtaining, saving, retrieving, processing, displaying, using and sharing information of reference location. This paper investigates and analyzes appropriate sites of area exploration in sheet of 1:100,000 of Takhte Soleiman with using geophysical and satellite imagery as well as combining data.

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Urban watershed, a strategy in order to maintain ecological balance in the natural urban areas (Case study: Behshahr)

Abstract—In this paper the drainage basin of Behshahr, as a unique ecological area was studied through a descriptive-analytical methodology. In this regard, using accurate ecological and land information about the area in the form of tables and figures, it was tried to emphasize on the importance of this matter in the fields of potentials of the area for natural disasters which may ad will affect the city. In the end, analyzing the ecological situation of the area, approaches were suggested to control and maintain ecological status and the potentials of the city for providing the grounds of improvements. Also strategies are suggested to improve the use of land alongside with security matters.

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Analysis of the relationship of the necessity of regarding renewable energies with the background of components of the human rights

Abstract—The use of the renewable energies in the current era has become gradually the main priority to supply energy. The purity and inexhaustibility of renewable energies are the most important characteristics of these new sources of energy. In this study the fundamental question, which asks the relation between regarding the renewable energies and fundamental concepts of human rights including right on environment and development, etc, has been answered. It seems that regarding renewable energies, is in compliance with rights such as right to life and development. This means the fundamental human rights requires that the new sources of energy which are the fuel engine of the international community to move towards the future, should be in harmony with the rights such as right on environment and development.

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Study of Biomass Energy in Iran

Abstract: Currently human life is dependent on renewable energy. These fuels are also the causes of crises such as global warming and environmental pollution are land and natural ecosystems collide. In the not too distant future, a new and renewable energy should be replaced. This study examines the use of biomass energy in Iran is discussed. This energy is the best alternative to fossil fuels because everywhere there or they can be planted everywhere, even in remote villages. In addition to being environmentally friendly is that energy can satisfy the needs of many parts of the community and in large part to eliminate waste and sewage. Iran is a country in the field of biomass can be very high. Investment and proper planning can be successful in this field will cause the sustainable development of cities and villages of the country.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 9


Mathematical modeling and optimization cycle gas turbine cogeneration

Abstract— combined heat and power (CHP) utilization is an essential and inevitable because the conventional methods usage are inefficient and pollutant. The cogeneration has economic and environmental advantages. In this paper, a thermodynamic model was developed to analyze the performance of cogeneration plant based on ideal brayton cycle. This gas turbine cycle modeling includes compressor, turbine, combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The efficiency of cycle supposed as objective function and outlet temperature of combustion chamber, payback time and the ratio of heat to power generation supposed as constraints. By analyzing this model, the dependency of efficiency to pressure ratio, turbine outlet temperature and chimney inlet temperature has been studied and the optimal value of the objective function and each of the above factors have been obtained.

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The effect of concurrent thermal and power production system in reduction of air pollution

Abstract— Development of cities and increase of the population in recent years and need to energy and as a result increase of economic cost of providing energy and also harmful environmental effects of pollutants resulted from combustion of the urban and nonurban consumers fossil fuels in the future will lead to challenges for the governments. It is necessary to find solutions to prevent social crises resulted from these problems. The developed countries have sought solutions for sloving similar problems and they have produced energies for different users in the cities and country and developed concurrent thermal and cooling systems. Due to economic and technical advantages like high thermal output relative to other thermal power plants (up to 90%) and as result significant saving in fuel consumption, development of such power plants reduces urban electricity transferring and distribution networks burden and investment costs and also decreases loses and improves cities environmental conditions. This action is aligned with implementation of Kyoto protocol regarding to sustainable development and reduction of greenhouse gases production. Expansion of commercial, residential and administrative spaces will lead to increase 47% in fuel consumption until 2020. This enhancement will add trillions environmental pollutants on the earth and air. In this article the environmental effects of air pollution are investigated. According to this fact the next century will be the century of energy and attention to energy crises and necessity of saving on energy consumption and considering air pollution and as result greenhouse effect and other environmental and commercial impacts so it is necessary to use concurrent thermal and power production systems in order to reduce electricity and thermal production process pollutants and study feasibility of employing this technology in power industry.

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Energy, Economy and Environment (3Es), from Green Economy Perspective

Abstract— In recent years, the global financial crisis on the one side and the environmental challenges, especially the global warming and climate change on the other, have collectively faced the international community with major problems. Using fossil fuels as a major source of energy production has an important role in greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. This pattern has caused the natural resources depletion and wide range of environmental problems. In contrast, the concept of "Green Economy" attempts to find a way for solving the contradiction between the economic growth, the resources depletion and environmental challenges.

This article exhibits an endeavor to evaluate the various sources of energy "availability" and "accessibility" with the Green Economy tools in mind, and proposes suitable potentials considered fit for Iran in coherence with Green Economy concept.

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Determining the Nature Tourism Carrying Capacity in the Mountain Areas of Iran

Abstract— Increasing demand and acceptance of tourists in the critical and sensitive mountain areas of Iran in the recent years and lack of a comprehensive and planned program for the areas' tourism has intensified the necessary for special attention to these areas. Therefore, in this study, the capacity threshold for accepting tourists in the mountain tourism areas of Iran, such as Abinam, Sardabi, Larikhani and Gavdilan located at Deylaman district in Gilan province has been investigated in Spring 2013 in line with Approach to Sustainable Tourism Development based on the tourism carrying capacity method. To this regard, firstly the indexes influencing the region tourism carrying capacity estimation (TCC( have been evaluated by using the existent literature and the experts' comments, and then the number of tourists that can effectively, physically and really attend  in the region has been calculated by applying the quantitative method. Results indicated that Gavdilan district has a more capacity for attracting tourists and generally the amount of entered tourists, especially on holidays, is more than the regions' actual capacity. In addition, the regions' effective carrying capacity can be increased by enhancing the service and infrastructure capacity.

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Numerical Simulation of Flow Field around a Darrieus Vertical axis wind turbine to Estimate Rotational wakes Size

Abstract— Due to the increasing energy cost and reducing fossil resources, also with respect to environmental pollutions, sustainable energy usage is inevitable. In the last decades wind power is allocated to a particular share of sustainable energies. Design and optimization of wind systems requires aerodynamics analysis. Computational fluid dynamics is a guaranteed method for aerodynamics analysis of wind turbines. In this work at first we introduce briefly Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines and discussed their advantages and disadvantages compared to the horizontal axis wind turbines. Then tried to use a computational fluid dynamics method to simulate flow field around the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine with three straight blades that use NACA0016 airfoil as profile of blades. To do this, we used RNG K-ε turbulence model to solve RANS equations of fluid motion. Simulation has been performed for three values of the rotational speeds. Velocity distribution of wakes is obtained in some horizontal directions.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 8


Dust storms and environmental health impacts

Abstract— One of the arid and semi -arid climatic phenomena and areas adjacent to these areas, phenomena are dust and to dust storms, which have affected large areas of the atmosphere, causing atmospheric blur reduction horizontal and vertical viewing many effects on other environmental, social, economic and health. One of the most devastating effects of Hurricane dust phenomenon that happens it can cause environmental damage and the onset or exacerbation respiratory diseases, heart disease, air and ground traffic, tourism, agriculture. This study investigates the phenomenon of dust and its impact on the environment and health are identified.

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Sustainable Architecture along with Traditional Architecture

Abstract— There have been decades since the emergence of sustainable architecture by which plenty of solutions have been offered for solving contemporary crisis, but there are still problems for sustainable architecture. Since life grows and develops in a sustainable environment and suitable region, thus human should attempt to know the surrounding environment to be able to make a proper relation between living environment and man-mades.

In between, people in past were consistently trying to construct buildings and their living environment according to the region of the area. But human beings, today, with the help of new technology and materials have been trying to confront the region. In many cases, urban planning, residential constructions, and use of materials which is merely an adaptation and in the long run, can not be accountable for the region changes and impacts, are observed. The best architecture design is the one which can meet social, economical, technological, aesthetics, and environmental needs.

By considering proper designing and correct understanding of the construction materials and components and proper implementation of them regarding the region, cultural and social issues of the traditional buildings, in this paper, it is tried to study different traits of Urmia city and impacts of these factors on designing traditional housing in this city and implicate approaches to these issues and present solutions for new designs.

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Design and Implementation a novel Low Power Consumption Lighting System

Abstract—In this paper we present a way to reduce the standby power consumption of a PIR-sensor-based lighting device. Generally although a PIR-sensor-based lighting device will turn on when motion is detected, and will turn off when the motion disappears, the device still consumes 1-3 W power when the lampis off. In our design the device consumes 0.007 W when the light is off, and is not only easy to set up but also inexpensive. Our circuit supplies the lamp with power when motion is detected; when the motion disappears it turns the lamp off, and the electric power is shut off in order to reduce the standby power. We usean MCU which receives signals from a PIR sensor which detects any individual approaching the device. The MCU controls the SSR On/Off when used as a lighting switch for shutting off the standby power. The MCU monitoring program provides automatic detection of any individual by means of the PIR sensor. The MCU has internal modules to simplify the hardware circuit design. The circuit component count, cost and powerconsumption are low.

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Improvement of biodiesel production reaction using functionalized spherical mesoporous silica MCM-41and HMS

Abstract— This study was carried out to improve process of biodiesel production from castor oil by using functionalized mesoporous silica HMS and MCM-41 with amine and lysine as a catalyst. These catalysts have a high surface area about 1053 and 1100 m2/gr, respectively. Both of them were synthesized at room temperature. We expected that more catalytic cites was emerged and better results were achieved in mesoporous state. The analysis is the proof of this claim. Transesterification reaction was performed at 60 oC. At the end of reaction, application of catalyst was reviewed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method and betterment of reaction is followed. GC-MS shows that yield of reactions catalyzed with HMS and MCM-41, after 1h are 97% and 99%, respectively.

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Using GeoStudio Model For Assessment of Leachate Migration Through Soil in Hushangabad-Azizabad Landfill of Tehran

Abstract— The storage of any waste material in a landfill poses potential problems. One problem is the possible contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water. In recent years, the use of simulation software as a tool for the design, operation and monitoring in the field of environmental engineering including solid waste landfills is widely spread. Capability of these softwares in quick and precise calculation expands their application. More recently, integrated models have appeared that combine the several phenomena the previous models have tackled individually. One of the integrated models is GeoStudio that has several tools to model the water seepage, contaminant transport, particle tracking in response to the movement of water, diffusion, dispersion, adsorption, radioactive decay and heat transfer through soil. In this study, in first stage, SEEP/W, a part of GeoStudio, has been used to determine the path of leachate movement. Results of previous stage and CTRAN/W, a part of GeoStudio, has been used to assess contaminant transport by Advection-Dispersion mechanisms at the bottom of a new solid waste landfill in vicinity of Hushangabad- Azizabad, Tehran.

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2014: Vol 3, Issue 7


Prevent damage to the wind turbine is equipped with double- fed induction generator (DFIG) in low-voltage ride through (LVRT)

Abstract— Spread of wind power plants connected to the grid has raised some concerns about the weakness of disturbances resulting voltage drop. Doubly fed induction generators are very sensitive to sudden changes of stator voltage. Fault conditions, a sudden sharp rise in the rotor will link voltage DC converters. Increase the voltage and current, causing severe damage to the converters. This paper presents two methods for reducing the voltage and current standard. Accuracy of the method is verified by simulation results PSCAD / EMTDC for a 1.3 [mw] wind turbine manufactured by Siemens Company.

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Outlet water quality improvement in fish culture by Rockworm Marphysa sanguinea in the  Semi-recirculating system

Abstract— Three trials have been conducted  for 14 weeks to test the water quality improvement and growth performance in the rockworm settlement tanks receiving wastes from olive flounder rearing tanks, in the integrated culture systems with semi-recirculation. No significant differences observed in growth performance among fishes in each experimental group. the highest removal efficiency in TN (35%) belonged   to T1, TP with 45% to T3, TSS with 78% to T2, COD with 17% to T3, and NH3 with 31% . These results suggested that the rockworm M. sanguinea with 4000 inds/m2 with less than 0.5 g was an excellent potential candidate for integrated aquaculture and nutrient recycling including the removal of organic wastes in land-based systems.

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Investigation of biogas as renewable energy source

Abstract: The world's growing energy consumption and limited fossil energy resources and the environmental impact of these materials on the one hand, the increase Tend to use renewable energy sources such as bio-gas energy in the world. Biogas by bacteria that cause decay, rot and break down organic materials in anaerobic conditions can be produced. Best places for optimal utilization of biogas in rural areas can be cited. Biogas contains about 70 percent methane gas extracted from the device and 30 percent carbon dioxide and contain small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. In addition to fuel rural biogas recovery, biogas system with a by product of the fertilizer is rich. Compared with normal manure fermented manure ammonia and phosphorus by 120 percent to 150 percent increased efficacious resistant parasite Ascaris worms or intestinal worms that after 180 days of staying alive, staying instrument biogas power is reduced to 20%. Chinese model biogas system has the best conditions in which to build.

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Optimum Design of Transformer Model on contactless Energy Transmission System (CET) with Series Resonant Converter

Abstract— contactless transformer with a large air gap has small magnetizing inductance and large leakage inductance comparing with a closely conventional transformer. This paper focus on analysis, optimum design results of the winding contactless transformer using resonant converter. On the contrary to the traditional closely coupled transformer, the contactless transformer with separated primary and secondary winding is used. Therefore, the Contactless transformer with series resonant converter can reduce flow and improved system efficiency. However, this article can be used in the design and manufacture of contactless transmission systems can be significantly improved. However, that requires a contactless transmission system (wireless), is designed to optimize the transformer model. So if this system could be established in the next few years, we have witnessed the removal of wires and cables, That is a great help to preserve the environment and prevent visual disturbance and also avoid being beautiful face of nature will bring.

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Energy use, Economic analysis and Mechanization Index of Onion Production in Iran

ABSTRACT— This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for onion in Mazandaran province of Iran. In this study, data were collected by using random sampling method for 122 face to face questioners. Results showed that the highest share of energy consumption belongs to chemical fertilizers (45.5%) followed by diesel (12.76%). The results indicated that total energy input of 42008.56 MJ ha-1 was consumed for onion production. The energy productivity and net energy value were estimated as 0.416 kg MJ-1 and -14856.92 MJ ha-1, respectively. The ratio of energy outputs to energy inputs was approximately 0.646. The benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 1.59. Mechanization degree (MD) was calculated for plowing and disk border were 100% and 20.65%, as the highest and lowest, respectively. The farms of between two to three hectares with 0.89 highest mechanization index (MI) and those between one to two hectare with 0.6 lowest MI were remarkable.

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Effects of continuous triangular roughnesses on the hydraulic jump characteristics in horizontal Stilling basin

Abstract-A hydraulic jump is a surprising phenomenon in the science of hydraulics which dissipates hydrokinetic energy. Hydraulic structures like stilling basin frequently use this important characteristic of the hydraulic jump in order to dissipate energy in downstream of spillways, gates and torrents. Since dimensions of these structures are directly dependent on characteristics of the hydraulic jump therefore to make them economical many wide surveys have been conducted on characteristics of hydraulic jump and how to control them or minimize their dimensions. For example in the recent years it has been suggested that continuous roughness of the Stilling basin could be effective in reducing jump dimensions. The present study has been performed by considering this assumption and it is tried to determine level and type of this effect using laboratory experiments. To achieve this aim various experiments were performed for input numbers ranging 5-12.5 in flume that is 35 cm wide. In these experiments triangular roughnesses and their combination were installed and tested in the floor of flume in such a way that upper surface of roughnesses and spillway crest  are on the same level and some parameters like flow rate, roller length, first depth, secondary depth, jump length , water surface profile were measured. Analysis of data showed that roughnesses decrease jump length to moderate size of 57% and provide about 20% decrease in secondary depth of jump than classic type. This decrease can be caused by increase in flow turbulency level between roughnesses that causes approximately 13-fold increase in shear stress.

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2013: Vol 2, Issue 6


Investigating the factors which reduce quality of life in informal settlements (Case study: Khezr District in Hamedan City)

Abstract— Quality of life is one of the most important factors which must be paid attention to in different stages of urban planning. The improvement of life quality is the most important aim of public policies of each society and policy makers need to find the best way of resource distribution in line with people’s needs. This research aims to find factors reducing quality of life and rank them in informal settlements of Khezr.  The responses of the settlements were collected in a 367 questionnaires and analyzed with spss (ver.18). Friedman test was used to categorize the physical, economic, environmental and social factors separately so that the effective measures and actions are taken to reduce the basic problems, costs and their social effects and to increase satisfaction. The results show that these factors play a great role in low level of life quality. In fact, this research is an effort to make grounds to improve sustainable environmental conditions for the growth of health, safety, expectation and faith in informal settlements.

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A new method for switching converters, DC / AC Solar Cells

Abstract—Energy Photovoltaics convert sunlight into electricity through photovoltaic cells (pvs), which is commonly called a solar cell. Solar cell is a non-mechanical device that is typically silicon alloy.

Facilities that use energy absorbed from the sun's heat into electricity is called solar thermal power facility based on a variety of existing, single-focus concentrator based on geometric shapes are divided into three categories:

Parabolic mirrors the plants that they are studs.

Plants where the recipient is located in a tower and sunlight that is reflected by mirrors Hlyvstat big name. They are parabolic dish receiver plants.

All the states of the DC power produced. In general, after stating that the DC voltage from the photocell is used to connect the plants to the distribution network, it must first be converted to a fixed frequency AC connected to the network then it can be.

In this article we will be converting the DC / AC inverter multi-level, organized the construction of a new modulation can use to reduce losses and harmonics Converters so that the energy from the solar cells can be better exploited.